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In the News (Tue 16 Jul 19)

  
 Encyclopedia: Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor
Joseph was one of the so-called "enlightened monarchs".
Where Joseph differed from great contemporary rulers, and where he was very close akin to the Jacobins, was in the fanatical intensity of his belief in the power of the state when directed by reason, of his right to speak for the state uncontrolled by laws, and of the sensibility of his rule.
Joseph was born in the midst of the early upheavals of the War of the Austrian Succession.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Joseph-II,-Holy-Roman-Emperor   (4064 words)

  
 Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II Leopold II (born Peter Leopold Joseph) (Vienna, May 5, 1747 – Vienna, March 1, 1792) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1790 to 1792 and Grand-duke of Tuscany.
He and Joseph II were tenderly attached to one another and met frequently both before and after the death of their mother.
When Louis XVI swore to observe the constitution of September 1791, the emperor professed to think that a settlement had been reached in France.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Leopold_II,_Holy_Roman_Emperor   (1882 words)

  
 Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II Joseph II (March 13, 1741– February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790.
Where Joseph differed from great contemporary rulers, and where he was very close akin to the Jacobins, was in the fanatical intensity of his belief in the power of the state when directed by reason, of his right to speak for the state uncontrolled by laws, and of the sensibility of his rule.
Joseph was born in the midst of the early upheavals of the War of the Austrian Succession.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Joseph_II,_Holy_Roman_Emperor   (1750 words)

  
 EINnews.com - History
Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, died and was succeeded by Leopold II of Austria.
www.einnews.com /centraleurope/history.php?id=135779   (14 words)

  
 Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II Leopold II (born Peter Leopold Joseph) (Vienna, May 5, 1747 – Vienna, March 1, 1792) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1790 to 1792 and Grand-duke of Tuscany.
If Leopold's reign as emperor and king of Hungary and Bohemia had been prolonged during years of peace, it is probable that he would have repeated his successes as a reforming ruler in Tuscany on a far larger scale.
Leopold, during his government in Tuscany, had shown a speculative tendency to grant his subjects a constitution.
www.hartselle.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Leopold_II,_Holy_Roman_Emperor   (1603 words)

  
 Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The emperor did not himself take the field against the rebels, but he is entitled to a large share of the credit for the restoration of his authority.
Joseph showed himself very independent towards the pope and hostile to the Jesuits, by whom his father had been much influenced.
In 1687 he received the crown of Hungary and became king of the Romans on January 6, 1690.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Joseph_I,_Holy_Roman_Emperor   (402 words)

  
 Istria on the Internet - History - Hapsburg Dynasty
Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor 1792 - 1806, Emperor of Austria as Francis I 1804 - 1835
From 1814 to 1846 this duchy was governed by Ferdinand’s son, Duke Francis IV, and from 1846 to 1859 by his grandson, Francis V. This family became extinct on the death of Francis V in 1875.
Before the abdication of the emperor Francis in 1806 Austria had met and suffered from the fury of revolutionary France, but the cessiona of territory made by her at the treaties of Campo Formio (1797), of Lunéville (1801) and of Pressburg (1805) were of no enduring importance.
www.istrianet.org /istria/genealogy/family/hapsburg   (5686 words)

  
 ANTON VON MARON - EMPEROR JOSEPH II, ARCHDUKE OF AUSTRIA
Joseph II was the first Emperor of the House of Habsburg-Lothringen, the eldest son of Archduchess Maria Theresia of Austria (herself the elder daughter of the last Habsburg Emperor, Charles VI), who had married Francis Duke of Lorraine, elected Emperor in 1745.
Joseph himself died in 1790, of tuberculosis, and was succeeded by his brother Leopold, grand Duke of Tuscany, ancestor of the present Imperial House.
Joseph was twice married, first to Isabella-Maria of Bourbon-Parma daughter of Infant Philip of Spain, Duke of Parma, who died in childbirth after three years of marriage; in the following year he married for a second time, to Princess Maria Josefa of Bavaria, who survived only two years.
www.europeanpaintings.com /exhibits/xviiicent/maronjos.htm   (606 words)

