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Topic: Joseph II of Austria

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  Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Joseph was born in the midst of the early upheavals of the War of the Austrian Succession.
Where Joseph differed from great contemporary rulers, and where he was very close akin to the Jacobins, was in the fanatical intensity of his belief in the power of the state when directed by reason, of his right to speak for the state uncontrolled by laws, and of the sensibility of his rule.
As the son of Francis I, Joseph succeeded him as titular Duke of Lorraine and Bar, which had been surrendered to France on his father's marriage, and titular King of Jerusalem and Duke of Calabria (as a proxy for the Kingdom of Naples).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Joseph_II_of_Austria   (1842 words)

 Joseph II. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
Joseph’s main piece of legislation was the abolition (1781) of serfdom and feudal dues; he also enabled tenants to acquire their own lands from the nobles for moderate fees and allowed peasants to marry whom they wished and to change their domicile.
Joseph’s plan to annex Bavaria to Austria and thus to consolidate his state was frustrated in the War of the Bavarian Succession (1778–79); his project to exchange the Austrian Netherlands for Bavaria was thwarted (1785) by King Frederick II of Prussia, who formed the Fürstenbund [princes’ league] for that purpose.
Joseph allied himself with Czarina Catherine II of Russia (whom he accompanied incognito on her Crimean journey), hoping to share in the spoils of the Ottoman Empire.
www.bartleby.com /65/jo/Joseph2.html   (778 words)

Joseph viewed with jealous discontent the intellectual superiority of the Protestant North of Germany, then first dominant over the Catholic South: he also reflected with chafing impatience on Frederick's victories and talent for government, and thence conceived a definite aim in life.
Joseph was the father of Josephinism, which is nothing else than the highest development of the craving common among secular princes after an episcopal and territorial church.
Joseph's entire policy was the embodiment of his idea of a centralized empire developing from within and in which all public affairs, political and ecelesiastico-political, were treated as an indivisible whole.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/08508b.htm   (3133 words)

 Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
During the twenty years which elapsed between his return to Florence and the death of his eldest brother Joseph II in 1790, he was employed in reforming the administration of his small state.
He and Joseph II were tenderly attached to one another and met frequently both before and after the death of their mother.
From the east he was threatened by the aggressive ambition of Catherine II of Russia and by the unscrupulous policy of Prussia.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Leopold_II,_Holy_Roman_Emperor   (1908 words)

 Joseph II - HighBeam Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
JOSEPH II [Joseph II] 1741-90, Holy Roman emperor (1765-90), king of Bohemia and Hungary (1780-90), son of Maria Theresa and Holy Roman Emperor Francis I, whom he succeeded.
Joseph's plan to annex Bavaria to Austria and thus to consolidate his state was frustrated in the War of the Bavarian Succession (1778-79); his project to exchange the Austrian Netherlands for Bavaria was thwarted (1785) by King Frederick II of Prussia, who formed the Fürstenbund [princes' league] for that purpose.
Judgments on Joseph II vary widely, but it is certain that he left a socially freer state on his death than he had found on his accession.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/J/Joseph2.asp   (918 words)

 JewishEncyclopedia.com - AUSTRIA   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
From the Expulsion of 1670 to the Toleration Edict of Joseph II.
Joseph was an admirer of Voltaire and a disciple of the school of enlightenment, and he, therefore, adopted an attitude toward the Jews differing from that of his mother and considered it his duty to improve their condition.
Secular education had made rapid progress after the decree of Joseph II., although, owing to the fact that the practise of medicine was the only field open for Jews through academic education, the students could not be numerous.
www.jewishencyclopedia.com /view.jsp?artid=2152&letter=A&search=austria   (12341 words)

Joseph II was the first Emperor of the House of Habsburg-Lothringen, the eldest son of Archduchess Maria Theresia of Austria (herself the elder daughter of the last Habsburg Emperor, Charles VI), who had married Francis Duke of Lorraine, elected Emperor in 1745.
Joseph was twice married, first to Isabella-Maria of Bourbon-Parma daughter of Infant Philip of Spain, Duke of Parma, who died in childbirth after three years of marriage; in the following year he married for a second time, to Princess Maria Josefa of Bavaria, who survived only two years.
Joseph himself died in 1790, of tuberculosis, and was succeeded by his brother Leopold, grand Duke of Tuscany, ancestor of the present Imperial House.
www.europeanpaintings.com /exhibits/xviiicent/maronjos.htm   (606 words)

 The Virtual Jewish History Tour - Austria
During the eighteenth century, Joseph II attempted to bring Jews into the mainstream of society by abolishing many of the measures regulating their autonomy and segregation.
Joseph II encouraged assimilation, and Jews were permitted to attend schools and universities, and could serve in the army.
After the death of Joseph II many of the restrictions against Jews were re-introduced, forcing Jewish children to attend Christian schools and only permitting prayer in "the language of the state." After the 1848 revolution, however, a number of Jews were elected to the Parliament.
www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org /jsource/vjw/Austria.html   (1403 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Joseph II was an Austrian and Holy Roman Emperor.
Joseph the second also increased the size of his bureaucracy, and instituted the german language as standard in all parts of his empire.
I want to be familiar with the forces that shaped this man. Joseph reasons for opting for his enlightened despotism and how he handled the consequences of this important era of reform.
www.msu.edu /user/kunzfran/wciv.htm   (737 words)

