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Topic: Just War

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In the News (Wed 21 Aug 19)

  Just War Theory [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
Nonetheless, it has been the concern of the majority of just war theorists that such asymmetrical morality should be denounced, and that the rules of war should apply to all equally; that is, just war theory should be universal.
In such cases, the ethic of war is considered, or is implicitly held to be, beyond the norms of peaceful ethics and therefore deserving a separate moral realm where "fair is foul and foul is fair" (Shakespeare, Macbeth I.i).
The principles of the justice of war are commonly held to be: having just cause, being declared by a proper authority, possessing right intention, having a reasonable chance of success, and the end being proportional to the means used.
www.utm.edu /research/iep/j/justwar.htm   (3893 words)

 Just War Principles
Even just causes cannot be served by actions taken by individuals or groups who do not constitute an authority sanctioned by whatever the society and outsiders to the society deem legitimate.
For example, self-defense against an armed attack is always considered to be a just cause (although the justice of the cause is not sufficient--see point #4).
Further, a just war can only be fought with "right" intentions: the only permissible objective of a just war is to redress the injury.
www.mtholyoke.edu /acad/intrel/pol116/justwar.htm   (525 words)

  Just War Theory and the Faith of Unitarian Universalism
War is at best a necessary evil, and when it is indeed necessary, it should be waged with the intention of bringing about a state of affairs in which war is no longer necessary.
As just war is concerned with the reestablishment of more just social order, this it is an action (of last resort, as per the first requirement) which can be taken to create a world in which compassion, justice, and equity can be practiced.
Just war theory better represents and puts into actions our primary moral and spiritual beliefs, better serves the quality of life here and the international stability abroad, and is in better keeping with the attitudes and traditions of our culture than is pacifism.
www.uumm.org /just_war_theory_and_the_faith_of_unitarian_universalism.htm   (4415 words)

 Boston.com / News / Rebuilding Iraq
Within the just war tradition, there is a common moral presumption for justice as well as a recognition that all war is terrible.
The principles of just war, which date back to the writings of Saint Augustine in the fourth century, insist that wars of aggression and aggrandizement are never acceptable.
It is a sovereign state and just war doctrine has, since the emergence of the modern state system in the 17th century, included a strong presumption in favor of a state's right to determine its own affairs.
www.boston.com /news/packages/iraq/globe_stories/100602_justwar.htm   (1975 words)

The right of war is the right of a sovereign state to wage a contention at arms against another, and is in its analysis an instance of the general moral power of coercion, i.e.
The source of the right of war is the natural law which confers upon states, as upon individuals, the moral powers or rights which are the necessary means to the essential purpose set by the natural law for the individual and the State to accomplish.
Just as it is the natural law which, with a view to the natural purposes of mankind's creation, has granted its substantial rights to the state, so it is the same law which concedes the subsidiary right of physical coercion in their maintenance, without which none of its rights would be efficacious.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/15546c.htm   (2567 words)

 War (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Vitoria suggested that all the just causes be subsumed under the one category of “a wrong received.” Walzer, and most modern just war theorists, speak of the one just cause for resorting to war being the resistance of aggression.
Just war theory is thus quite demanding, as of course it should be, given the gravity of its subject matter.
A pacifist objects to killing (not just violence) in general and, in particular, she objects to the mass killing, for political reasons, which is part and parcel of the wartime experience.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/war   (10665 words)

 Just War Principles and Counterterrorism
Just cause clearly exists, but we have to avoid the temptation, especially when you are responding to abominable acts, to pursue something akin to a total war.
The just war tradition would help us to understand rather clearly that acts of mass violence, whose aim is quite clearly the destruction of our national life, is not to be considered a crime.
War could not merely be an extreme tool of private parties but had to be a legal instrument, a part of the coercive power of law itself.
www.frinstitute.org /rrjustwar.html   (13229 words)

Just war theory is the attempt to distinguish between justifiable and unjustifiable uses of organized armed forces.
Just war theories attempt to conceive of how the use of arms might be restrained, made more humane, and ultimately directed towards the aim of establishing lasting peace and justice.
Yet, insofar as just wars waged from positions of strength must be successful in order to achieve peace as quickly as possible for humanitarian reasons, or as quickly as is proportional for the sake of justice, just war theorists should study classic works of realpolick for their many strategic insights.
www.justwartheory.com   (13896 words)

 Terrorism and War: A Catholic Response
War is permissible only to confront "a real and certain danger," i.e., to protect innocent life, to preserve conditions necessary for decent human existence and to secure basic human rights.
War must be declared by those with responsibility for public order, not by private groups or individuals.
Just response to aggression must also be discriminate; it must be directed against unjust aggressors, not against innocent people caught up in a war not of their making.
www.americancatholic.org /News/JustWar/justwar.asp   (644 words)

