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Topic: Jaxartes

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  Battle of the Jaxartes
He had already decided to accept the river Jaxartes as the northeastern frontier of his empire, as it had been during the days of the Achaemenid Empire that he had overthrown.
The Jaxartes is wider than a bowshot, which meant that the Macedonians could board their hurriedly prepared ships and rafts in safety, but that they would enter the Sacan field of fire halfway across the river.
Alexander's archers were the first to disembark, positioning themselves as a covering screen for the rest of the force; the cavalry followed, and the soldiers of the phalanx were the last ones to arrive.
www.livius.org /ja-jn/jaxartes/battle.html   (961 words)

 Jaxartes detailed bio   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Jaxartes is unmarried, in his 40s, living with two dogs who exasperate him with their love of digging under the fence and running loose.
While in college, Jaxartes worked for his uncles' steel erection company, climbing steel columns, bolting beams, setting roof joists, installing X bracing, dragging steel roof deck, aligning the structure into true plumb, and other miscellaneous labor.
Jaxartes was a member of the United Methodist church from his youth when his family joined the church in Upper Marlboro in 1968.
www.pageturnerspublishing.com /jaxartesbio.html   (489 words)

 Jaxartes - WCD (Wiki Classical Dictionary)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Jaxartes was the Greek name of a river in Central-Asia now known as Syrdarya.
It separated Sogdia (roughly modern Uzbekistan), the northernmost satrapy of the Achaemenid empire from the Central Asian steppes.
In the summer of 329, the Jaxartes was the site of one of Alexander's most brilliant battles.
www.ancientlibrary.com /wcd/Jaxartes   (88 words)

 Antiochia in Scythia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The precise location is unknown but it likely lies in Uzbekistan – Kanka, near Tashkent, and the Ferghana Valley have been proposed as possible locations.
[[1]] The Jaxartes river was the border between Sogdiana and Scythia in antiquity.
In Seleucid times, Antiochia in Scythia and Alexandria Eschate (also on the Jaxartes) formed the last frontier of the Hellenistic world.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Antiochia_in_Scythia   (127 words)

 History of Iran: Parthian Army
The nature of their state and political conditions combined with lessons of history enforced an unusual military structure in Parthia: North Iranian nomads constantly threatened eastern borders while in the west first the Seleucids and then the Romans were ever ready for full-scale invasions.
For the latter task, heavy cavalry (cataphraoti) was formed, which wore steel helmets, a coat of mail reaching to the knees and made of rawhide covered with scales of iron or steel that enabled it to resist strong blows.
This was akin to the lamellar armour of the Sacians of the Jaxartes who in 130 BCE overthrew the Greco-Bactrian kingdom.
www.iranchamber.com /history/parthians/parthian_army.php   (1324 words)

 NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Muhammad II of Khwarezm   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
When he had conquered all the lands from the river Jaxartes to the Persian Gulf he declared himself shah and demanded formal recognition from the caliph in Baghdad.
It was in this situation that, in 1218, Genghis Khan sent his emissaries to the shah in Samarkand.
The shah executed the Mongol diplomats and sent back their entourage with their heads shaved in defiance of the emerging great power, and Genghis retaliated with a force of 200,000 men that crossed the Jaxartes in 1220 and sacked the cities of Samarkand and Bukhara.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Muhammad-II-of-Khwarezm   (1089 words)

 History of Iran: The Ethnic of Sakas (Scythians)
In all probability, Demodamas (who himself traveled to Scythia beyond the Jaxartes) was the original source of the information about the Scythian Emod in later works by Dionysius, Pliny, and Valerius Flaccus, although none of them made direct use of his account.
The headwaters of the Jaxartes (Gulcha is evidently considered its source) and its two left tributaries originate in the land of the Komedes (6.12.3).
Thus, the mountain appears to occupy all of the territory between the Oxus and the Jaxartes (compare with: A, 8; B, 5).
www.iranchamber.com /history/articles/ethnic_of_sakas.php   (5020 words)

 Oxus River
Likewise, the Oxus' companion river the Jaxartes (now known as the Syr Darya) used to shift its banks up to a hundred yards sideways in the course of a single year.
They did not come near the Oxus, but they (and others) left records of the Jaxartes: its vicinity, they said, was filled with a constant noise and tumult of crashes, as pieces of the river's bank slid into the water.
The river-bed moved even as the engineers tried to span it with bridges, and a railway bridge built one season could be left high and dry by next summer, while the Jaxartes itself proceeded on its merry way.
www.iras.ucalgary.ca /~volk/sylvia/OxusRiver.htm   (1155 words)

 Addendum To NOAH'S FLOOD   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
The Oxus is still called by the natives the Dgihun or Gihon; the Chitral branch of the Indus answers the description of the Pison; the Jaxartes is the original Euphrates; and the Tarim going toward the east is in all probability the Hiddekel.
From the same valley also flows in a northerly direction a branch of the Syr Dana, or Jaxartes River, whose name indicates that it is probably the original Euphrates of the ancients.
The Helmend, which Renan and Maspero identify with the Hiddekel does not have its origin on the Pamir plateau, but starts several hundred miles south of it in a valley of the Hindu Kush; but it is probable that the Kashgar river is the original Hiddekel, flowing towards the East.
www.churchoftrueisrael.com /comparet/comp19a.html   (1589 words)