 Austria THE REFORMS OF MARIA THERESA AND JOSEPH II - Flags, Maps, Economy, Geography, Climate, Natural Resources, ...
Austria THE REFORMS OF MARIA THERESA AND JOSEPH II http://workmall.com/wfb2001/austria/austria_history_the_reforms_of_maria_theresa_and_joseph_ii.html
Joseph, in contrast, gave the reforms an ideological edge reflecting the utilitarian theories of the Enlightenment.
The utilitarian principles behind religious toleration, however, also inspired Joseph to dissolve Catholic monasteries that were dedicated solely to contemplative religious life and to suppress various traditional Jewish customs he viewed as detrimental to society and a hinderance to the Germanization of the Jewish population.
www.workmall.com /wfb2001/austria/austria_history_the_reforms_of_maria_theresa_and_joseph_ii.html   (498 words)

 Cultural Catholic - Pope Pius VI
Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II of Austria’s eccentric actions were more than an annoyance to Pope Pius VI, so the pope made the long journey to Vienna to convince Joseph II to cease his imperial meddling.
Simultaneously, Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II's brother, Peter Leopold II Grand Duke of Tuscany, instructed his bishop, Bishop Ricci of Pistoia, to pass a number of antipapal resolutions at the 1786 Pistoia synod.
Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II’s attempts to make the state supreme in matters of conscience matched the French Revolutionaries' drive to set up a state church by means of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy (1790).
www.culturalcatholic.com /PopePiusVI.htm   (634 words)

 The Era of Changes (1648-1887)
Joseph even ordered a few well established bulls to be torn out of the ritual book.
The example of Joseph II however was contagious and various plans of reform in different countries took place, the greatest of which was the French Revolution in which the king nobles and clergy were expelled.
Next year saw the laws of the government which modelled the Church along the lines of reform instituted by Joseph II in Austria and despite the pope's opposition, he came to Paris in 1804 to crown Napoleon.
www.west.net /~antipas/books/papacy_in_history/pap_part1_8.html   (2104 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Charles VI - Habsburg, Catholic ruler of Austria (and Slovakia) from 1711 to 1740.
Joseph II (ruled Austria and Slovakia 1780-90), a Habsburg, Catholic emperor, he tried to bring Austria into an era of enlightenment.
Leopold II (ruled Austria and Slovakia 1790-92), tried to continue the policies of enlightenment of Joseph II.
members.aol.com /wfrush/namesuc.htm   (728 words)

 History 240
Frederick the Great of Prussia, Leopold II of Austria, Leopold of Tuscany and Gustavus III of Sweden adopted Beccaria’s penal reforms.
Joseph II of Austria established a structured education system from elementary school to university and extends toleration to Protestants and Jews.
Joseph II reorganized bureaucracy increased taxation and control of Church.
web.uvic.ca /~jfedorak/PolSys.htm   (894 words)

 The Mozart Project: Biography
Russia proposes to Austria the partition of Prussia.
Joseph II of Austria and Frederick II of Prussia meet at Neustadt to discuss plans for halting Russian expansion.
Joseph II abrogates Barrier Treaty of 1715 and requires Dutch to abandon garrisons in Austrian Netherlands.
www.tjp-online.com /musicarchive/mozart/timeline.html   (7209 words)

 BookRags: Frederick, II Biography
The eldest son of Frederick William I of Prussia and of Princess Sophie Dorothea of Hanover, Frederick II was born in Berlin on Jan. 24, 1712.
When Austria, relieved of the necessity of fighting the Prussians, threatened to crush its remaining enemies, Frederick reentered the war in 1744.
Frederick II died at his beloved summer residence, Sans-Souci, near Potsdam on Aug. 17, 1786, and was followed on the throne by his nephew Frederick William II.
www.bookrags.com /biography/frederick-ii   (1735 words)

 Jewish History   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Joseph II rescinded the law forcing Jews to wear a distinctive badge.
Joseph II of Austria, the son of Maria Theresa, was influenced by Wilhelm von Dohn, a friend of Mendelssohn.
Joseph II allowed Jews to live in the "Royal cities", including Pest.
www.jewishhistory.org.il /1780.htm   (1008 words)

 [No title]
Joseph asserted for his subjects their natural rights, in virtue, of the intrinsic justice of the demand, and because the ancient treaties had lost their force by the effect of subsequent transactions, if there was justice in the demand, there was no palliation for renouncing the privilege anew in cousi(leratiOn of a gratuity in money.
Josephs reign continued hardiy ten years; he had occasion to learn many a severe and painful lesson; perhaps had his life been spared, in the great school of experience he might have acquired moderation, and through trials and misfortunes have made his way to tranquillity.
As a further proof of a liberal spirit, it is related, that Joseph, having inherited from his father, as a private patrimony, twenty-#vo millions of guilders in Aus- trian papermoney, consigned the whoic to the flames.
lcweb2.loc.gov /ndlpcoop/nicmoas/nora/nora0031.sgm   (16658 words)

