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Topic: Justified true belief

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  Epistemology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Not surprisingly, the way that knowledge claims are justified both leads to and depends on the general approach to philosophy one adopts, and so philosophers have developed a range of epistemological theories to accompany their general philosophical positions.
Although being a justified, true belief is necessary for a statement to count as knowledge, it is not sufficient.
While there is general consensus that truth and belief are two necessary facets of knowledge, there is a debate about what needs to be added to the true beliefs to make them knowledge, and a debate about whether justification is necessary in the definition at all.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Epistemology   (3369 words)

 Gettier problem - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
On their account, knowledge is undefeated justified true belief -- which is to say that a justified true belief counts as knowledge if and only if it is also the case that there is no further truth which, had the subject known it, would have defeated her present justification for the belief.
The JTB account is then criticized for trying to get the factivity of knowledge "on the cheap," by replacing an irreducible notion of factivity with the conjunction of some of the properties that accompany it (in particular, truth and justification).
Such an argument often depends on an externalist account on which "justification" is understood in such a way that whether or not a belief is "justified" depends not just on the internal state of the believer, but also on how that internal state is related to the outside world.
www.marylandheights.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Gettier_problem   (1749 words)

 Knowledge article - Knowledge meaning information instruction communication representation - What-Means.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
A common definition of knowledge is that it consists of justified true belief.
Any less justified beliefs were called mere "probable opinion." Philosophers often define knowledge as a justified, true belief; the branch of philosophy that deals with the nature, origin and scope of knowledge is called epistemology.
Instead of "justified true belief" or "true belief with evidence," we could say that knowledge is "rational true belief" or "warranted true belief." For our purposes, the differences between these different options don't matter.
www.what-means.com /encyclopedia/Knowledge   (1225 words)

 Belief and Knowledge
Belief may thus be understood as a representation that is not necessarily fully justified and is not necessarily completely true, but must be true in part.
Thus, for a belief to be knowledge, it must be the case that the belief is, in fact, true, and the believer must have justification for the belief.
While the output is correct or ``true" and may be interpreted as a belief, it is not justified--the function is not accurate in that it does not operate as the user intends or understands the calculator to operate.
ils.unc.edu /~losee/b5/node9.html   (1108 words)

 Gettier Problems [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
Hence, JTB is false if there is even one actual or possible Gettier situation (in which some justified true belief fails to be knowledge).
JTB would then tell us that one’s knowing that p is one’s having a justified true belief which is well supported by evidence, none of which is false.
The thought behind it is that JTB should be modified so as to say that what is needed in knowing that p is an absence from the inquirer’s context of any defeaters of her evidence for p.
www.iep.utm.edu /g/gettier.htm   (11284 words)

 Phl 327 Lecture #4
Knowledge is a true belief that has been caused by the corresponding fact in the right way, in a way that reliably produces true beliefs.
Beliefs may be efficacious, but not in virtue of their content (and, hence, not in virtue of their truth).
Beliefs about abstruse, highly theoretical subjects, could be adaptive for reasons having nothing to do with their truth.
www.utexas.edu /cola/depts/philosophy/faculty/koons/phl327/lec04.html   (735 words)

 Knowledge as a justified, true belief essay
So although I am justified and correct in believing that he has got married without inviting me, Gettier would argue, I cannot be said at that moment to have knowledge of that as my assumption as to what I am seeing is incorrect.
There is another proposal that the justification(s) must not be false in order to support a true belief that is knowledge (therefore my belief that my friend had got married would be true, but not justified by this doctrine as my assumption that I was seeing a real wedding was false).
The 'common sense' response to Gettier is simply that if you have a belief that is true and you can justify it, even if the justification is flawed, you still end up with the same truthful conclusion, and so the ultimate belief and thus the ultimate knowledge remains unchanged.
www.arrod.co.uk /essays/tripartite.php   (697 words)

 The Analysis of Knowledge
Those who think that belief is necessary for knowledge could reply that the example does not qualify as a case of knowledge without belief because it isn't a case of knowledge to begin with.
Internalists conceive of a justified belief as a belief that, relative to the subject's evidence or reasons, is likely to be true.
He argues that only reliably formed beliefs can be justified, and defines a reliable belief-producing mechanism as one that "would yield mostly true beliefs in a sufficiently large and varied run of employments in situations of the sorts we typically encounter" (Alston 1993, p.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/knowledge-analysis   (9156 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Brian Leiter tells an interesting story that shows the idea of knowledge as "true justified belief" is more complicated than it seems.
Smith would then also be justified in believing that (3) the person who gets the job will have 10 coins in his pocket.
The legacy of the Gettier counter-examples was a powerful one: a justified true belief isn’t knowledge when the justification for the true belief isn’t the cause of why the agent holds the belief.
www.rasmusen.org /w/04.06.26c.htm   (179 words)