 TurksEnter   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
The Karluqs dominated the area from the Jaxartes to the northeast and were the immediate neighbors of the Arabs.
Karluq tribes settled along the borders Jaxartes and gradually were assimilated and introduced to Persian culture by peoples such as Soghdians, Khworezmians and Tocharians, who were of Iranian stock and comprised part of the Samanid Emirate.
Of Persian origin, they set up a strong centralized government in Khurasan and Transoxiana, with its capital at Bukhara; they encouraged trade and manufactures; they patronized learning, and they sponsored the spread of Islam by peaceful conversion among the barbarians to the north and east of their realm.
www.iatp.edu.tm /baskurt/TurksEnter.html   (1887 words)

 Saunders. History of Medieval Islam
The Oxus was the traditional boundary between civilization and barbarism in Western Asia, between Iran and Turan, and Persian legend, versified in Firdawsi's great epic, the Shah-namah, told of the heroic battles of the Iranians against the Turanian king Afrasi- yab, who was at last hunted down and killed in Azerbaijan.
The Turkish tribes were in political disarray, and were never able to oppose a unified resistance to the Arabs, who carried their advance as far as the Talas river.
A few years later they abandoned their ancestral shamanism for Islam, a change of faith as momentous for the future of Aia as the conversion of Clovis and his Franks to Catholicism in 496 was to Christian Europe.
www.fordham.edu /halsall/med/saunders.html   (3955 words)

 Glossary J @ Planet Dinosaur
It is the earliest-known titanosaurid and was named by paleontologist Rupert Wild in 1991.
(pronounced jax-SAHR-toh-SAWR-us) Jaxartosaurus (meaning: "Jaxartes Lizard," for a river in Kazakhstan) was roughly 30 feet (9 m) long; it was a lambeosaurine hadrosaurid, a duck-billed dinosaur.
Fragmentary fossils (just the skull roof and braincase) were found near the Jaxartes River in Kazakhstan.
planetdinosaur.com /glossary/j.htm   (633 words)

 Northvegr - Rydberg's Teutonic Mythology
The view that the sources of Oxus and Jaxartes are the original home of the Aryans is even now the prevailing one, or at least the one most widely accepted, and since the day of Rhode it has been supported and developed by several distinguished scholars.
Klaproth pointed out, already in 1830, that, among the many names of various kinds of trees found in India, there is a single one which they have in common with other Aryan peoples, and this is the name of the birch.
The theory that the cradle of the Aryan race stood in Central Asia near the sources of the Indus and Jaxartes had hardly been contradicted in 1850, and seemed to be secured for the future by the great number of distinguished and brilliant names which had given their adhesion to it.
www.northvegr.org /lore/rydberg/003.php   (1959 words)

 Khwarezmian language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Chorasmian, also known as Khwarezmian or Khwarazmian, is the name of an extinct northeastern Iranian language closely related to Sogdian.
The language was spoken in the area of Chorasmia/Khwarazm on the northern banks of the river Jaxartes in Transoxiana (part of the modern Republic of Uzbekistan).
Our knowledge of Khwarezmian is limited to its Middle Iranian stage and much like Sogdian, we are not sure of its ancient form.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Khwarezmian   (264 words)

 Syr Darya River, one of the major rivers of Uzbekistan and Central Asia :: Oxus and Jaxartes - ancient names of Amu ...
Syr Darya (Syrdarya), ancient Jaxartes (Yaxartes), 2,220 km long, flowing through Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan.
One of the major rivers of Central Asia, it is formed in the Fergana Valley, by the junction of the Naryn and Kara Darya rivers, which rise in the Tian Shan mountains.
The other major river in the area - the Syr Darya, which roughly follows the border between Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan, was called the Jaxartes by the Greeks.
www.orexca.com /syr_darya_river_uzbekistan.shtml   (337 words)

 Muhammad II of Khwarezm - TheBestLinks.com - Baghdad, Caspian Sea, Caliph, Persia, ...
It was in this situation that, in 1218, Chinggis Khan sent his emissaries to the shah in Samarkand.
The shah executed the Mongol diplomats in defiance of the emerging great power, and Chinggis retaliated with a force of 200 000 men that crossed the Jaxartes in 1220 and sacked the cities of Samarkand and Bukhara.
Ala ad-Din Muhammad fled and sought refuge throughout Khorasan, but died on an island in the Caspian Sea some weeks later.
www.thebestlinks.com /Muhammad_II_of_Khwarezm.html   (265 words)

 pothos.org - Aristander   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
The first was to assist with the king’s daily sacrifices (and those called for on special occasions), and to interpret the status of the sacrificial beasts.
Interestingly enough, relatively few of his predictions that are recorded come from his performance of this function: at Tyre (Pl. ‘Alex’ 25.1-2), and at the Jaxartes (Arr.
As it turned out, Alexander ploughed ahead with his intended crossing of the river, to attack the Scythians, and the bad omens were borne out when he fell victim to dysentery.
www.pothos.org /alexander.asp?paraID=128&keyword_id=9&title=Aristander   (715 words)

