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Topic: Jurchen language


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  Manchu language
The Manchu language is the only extant representative of the Tungusic branch of the Altaic family; it is the language of the Manchu.
It is an agglutinizing language that demonstrates limited vowel harmony, and it has been demonstrated that it is essentially identical to the Jurchen language.
Historically, the Manchu language is important in that Europeans were exposed to and familar with Manchu before they encountered the Chinese language.
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/ma/Manchu_language.html   (424 words)

  
  Jurchens - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The early Jurchen script was based on the Khitan script, which in turn was inspired by Chinese characters.
However, because Chinese is an isolating language and the Jurchen and Khitan languages are agglutinative, the script proved to be cumbersome.
Chinese chroniclers of the Ming Dynasty distinguished three groups of Jurchens: the Wild Jurchens of northernmost Manchuria, the Haixi Jurchens of modern Heilongjiang and the Jianzhou Jurchens of modern Jilin province.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Jurchen_language   (832 words)

  
 Jurchens
The 11th century Jurchen tribes of northern Manchuria descended from the Tungusic Mohe, or Malgal tribes who were subjects of the ethnically Goguryeo Bohai/Barhae state during the Tang era.
The Jurchen named their dynasty the Jin ("Golden") after the Anchuhu River ("Anchuhu" is synonym to "aisin" in the Jurchen language) in their homeland — For more detailed treatment of dynastic history and administration, see Jin Dynasty.
However, because Chinese is an isolating language and the Jurchen and Khitan languages are agglutinative, the script proved to be cumbersome.
www.brainyencyclopedia.com /encyclopedia/j/ju/jurchens.html   (1074 words)

  
 Jurchens - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The Jurchens (Chinese: 女真;, pinyin: nǚzhēn) were an Tungusic people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus.
Over a period of thirty years from 1586 and with the aid of Chinese technicians and advisors, Nurhaci, a chieftain of the Jianzhou Jurchens, united the Jurchen tribes.
He created a formidable synthesis of Chinese and nomadic institutions, providing the basis of the Manchu state and later the conquest of China by the Qing dynasty.
www.encyclopedia-online.info /Jurchens   (826 words)

  
 manchurian language   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The Manchu language is a member of the Tungusic branch of the Altaic family; it is the language of the Manchu.
It is an agglutinizing language that demonstrates limited vowel harmony, and it has been demonstrated that it is essentially identical to the Jurchen language.
Manchu began as the primary language of the Qing dynasty Imperial court, but by the 19th century even the imperial court had lost fluency in the language.
www.yourencyclopedia.net /Manchurian_language   (616 words)

  
 Qing Dynasty - MSN Encarta
The founders of the Qing dynasty were members of the Jurchen tribes, a nomadic people who hunted, fished, and raised horses in the area that is now northeastern China.
Jurchen territory stretched between the northeastern Chinese border, marked by the Great Wall, and Korea.
In the late 16th century, because of their strategic location, the Jurchen were engaged by the Chinese as allies to guard the northern frontier and to repel a Japanese invasion of Korea.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761557160/Qing_Dynasty.html   (2088 words)

  
 [No title]
Mongolian is the language of most of the population of Mongolia and also of Inner Mongolia and of separate groups living in several other provinces and regions of China and the Russian Federation.
By origin, it is one of the languages of the Mongolian group of the Altaic family.
The monuments of that period are linguistic materials referred to in historical documents of neighboring nations, in a majority of cases in Chinese transcription; materials in the Tabghatch dialect of the Xian'pi language; and in the Mongolian literary language in the Mongolian script based on the ancient Mongolian language.
www.indiana.edu /~mongsoc/mong/language.htm   (1204 words)

  
 Tungusic languages Summary
The Tungus (or Tungusic) languages are a group of genetically related languages spoken in eastern Siberia and northeastern China, mostly in the provinces of Heilongjiang and Liaoning, and the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region.
Tungusic languages (or Manchu-Tungus languages) are spoken in Eastern Siberia and Manchuria.
Jurchen - an extinct language of Jin dynasty.
www.bookrags.com /Tungusic_languages   (753 words)

  
 Jurchens   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
MAGAZINES The Journal of the American Oriental Society 7/1/1993 Hess, Laura E. twelfth century with the reign of the Jurchens, and possibly even as early as the tenth...
These people were descendants of the Jurchens who ruled the area of northern China during the Jin dynasty (1115-1234), and Manchu is a direct descendant of this earlier...
The Jurchens (Chinese: 女真;, pinyin: nǚzhēn) were a Tungusic people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus.
hallencyclopedia.com /Jurchens   (1214 words)