 Just War?
War is the health of the state and the state is the greatest earthly enemy that the faith has confronted in the long history of Christianity.
The desire to avoid war is a fundamental idea in the Christian view of politics, just as the romanticization of war is a pagan one that reflects a disregard for the sanctity of life.
Wars are for soldiers, not non-combatants, and if all these conditions are met, war may be undertaken in good conscience (though no one can be obligated to participate).
www.iraqwar.org /justwar.htm   (2465 words)

 Just War
There are two aspects of a "just war:" (1) the just nature of the war itself and (2) the just nature of the war's conduct.
A war begun justly is not necessarily just in its conduct.
War can be understood as a seemingly necessary last resort to which sinful men and nations turn in their desperation.
www.stolaf.edu /people/becker/just_war.htm   (1180 words)

 Libertarian Just War Theory
War is the declaration of hostilities by one State against another by which it commits the people and resources under its jurisdiction to hostilities against the opponent's people and resources.
A just war would have to be conducted in a manner reminiscent of the 19th century, during which civilians used to picnic beside battlefields, confident that the military on both sides would respect the distinction between civilians and combatants.
To conclude: a libertarian just war would have to be declared in response to an act of aggression that could not be remedied in by a lesser level of defensive violence.
www.zetetics.com /mac/articles/justwar.html   (2030 words)

 The Just War Theory   (Site not responding. Last check: )
He says, "'A just war is wont to be described as one that avenges wrongs, when a nation or state has to be punished, for refusing to make amends for the wrongs inflicted by its subjects, or to restore what it has seized unjustly.'"(4) The intention of the war is very important for St. Augustine.
Although St. Augustine introduced the idea of a just war and the Middle Ages furthered its cause, it was not until the 16th and 17th centuries that a complete theory, which included the proper waging of a war, was established.
War is limited by the immunity of noncombatants and the general principle of proportionality.
www.monksofadoration.org /justwar.html   (4584 words)

 the just war - briefing document
Aquinas developed principles of ‘the just war’, in order to reconcile the moral imperatives which the Churches have traditionally upheld; with the realities of the statesmen who must deal with external threat to their citizens.
Just cause: David Oderberg,[3] has said that, “A state may launch a pre-emptive strike if it has very good reason for thinking that another state is preparing for war”.
There is a moral burden on those who are contemplating war to ensure that all understand the removal of Saddam, and the dangers he poses, should be followed by strenuous efforts to help the Iraqi people rebuild their nation on democratic principles.
www.abelard.org /briefings/just_war.htm   (967 words)

 “‘Just War Theory’ vs. American Self-Defense” by Yaron Brook and Alex Epstein
Just War Theory is conventionally advocated in contrast to two other views of the morality of war: pacifism and “realism.”; Pacifism holds that the use of military force is never moral.
Just War theorists correctly criticize this view on the grounds that evil aggressors exist who seek to kill and dominate the innocent, and that force is often the only effective way to stop them.
According to Just War Theory, it is wrong for a nation to be exclusively concerned with its own well-being in deciding whether to go to war; it must demonstrate concern for the well-being of the world as a whole—including the well-being of the nation it is attacking.
www.theobjectivestandard.com /issues/2006-spring/just-war-theory.asp   (13167 words)

 Just War
However, the literature of the just war tradition does not appear to give as much attention to issues of proportionality as it does to issues of discrimination, perhaps due to an impression that the proportionality rules are too vague and permissive to produce meaningful limitations (O'Brien 338).
Though not stated in just war terms, the criticism of the Allied decision is nevertheless an argument for how great destruction in the immediate context might be proportionate, leading to the need for less destruction in the long run.
A just war must be fought and won, and that means the use of decisive force to ensure that the legitimate objectives are achieved.
religion.rutgers.edu /courses/347/readings/just_war.html   (5737 words)

 Just War?
War is the health of the state and the state is the greatest earthly enemy that the faith has confronted in the long history of Christianity.
The desire to avoid war is a fundamental idea in the Christian view of politics, just as the romanticization of war is a pagan one that reflects a disregard for the sanctity of life.
Wars are for soldiers, not non-combatants, and if all these conditions are met, war may be undertaken in good conscience (though no one can be obligated to participate).
iraqwar.org /justwar.htm   (2465 words)

 The Catholic Just War Tradition and the War in Iraq - Resources
At Odds with the Pope: Legitimate Authority and Just Wars, by William T. Cavanaugh is associate professor of theology at the University of Saint Thomas in Saint Paul, Minnesota.
Just and unjust wars: a diplomat's perspective, by Richard Holbrooke.
War: Beyond the hawks and the doves "In the wake of Kosovo, Catholic leaders ponder whether traditional moral approaches to warfare still make sense," by William Bole.
www.ratzingerfanclub.com /justwar   (3838 words)