 Goldman, "What Is Justified Belief?"
According to the process reliabilist, whether or not your belief is justified is a function of how reliable the processes which produced the belief are.
Say that a belief B of S's is "undermined" iff S believes (or "ought" to be using a process that would generate a belief) that belief B was formed in an unreliable way.
All beliefs produced by conditionally reliable processes that received beliefs as input which were themselves justified are justified, unless they're undermined.
www.princeton.edu /~jimpryor/courses/epist/notes/goldman2.html   (1112 words)

 DEFEASIBILITY AND CAUSALITY   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
For Gettier, belief might be justified and true, but had things changed a little bit, the knower would hold on to a false belief.
The belief that (p) is an effect or a consequent or a “Causal result ”of prior reasons (evidence).
For him, if a perceptual belief is true and is generated in an appropriate manner, then it is an instance of knowledge.
www.uz.ac.zw /arts/relclassphil/chimuka/10400304.htm   (3208 words)

 New Page 1   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
In his paper, "Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?" Edmund Gettier (a contemporary philosopher) argues that the traditional account of knowledge (the justified true belief account) is not the correct model of knowledge.
Condition 2: For any proposition P, if S is justified in believing P, and P entails Q, and S deduces Q from P and accepts Q as a result of this deduction, then S is justified in believing Q. This is the thesis that knowledge and justification are closed under deductive inference.
Smith has a justified true belief (proposition (h) is a justified true belief) that is not an instance of knowledge.
wsuonline.weber.edu /course.philo.1010/Lecture10.htm   (978 words)

 The Gettier Problem
True belief is not sufficient for knowledge; since a belief can be true by accident or lucky guesswork, and knowledge cannot be a matter of luck or accident.
But Gettier argues that fallibly justified true belief is not sufficient for knowledge.
It is a lucky accident that his justified belief is true.
www.siue.edu /~wlarkin/teaching/PHIL310/gettier.html   (307 words)

 Justified True Belief   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Consider lack of belief: it may be true that Alice's twin sister has just been killed in a car accident, and the police officer reporting the fact may be sufficient evidence to warrant belief, but Alice may find herself unable to accept it, and will thus fail to know it.
Lack of truth also disqualifies knowledge: the pre-Copernican belief (amply justified at the time) that heavenly bodies moved around a stationary Earth is false, and is thus not knowledge, even if educated persons of the day operated under the misapprehension that it was.
One possible way of saving the JTB account from Gettier is to argue that Smith's justification for (c) was undermined, and thus he did not know (c) because his belief was not appropriately justified.
www.nutters.org /log/jtb   (796 words)

 [No title]
Therefore, (w and c) is true, we are completely justified in believing it to be false, and if we conjoin it to p then we are not completely justified in believing h anymore, and that is because c defeats our justification p.
Their final conditions of defeasibility are: If p completely justifies S in believing that h, then this justification is defeated by q if and only if, i) q is true ii) the conjunction of p and q does not completely justify S in believing that h.
It fits a traditional case of justified true belief, but it isn't knowledge because what he thinks is a sheep isn't a sheep at all, but a dog and it's only by luck that he is also seeing a sheep in the background.
www.physics.sfsu.edu /~dnidever/homepage/ideas/getpaper2.doc   (4769 words)

 The Gettier Problem
Here again you have a justified true belief that there is a sheep in the meadow, which fails to count as knowledge.
Harman claims that this is another Gettier case: he says that Jill has a justified true belief that the president was assassinated, but she doesn't have knowledge, because there is all this misleading evidence abroad in her community, which she has only managed to avoid by sheer luck.
In that case, you have a justified belief that someone owns a Ford, and this belief happens to be true.
www.princeton.edu /~jimpryor/courses/epist/notes/gettier.html   (2630 words)