  
 Tungusic Research Group: Bibliography
A sketch of vowel harmony in the Tungus languages.
Hezheyu Jianzhi [A Grammatical Sketch of the Hezhen Language].
Xibo yu Jianzhi [A Grammatical Sketch of the Sibo Language].
www.dartmouth.edu /~trg/biblio.html   (2590 words)

  
 Jurchens - Japan   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The Jurchens then invaded territories under the Han Chinese Northern Song Dynasty and overran most of North China, first setting up puppet regimes like Qi and Chu, later directly ruling as a Chinese dynastic state named Jin ("Gold", not to be confused with the several Jin Dynasties named after the region around Shanxi and Henan).
At first, the Jurchen tribesmen were kept in readiness for warfare but decades of urban and settled life in China eroded their original hunting-gathering lifestyle in Manchurian tundra and marshes.
However, because Chinese is; an isolating language and the Jurchen and Khitan languages are agglutinative, the; script proved to be cumbersome.
jurchens.zdnet.co.za /zdnet/Jurchens   (1894 words)

  
 Jurchens Summary
The founder of the Jurchen state, the chieftain Aguda (1068–1123) of the Wanyan clan, was primarily a ruler of the "raw" Jurchen, but he had learned how to use cavalry effectively in warfare from the Kitan.
The Jurchen court could only retreat to its domains along the Yellow (Huang) River, where it was able to hold out for another nineteen years thanks to Mongol preoccupation elsewhere, principally with a campaign in the west (1218–1223) and with the conquest of Xi Xia, and then an interregnum.
The Manchus, descendents of the Jurchen, later made the Han shave their heads and adopt the Queue (ponytail), which was the traditional Manchurian hairstyle.
www.bookrags.com /Jurchens   (2139 words)

  
 Manchu language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Manchu language is a member of the Tungusic languages; it used to be the language of the Manchu, though now most Manchus speak Mandarin Chinese and there are fewer than 100 native speakers of Manchu out of a total of nearly 10 million ethnic Manchus.
However, Sibe speakers, who live in far western Xinjiang, are ethnically distinct from Manchus and lay claim as well to the distinctiveness of their language.
It is an agglutinizing language that demonstrates limited vowel harmony, and it has been demonstrated that it is derived in the main from the Jurchen language though there are many loan words from Mongolian and Chinese.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Manchu_language   (541 words)

  
 ral-Altaic Languages
All of the Uralic languages have been shown to be related--the vocabulary and grammar of each member language can be examined in the light of correspondences such as that which obtains between Hungarian -d and Finnish -nt-.
The Samoyed languages are the easternmost representatives of Uralic.
Khalkha is the language of the Mongols of Mongolia, with its capital at Ulan Bator.
members.tripod.com /~Yukon_2/language2.html   (1863 words)

  
 Chinese History - Jin Dynasty (Jurchen) 金 government and administration (www.chinaknowledge.de)
The Jurchen tribes were organized in hereditary military units called company (Jurchen-Chinese: mouke 謀克 ; Chinese: baihu 百戶), ten companies building a battalion (Jurchen-Chinese: meng'an 猛安; Chinese: qianhu 千戶), a system rendered as Meng'an-Mouke that was in use until the end of Jin as the smallest unit of local administration.
The Jurchen rulers soon recognized the importance of the Chinese examination and education system to breed able candidates for offices in administration and government.
Generally, the Jurchen rulers highly estimated education and introduced a kind of compulsatory education for every adult Jurchen, especially for people employed in a state office.
www.chinaknowledge.de /History/Song/jinn-admin.html   (915 words)

  
 Jurchens information - Search.com
The Jurchens (Traditional Chinese: 女眞; Simplified Chinese: 女真; Pinyin: nǚzhēn) were a Tungus people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus.
It comes from the Jurchen word jusen, the original meaning of which is unclear — possibly a cognate of Joseon, which successively designated several states or cultures on the Korean Peninsula, but this still remains highly speculative.
After conquering China, during the Jin Dynasty, the Jurchen adopted Buddhism as the state religion and Taoism was also assimilated.
domainhelp.search.com /reference/Jurchens   (1039 words)