 Just War in the Catechism of the Catholic Church
Just War in the Catechism of the Catholic Church
Consider the just anger of the Lord to the presence in the Temple of the money-changers and the action He took (John 2:13-17).
The responsibility for determining whether these conditions are met belongs to "the prudential judgment of those who have responsibility for the common good." The Church's role consists in enunciating clearly the principles, in forming the consciences of men and in insisting on the moral exercise of just war.
www.ewtn.com /expert/answers/just_war.htm   (1225 words)

 Just War by Murray N. Rothbard
Wars will always exist among groups, peoples, nations; the desideratum, in addition to trying to persuade them to stay within the compass of "just wars," was to curb and limit the impact of existing wars as much as possible.
The Northern war against slavery partook of fanatical millennialist fervor, of a cheerful willingness to uproot institutions, to commit mayhem and mass murder, to plunder and loot and destroy, all in the name of high moral principle and the birth of a perfect world.
Army and the war effort rested on a vast and unprecedented amount of federal coercion against Northerners as well as the South; a huge army was conscripted, dissenters and advocates of a negotiated peace with the South were jailed, and the precious Anglo-Saxon right of habeas corpus was abolished for the duration.
www.lewrockwell.com /rothbard/rothbard20.html   (5576 words)

 Enola Gay, Just War, and Mass Murder, by Scott McPherson
For them, the war against Japan was a "good war." Japan had initiated hostilities against the United States, and drastic measures were essential to defend the United States from possible annihilation.
The "just war" position on noncombat casualties is meant to bolster this principle, not provide an exception to the rule.
War is indeed hell, and all attempts should be made to prevent it.
www.antiwar.com /orig2/mcpherson2.html   (2082 words)

 Just War Tradition: Is It Credible?
The just war tradition does serve, some of the time, as an agenda, a checklist of questions which it is fitting to ask in considering war.
Yet the scale of the air war has gone far beyond the UN authorization, as did the continuing escalation of the war aims so that by February 15 Pentagon projections were assuming the demand for unconditional surrender rather than withdrawal, and by February 25 flanking actions were undertaken to prevent withdrawal.
Overlapping with the "just" alternative in early medieval thought, "holy" war or the Crusade differs from the just war (properly so-called) as to cause, last resort, and probable success, and usually with regard to the human dignity of the enemy/infidel.
www.religion-online.org /showarticle.asp?title=107   (2693 words)

 USCCB - (Office of Media Relations) - Two Traditions: Nonviolence and Just War
Two Traditions: Nonviolence and Just War An essential component of a spirituality for peacemaking is an ethic for dealing with conflict in a sinful world.
The devastation wrought by these recent wars reinforces and strengthens for us the strong presumption against the use of force, which is shared by both traditions.
Overall, the wars fought in the last fifty years show a dramatic rise in the proportion of noncombatant casualties.
www.usccb.org /comm/nationaltragedy/justwar.shtml   (1457 words)

 Just War
Just war is a phrase that indicates that a country has a just cause for declaring or engaging in war with another country.
Our moral justification for war is not simply that Iraq is lying, hiding weapons, and holding probable links to Al Queda, but that we are simply enforcing the terms of surrender they accepted 12 years ago in the Gulf War, and have continually refused to follow through with.
We learned the meaning of the term “just war,” and the 6 conditions that must be present in order for a war to be just.
www.flvs.net /fvsnews/may2003/just.htm   (814 words)

 Catholic Answers: Just War Doctrine
The most authoritative and up-to-date expression of just war doctrine is found in paragraph 2309 of the Catechism of the Catholic Church.
It is incumbent on those making the decision to go to war to attempt to the best of their ability to foresee both what damage will result if the war is conducted and what damage will result if it is not.
Every act of war directed to the indiscriminate destruction of whole cities or vast areas with their inhabitants is a crime against God and man, which merits firm and unequivocal condemnation.
www.catholic.com /library/Just_war_Doctrine_1.asp   (2706 words)

 A Just War? Hardly, by Noam Chomsky
By "just war," counterterrorism or some other rationale, the US exempts itself from the fundamental principles of world order that it played the primary role in formulating and enacting.
Its provisions on laws of war are codified in the UN Charter, the Geneva Conventions and the Nuremberg principles, adopted by the General Assembly.
The National Security Strategy of September 2002, just largely reiterated in March, grants the US the right to carry out what it calls "pre-emptive war," which means not pre-emptive, but "preventive war." That’s the right to commit aggression, plain and simple.
www.chomsky.info /articles/20060509.htm   (832 words)

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