  
 Worldroots.com
Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, Archduke of Austria (1527-1576)
Ferdinand I of Austria, Holy Roman Emperor (1503-1564)
and his brother Leopold II,Holy Roman Emperor (1747-1792)
worldroots.com /brigitte/royal/arti-a.htm   (474 words)

  
 ANTON VON MARON - EMPEROR JOSEPH II, ARCHDUKE OF AUSTRIA
Joseph II was the first Emperor of the House of Habsburg-Lothringen, the eldest son of Archduchess Maria Theresia of Austria (herself the elder daughter of the last Habsburg Emperor, Charles VI), who had married Francis Duke of Lorraine, elected Emperor in 1745.
Joseph himself died in 1790, of tuberculosis, and was succeeded by his brother Leopold, grand Duke of Tuscany, ancestor of the present Imperial House.
On succeeding his father as Emperor, he was elected on 27 March 1764 and crowned at Frankfurt on 3 April following, but decided to cede Tuscany to his younger brother Leopold.
www.europeanpaintings.com /exhibits/xviiicent/maronjos.htm   (606 words)

  
 Holy Roman Empire - Uncyclopedia
Emperor Evil who briefly reigned as Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire after deposing of his cousin Emperor Elvis, who in the height of Elvis' rule, conspired with 12 of a committee to overthrow him.
The Holy Roman Empire was created by Willem Dafoe in the year 1982.
This time, Dario Argento told him that soon he shall receive guests, and shall have many people, that he shall create a city, and he shall call the city The Holy Roman Empire.
uncyclopedia.org /wiki/Holy_Roman_Empire   (715 words)

  
 Cultural Catholic - Pope Pius VI
Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II of Austria’s eccentric actions were more than an annoyance to Pope Pius VI, so the pope made the long journey to Vienna to convince Joseph II to cease his imperial meddling.
Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II’s attempts to make the state supreme in matters of conscience matched the French Revolutionaries' drive to set up a state church by means of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy (1790).
Simultaneously, Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II's brother, Peter Leopold II Grand Duke of Tuscany, instructed his bishop, Bishop Ricci of Pistoia, to pass a number of antipapal resolutions at the 1786 Pistoia synod.
www.culturalcatholic.com /PopePiusVI.htm   (640 words)

  
 Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI Charles VI (October 1, 1685 – October 20, 1740) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1711 to 1740 and the second son of Leopold I with his third wife,.
In 1711, he was made Holy Roman Emperor in Frankfurt.
However, being a female, she was not elected Holy Roman Empress.
www.hartselle.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Charles_VI,_Holy_Roman_Emperor   (401 words)

  
 AllRefer.com - Charles VII, Holy Roman emperor (German History, Biography) - Encyclopedia
Having married a daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Joseph I, he refused to recognize the pragmatic sanction of 1713 by which Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI (his wife's uncle) reserved the succession to the Hapsburg lands for his daughter, Maria Theresa.
Charles VII 1697–1745, Holy Roman emperor (1742–45) and, as Charles Albert, elector of Bavaria (1726–45).
In 1742 he was elected Holy Roman emperor, but Bavaria was overrun by Austrian troops.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/C/Charles7HRE.html   (251 words)

  
 Joseph II on Encyclopedia.com
JOSEPH II [Joseph II] 1741-90, Holy Roman emperor (1765-90), king of Bohemia and Hungary (1780-90), son of Maria Theresa and Holy Roman Emperor Francis I, whom he succeeded.
Joseph's plan to annex Bavaria to Austria and thus to consolidate his state was frustrated in the War of the Bavarian Succession (1778-79); his project to exchange the Austrian Netherlands for Bavaria was thwarted (1785) by King Frederick II of Prussia, who formed the Fürstenbund [princes' league] for that purpose.
Joseph's main piece of legislation was the abolition (1781) of serfdom and feudal dues; he also enabled tenants to acquire their own lands from the nobles for moderate fees and allowed peasants to marry whom they wished and to change their domicile.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/J/Joseph2.asp   (1742 words)