 Fake Barn Country: What's the Problem?
Or suppose you add a few bells and whistles to your view, stipulating that a belief must be objectively likely to be true in virtue of its having been produced or sustained in a certain way, say, by the subject’s cognitive abilities.
Moreover, Kvanvig himself recognizes that there are important epistemic properties other than truth that a belief can have (“subjective justification” and "intellectual virtuosity"), whose value is not swamped by the value of true belief, and which are arguably necessary conditions for knowledge.
For instance, if all of the value of knowledge comes from the value of having a subjectively-justified true belief, then it would be irrational for us to prefer having knowledge to having subjectively-justified true belief, all else being equal of course.
www.brown.edu /Departments/Philosophy/Blog/Archives/004573.html   (3078 words)

 as days pass by » Justified true belief
In the weak sense of the word, the student is indeed justified in believing that the professor has a lot of books; that is, he has good reasons for believing so.
In the strong sense of the word, however, he cannot be justified in his belief unless he confirmed that the books he was looking at actually belonged to the professor he was talking to.
Thus, JTB becomes simply Justified Belief, where the justification is, as I mentioned in the previous post, sufficiently strong for believing it to be true.
www.kryogenix.org /days/justified   (918 words)

 Hauptli's Supplement on Gettier's "Is JTB Knowledge?"
A true belief that isn't a lucky guess--like Smith's belief...may still be a lucky truth, and thus fall short of being knowledge.
Then S does not know that the ball is red despite his having a justified true belief to that effect....These examples...indicate that justified true belief can fail to be knowledge because of the truth values of propositions that do not play a direct role in the reasoning underlying the belief.
If we knew which of our beliefs where justified, we could examine them for common features and draw out the conditions that justified beliefs must meet; and if we knew the conditions on justified belief, we could apply them to our beliefs to see which are justified.
www.fiu.edu /~hauptli/Gettier'sIsJTBKnowledge.html   (4580 words)

 Edmund Gettier: “Is Justified True Belief Knowledge
Pragmatic: truth of a belief is dependent on how useful that belief is in reaching certain goals.
Why not sufficient (with belief): I can be justified in holding a belief without it being true.
  By A1, Smith is justified in believing both (a) and (b) [and thus their conjuction (a) and (b)], even though they are false, and by A2 he is thereby justified in believing (c).
spruce.flint.umich.edu /~simoncu/380/gettier.htm   (537 words)

 Philosophy, et cetera: Gettier cases via Skepticism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Perhaps you were suggesting that the scenario I present is not a genuine Gettier case, because the belief is not specific enough.
But we find the belief to be both justified and true, and yet not knowledge.
Perhaps we would have to reformulate JTB as follows: Knowledge is a contextually justified true belief.
pixnaps.blogspot.com /2004/12/gettier-cases-via-skepticism.html   (1836 words)

 The Leiter Reports: Editorials, News, Updates: The Relevance of Motives, or The Hermeneutics of Suspicion, or Ricoeur ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
As Philip Kitcher put the point, in explaining the stimulus Gettier provided to the “naturalistic” turn in epistemology: “the epistemic status of a belief state depends on the etiology of the state.” Beliefs caused the “wrong” way suffer epistemically.
We can understand, now, the logic of the hermeneutics of suspicion as exploiting precisely this point about the epistemic status of belief: we should be suspicious of the epistemic status of beliefs that have the wrong causal etiology.
To be sure, beliefs with the wrong causal etiology might be true; but since they are no longer cases of knowledge, we have no reason to presume that to be the case.
webapp.utexas.edu /blogs/archives/bleiter/000356.html   (508 words)

 Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?
S is justified in believing that P. For example, Chisholm has held that the following gives the necessary and sufficient conditions for knowledge:
In this case, Smith is clearly justified in believing that (e) is true.
Proposition (e) is then true, though proposition (d), from which Smith inferred (e), is false.
www.ditext.com /gettier/gettier.html   (593 words)

 Think1st: A Progressive Christian Blog
His examples entailed someone having good reasons for believing something, which then led them to a further implication of that belief, which turned out to be true while the initial justified belief turned out to be false.
According to Plantinga, if a person has a true belief that has been produced by cognitive faculties that are functioning properly, according to a design plan aimed at producing true beliefs, in a cognitive environment suited to those faculties, then they have knowledge.
To restate the position, in conclusion: a person has knowledge if her belief is true and was generated by a suffiently functioning cognitive faculty(ies) having a design plan(s) that regularly produces true belief(s), and that generated that/those belief(s) in a receptive environment.
think1st.blogspot.com   (3107 words)

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