 The Parni   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Before the rampages of the Mongol and Turkic peoples into Central Asia, much of the land below the Jaxartes river was inhabited by Iranian nomads.
Others roamed the plains and deserts between the Jaxartes and Oxus rivers.
But by 250BC the unruly Parthians had established their independent sovereignty from the Seleucids, and the Parthians would eventually come to conquer their empire.
www.parsaworld.com /bastan/parni.html   (273 words)

Jaxartes: Greek name of a large river in Central Asia now known as Syrdar'ya.
The Jaxartes separated Sogdia (roughly modern Uzbekistan), the northernmost satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire from the Central Asian steppes, which were occupied by the Sacae.
Several fortifications were situated on it, including Cyropolis (founded by Cyrus the Great) and
www.livius.org /ja-jn/jaxartes/jaxartes.html   (154 words)

 Genesis Segment 4
The four great rivers flowing from Pamir are the Indus, the Jaxartes (modern Syr Darya), the Oxus (modern Amu Darya), and the Tarim.
The best evidence that the original Perath (Euphrates) or, simply, River, was the Syr Darya or Jaxartes is the fact that the land west of the Jaxartes is called the Transoxiana, or in Arabic, Ma Wara` An-Nahr.
Of course the pronunciation of the Jaxartes (ya-har'-tees [ya' or yu -fray'-tees]) lends credence that its original name was Euphrates (yu-fray-tees - ya-fray-tees - ya-hray-tees - ya-har-tes -ja-har-tees).
www.bibleword.org /genesis4.html   (3960 words)

 Friedrich Engels - Perspektiven des Englisch-Persischen Krieges
Doch der Oxus und der Jaxartes sind so mächtig, daß sie ihn durchqueren und in ihrem unteren Verlauf ausgedehnte Täler bilden, die kultiviert werden können.
Jenseits des Jaxartes nimmt die Wüste allmählich den Charakter der Steppen Südrußlands an, in denen sie sich schließlich gänzlich verliert.
Weiter nach Norden und Osten war die Kette russischer Forts, welche die Grenzlinie der Uralkosaken bezeichnen, schon 1847 vom Uralfluß bis zu den Flüssen Emba und Turgai, etwa 150 bis 200 Meilen in das Gebiet der tributpflichtigen Kirgisen-Horden, und in Richtung auf den Aralsee vorgeschoben worden.
www.mlwerke.de /me/me12/me12_123.htm   (1826 words)

 [No title]
Finally, there isn't much in the way of combat, and most of the opponents you fight are fairly unchallenging (Jaxartes is probably the toughest single opponent in the entire book, but even he has a SKILL of only 10).
In this book, the city-state of Zamarra is being assaulted by the mercenary army of Ostragoth the Grim and his wizard friend, Jaxartes.
It should not however for this is a good gamebook and deserves to be republished along with the majority of the rest of the series.
user.tninet.se /~wcw454p/docs/ff39.txt   (2160 words)

 Arabs and Slave Trade
It was intriguing to note in Bernard Lewis' book, The Arabs in History, that paper was made first in China in the year 105 B.C. In A.D. 751, the Arabs defeated a Chinese contingent east of the 'Jaxartes'.
(Jaxartes is a river that lies on the border between China and present-day Afghanistan.
Persian King Cyrus was killed fighting near this river, about 500 B.C.) The Arabs found some Chinese paper makers among their prisoners.
answering-islam.org.uk /ReachOut/slavetrade.html   (1608 words)

 MER: Article: Slavery   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Thus in AD751, when the Arabs defeated a Chinese contingent east of the "jaxartes" they found some Chinese paper-makers among their prisoners.
After some research, I located the Jaxartes "river" in the Cultural Atlas of Mesopotamia.
It appears to be located roughly on the border between China and present-day Afghanistan.
www.levant.info /MER_A020.HTM   (1613 words)

 Famous entities with chess related names   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Shah Rukh - Name of several Moghul princes, named after the shah-rukh fork.
Shahrukhiya - Legendary city built on the river Jaxartes by the emperor Timur.
The city is thought to be at the location Fanakant.
www.centipedia.com /index.php?title=Famous_entities_with_chess_related_names&action=creativecommons   (104 words)

 Theories on the Scythian invasion of India and their relation to the Yu-chi advance into Bactria
The classical description of the Yu-chi invasion of Bactria runs something like this: The Yu-chi push across the Jaxartes and Oxus into Bactria, displacing in the process those nomadic peoples who had lived on the north side of the two rivers and in Bactria itself.
This group was driven across Bactria sacking the cities of the Greeks and into Persia on the western side.
Barbarian coins were being minted beyond the Jaxartes river before the invasion, and a large number of these anonymous coins are collected in the British museum.
www.keele.ac.uk /socs/ks45/PageHistory/Club/bracey/Kushan/digressions/scythians.htm   (1216 words)

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