  
 Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor
As an Austrian (Austrian: A native or inhabitant of Austria) Habsburg Duke, he was Frederick V since 1424, and Frederick IV as king, while he only became Frederick III with his coronation as Holy Roman Emperor (Holy Roman Emperor: Sovereign of the Holy Roman Empire).
Duke of Styria (Styria: styria was a duchy of the holy roman empire until its dissolution in 1806, and...
Styria (Styria: styria was a duchy of the holy roman empire until its dissolution in 1806, and...
www.absoluteastronomy.com /reference/frederick_iii_holy_roman_emperor2   (860 words)

  
 Worldroots.com
(son of Franz II-I, Holy Roman Emperor of Austria and Princess Maria Teresa of Naples and Sicily)
(dghtr of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V of Spain and Isabella of Portugal -
(son of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V of Spain and Barbara Blomberg)
worldroots.com /brigitte/royal/habs-j.htm   (336 words)

  
 wciv.htm
Joseph II was an Austrian and Holy Roman Emperor.
Joseph the second also increased the size of his bureaucracy, and instituted the german language as standard in all parts of his empire.
When his father died, whom he revered, he became Holy Roman Emperor and co-regent with his mother.
www.msu.edu /user/kunzfran/wciv.htm   (737 words)

  
 Hapsburg on Encyclopedia.com
During the revolutions of 1848, Francis's son Ferdinand abdicated in favor of his nephew Francis Joseph, whose long rule (1848-1916) saw Austria lose (1859) its dominance in Italy and surrender (1866) leadership in Germany to Prussia.
The assassination of heir apparent Francis Ferdinand precipitated World War I; the death (1916) of Francis Joseph left his grandnephew, Emperor Charles I, to witness the defeat of Austria-Hungary, which was dissolved immediately after Charles's abdication in 1918.
The senior line was continued by the brother of Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II, who repealed many of the reforms of Joseph II.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/section/Hapsburg_HapsburgAscendancy.asp   (1708 words)

  
 Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor (1765-1790)
He called himself Emperor from the moment Francis I died (August 1765), and became co-ruler with his mother from December 1765, with a slowly increasing level of power.
His election as king of the Romans, or heir to the Imperial title, became a political issue and was opposed by Prussia when it first came up in 1752, and he was only elected to the title after the end of the Seven Years War (1763).
Fighting was still going on at the death of Joseph II (20 February 1790).
www.historyofwar.org /articles/people_josephII.html   (232 words)

  
 Cultural Catholic - Pope Pius VI
Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II of Austria’s eccentric actions were more than an annoyance to Pope Pius VI, so the pope made the long journey to Vienna to convince Joseph II to cease his imperial meddling.
Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II’s attempts to make the state supreme in matters of conscience matched the French Revolutionaries' drive to set up a state church by means of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy (1790).
Simultaneously, Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II's brother, Peter Leopold II Grand Duke of Tuscany, instructed his bishop, Bishop Ricci of Pistoia, to pass a number of antipapal resolutions at the 1786 Pistoia synod.
www.culturalcatholic.com /PopePiusVI.htm   (624 words)

  
 Holy Roman Empire - Uncyclopedia
Emperor Evil who briefly reigned as Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire after deposing of his cousin Emperor Elvis, who in the height of Elvis' rule, conspired with 12 of a committee to overthrow him.
The Holy Roman Empire was created by Willem Dafoe in the year 1982.
This time, Dario Argento told him that soon he shall receive guests, and shall have many people, that he shall create a city, and he shall call the city The Holy Roman Empire.
uncyclopedia.org /wiki/Holy_Roman_Empire   (665 words)

  
 Joseph II - Cambridge University Press
King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperor, 1764 1780; 6.
It describes the claustrophobic atmosphere, in which Joseph was trained to rule, his tragic marriages, and his attempts after 1765 as co-regent with his formidable mother, empress Maria Theresa, to dictate the domestic and foreign policy of the Monarchy.
Joseph II Volume 1, In the Shadow of Maria Theresa, 1741—1780
www.cambridge.org /catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=0521242401   (266 words)