 The Battle Mozart Won In America's War With Britain
In the summer of 1781, the 25-year-old musical genius Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was chosen by the Emperor Joseph II of Austria to set the opera The Abduction from the Seraglio, for the occasion of a critical state visit to Vienna of the Russian Grand Duke Paul, son of Catherine the Great.
The Emperor Joseph himself, 16 years earlier, had expressed similar ideas in a letter to his mother, Empress Maria Theresa: ``All men are equal from birth: We inherit only animal life from our parents and in that there is not the slightest difference between king, count, burgher, and peasant.
From 1780 to 1785, Joseph attempted, with some success, to implement a reform package: Serfs had to be granted freedom, large family estates were to be broken up, and modern agricultural technologies along with metallurgical and chemical advances were to be pushed ahead, not without the protection of high tariffs.
members.tripod.com /~american_almanac/mozart.htm   (8228 words)

 Germany and the French Revolution   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Joseph II tried to go a step further in Austria by achieving complete centralization and a leveling of class differences as well as the secularization of the government.
Joseph was a pacemaker of liberalism by anticipating an egalitarian society and expressing the secular philosophy of the French enlightenment.
Prussia had joined the anti-French coalition led mostly by Austria in 1792 and was therefore defeated at the battles of Valmy and Jemappes.
mars.wnec.edu /~grempel/courses/germany/lectures/05revolution.html   (2150 words)

 BookRags: Leopold, II Biography
Leopold II (1747-1792) was Holy Roman emperor from 1790 to 1792.
Leopold's reforms, although no less radical than those of his brother Joseph II in Austria and just as distinguished by an institutionalized anticlericalism, met less opposition.
Leopold thought Joseph had brought the monarchy to the brink of ruin by impetuous and unwise policies.
www.bookrags.com /biography/leopold-ii   (446 words)

Jeffrey Jones does a great job as Emperor Joseph II of Austria who fancies himself a musical dilettante.
She recognized Joseph II, her eldest son, as coregent and emperor, but she allowed him only limited powers because she felt he was too rash and arrogant.
She was succeeded by her son Joseph II.
www.vernonjohns.org /snuffy1186/amadeus.html   (1027 words)

 Talk on Viennese medical museum   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Austria's Emperor Joseph II turned to Italy, where skilled artists recreated the human body and its organs in wax anatomical figures to supply the emperor's military medical students with the necessary information to treat wounded soldiers on the battlefields.
The Josephinum is Austria's only medical history museum and is comparable to the Dittrick in its artifact collection of rare books and manuscripts, says Edmonson.
The Austrian museum is located in the former school for military surgeons which Joseph II created in 1785.
www.cwru.edu /pubs/cnews/2001/3-1/medhstytalk.htm   (382 words)

 Prosperity and Plunder: European Catholic Monasteries in the Age of Revolution, 1650-1815
The second part analyzes different ways in which the monasteries were suppressed during and after the 1740s: the banning of the Jesuits, the commission des réguliers in France, and the politics of Joseph II in Austria.
Whereas the French commission was intended to revive old orders, the monastery reform by Joseph II of Austria during the 1780s had another purpose: to make orders socially useful.
With these priorities in his mind, Joseph dissolved monasteries that did not fit his criteria and transferred their resources to parishes and schools.
eh.net /bookreviews/library/0855.shtml   (1003 words)

 Catherine II (Catherine the Great) (1729-1796) : Library of Congress Citations   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Title: The education of the enlightened despots; a review of the youth of Louis XV of France, Frederick II of Prussia, Joseph II of Austria, and Catherine II of Russia.
Catherine -- II, -- Empress of Russia, -- 1729-1796 -- Correspondence.
Zapiski imperatriktlsy Ekateriny II Catherine II, Empress of Russia, 1729-1796.
www.mala.bc.ca /~mcneil/cit/citlccathgr1.htm   (1200 words)

 WHKMLA : History of Austria, 1789-1815
was married to Marie Antoinette, a daughter of Maria Theresia and sister of Emperor Joseph II.
The War Austria was engaged in, with the Ottoman Empire, was concluded on the basis of the status quo ante (TREATY OF SISTOVA, 1791).
Austria had to cede WESTERN GALICIA (the territory gained in the 3rd Polish Partition) to the Duchy of Warsaw, stretches of Carinthia, Crain and Croatia to France, Tarnopol to Russia.
www.zum.de /whkmla/region/germany/au17891815.html   (565 words)

 The Mozart Project: Biography
Joseph II constitutes Austrian Netherlands as a province of the Austrian monarchy, provoking riots in Louvain and Brussels.
Joseph II and Catherine II form a defensive alliance.
Prussia and Austria guarantee a free constitution for Poland.
www.mozartproject.org /biography/ch_86_91.html   (1806 words)

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