  
 Jurchen script
The Jurchen script, which is also known as Jurchi, Jurchin or Southern Tungusic, was created by Wanyan Xiyin in 1120 and officially introduced in 1145.
The script is known from fragments of manuscripts and inscriptions on monuments of the Jurchen empire, from the Sino-Jurchen glossary and documents of the Ming Bureau of Translators and from Ming inscriptions dating from 1413.
The Jin dynasty fell to the Mongols in 1234.
www.omniglot.com /writing/jurchen.htm   (333 words)

  
 Jurchen Jin Dynasty -- Political, Social, Cultural, Historical Analysis Of China
The Jurchens had fights with the early 'Mengwu' people (led by Kabul-khan) in 1139 and in 1147, and they nailed Ambaki and Kabul-khan's elder son to wooden donkeys and hence were feuds of Genghis Khan's Mongols.
The Tatars had assisted the early Jurchens in defeating the Mongol (Meng-ku) rebellions, handed over Mongol leader Ambakai (dispueted to have adopted tribal name of Tayichi'ut) and his son to the Jurchens for execution in AD 1150s, and dealt the remaining Meng-ku tribes a decisive defeat near Lake Buir in AD 1160s.
An emissary was sent to Jurchen emperor for a ceasefire, and Jurchen emperor surrendered Wanyan Yongji's daughter (Princess Qiguo), 500 boys and girls, and 3000 horses to Genghis Khan.
www.republicanchina.org /jurchen.htm   (6029 words)

  
 Manchu language -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
However, Sibe speakers, who live in far western (An autonomous province in far northwestern China on the border with Mongolia and Kazakhstan; the largest province in the People's Republic of China and the homeland of the Uighur people) Xinjiang, are ethnically distinct from Manchus and lay claim as well to the distinctiveness of their language.
It is an (additional info and facts about agglutinizing language) agglutinizing language that demonstrates limited vowel harmony, and it has been demonstrated that it is derived in the main from the (additional info and facts about Jurchen) Jurchen language though there are many loan words from Mongolian and Chinese.
Historically, the Manchu language is important in that (A native or inhabitant of Europe) Europeans were exposed to and familar with Manchu before they encountered the (additional info and facts about Chinese language) Chinese language.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/m/ma/manchu_language.htm   (531 words)

  
 Ancient Scripts: Jurchen
The Jurchen is a Siniform script, that is, the form of its characters are based on those in the Chinese writing system.
The Manchurians are the descendants of the Jurchen.
The Manchurians adopted the Mongolian script (which is a distant descendent of Brahmi) in 1599, and the Jurchen script ceased to be used.
www.ancientscripts.com /jurchen.html   (218 words)

  
 Language
Language families can be divided into smaller phylogenetic units, conventionally referred to as branches of the family, because the history of a language family is often represented as a tree diagram.
Languages that cannot be reliably classified into any family are known as language isolates.
A language isolated in its own branch within a family, such as Greek within Indo-European, is often also called an isolate, but such cases are usually clarified.
www.angindia.com /biographyland/biography_language.html   (462 words)

  
 Search Results for "Jurchen"
As the Jurchens pressed south, conquering the Khitans (1125)...
These people, related to the Tungus, were descended from the Jurchen, a tribe known in Asia since the 7th cent.
27While the Sung ruled central China, barbarians-the Khitai, the Jurchen, and the Tangut-created northern empires that were swept away by...
www.bartleby.com /cgi-bin/texis/webinator/sitesearch?FILTER=&query=Jurchen   (195 words)

  
 About China-History-Jin/kin Dynasty
The Jin (or Kin) Dynasty was a regime established by the Jurchen (Nuzhen) tribe.
The name "Jurchen" did not appear in historical records until the Five Dynasties Period (907 - 960) when it was under the control of the Khitan (Qidan).
During the "tribal union" period, the premier and the union chieftains (called bojilie in Jurchen language) shared the administration of the various Jurchen tribes.
www.toureasy.net /html/aboutchina/ChineseHistory/Jinkin.htm   (1344 words)

  
 Jurchens - China-related Topics JU-JZ - China-Related Topics
At first, the Jurchen tribesmen were kept in readiness for warfare but decades of settled lifestyle eroded their pastoral identity.
The early Jurchen script was based on the Khitan script, which in turn was inspired by Chinese characters.
However, because Chinese is an isolating language and the Jurchen and Khitan languages are agglutinative languageagglutinative, the script proved to be cumbersome.
www.famouschinese.com /virtual/Jurchens   (912 words)

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