  
 MSN Encarta - Related Items - Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II instituted many reforms during his reign from 1765 to 1790, including freeing the serfs, ending discriminatory laws...
Carolingian Empire, early phase of the Holy Roman Empire
Charlemagne, traditional founder of the Holy Roman Empire
encarta.msn.com /related_761558731_18.11/Joseph_II.html   (72 words)

  
 Hapsburg -> Shifting Fortunes on Encyclopedia.com 2002
Maria Theresa inaugurated the bureaucratic centralization that was carried forward by her son Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II.
The senior line was continued by the brother of Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II, who repealed many of the reforms of Joseph II.
On the death of Charles Albert of Bavaria, Holy Roman emperor as Charles VII (1742-45), the imperial title was bestowed on Archduchess Maria Theresa's husband, Francis, grand duke of Tuscany and former duke of Lorraine, who became Francis I.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/section/hapsburg_shiftingfortunes.asp   (764 words)

  
 Edict of Toleration --  Encyclopædia Britannica
German Toleranzpatent (Oct. 19, 1781), law promulgated by the Holy Roman emperor Joseph II granting limited freedom of worship to non-Roman Catholic Christians and removing civil disabilities to which they had been previously subject in the Austrian domains, while maintaining a privileged position for the Catholic Church.
The ancient Roman emperor Licinius ruled during an era when Christianity was a critical issue within the empire.
It was the outcome of a political agreement concluded in Milan between the Roman emperors Constantine I and Licinius in February 313.
0-www.britannica.com.library.unl.edu /eb/article-9072798   (717 words)

  
 Joseph I
Joseph I, 1678–1711, Holy Roman emperor (1705–11), king of Hungary (1687–1711) and of Bohemia (1705–11), son and successor of Leopold I. Joseph became Holy Roman emperor in the midst of the War of the
Charles VII, Holy Roman emperor - Charles VII, 1697–1745, Holy Roman emperor (1742–45) and, as Charles Albert, elector of...
Maria I - Maria I, 1734–1816, queen of Portugal (1777–1816), daughter of Joseph I. She was...
www.infoplease.com /ce6/people/A0826615.html   (312 words)

  
 Timeline Holy Roman Empire
The Catholic heir to the Hapsburg dynasty, Charles V, was elected Holy Roman Emperor, combining the crowns of Spain, Burgundy (with the Netherlands), Austria and Germany.
1640 Jun 9, Leopold I, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire (1658-1705), was born.
1620 Ferdinand II became emperor of the Holy Roman Empire after the death of Rudolf II and moved the Imperial Court back to Vienna.
www.timelines.ws /countries/HOLY_ROMAN_EMP.HTML   (2895 words)

  
 Austria THE REFORMS OF MARIA THERESA AND JOSEPH II - Flags, Maps, Economy, Geography, Climate, Natural Resources, Current Issues, International Agreements, Population, Social Statistics, Political System
Joseph, in contrast, gave the reforms an ideological edge reflecting the utilitarian theories of the Enlightenment.
The utilitarian principles behind religious toleration, however, also inspired Joseph to dissolve Catholic monasteries that were dedicated solely to contemplative religious life and to suppress various traditional Jewish customs he viewed as detrimental to society and a hinderance to the Germanization of the Jewish population.
Joseph's utilitarianism, however, contributed to two important divergences from Maria Theresa's policy: greater religious toleration and suppression of religious institutions and customs deemed contrary to utilitarian principles.
workmall.com /wfb2001/austria/austria_history_the_reforms_of_maria_theresa_and_joseph_ii.html   (511 words)

  
 Joseph II
Joseph II Joseph II, 1741–90, Holy Roman emperor (1765–90), king of Bohemia and Hungary (1780–90), son of
Joseph II: Bibliography - Bibliography See S. Padover, The Revolutionary Emperor, Joseph II (rev. ed.
Joseph II: Opposition and Failure - Opposition and Failure In fiscal matters Joseph was influenced by the physiocrats.
www.factmonster.com /ce6/people/A0826616.html   (135 words)

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