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Topic: Kalmyk deportations of 1944

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In the News (Thu 21 Mar 19)

The ancestors of the Kalmyks, the Oirats, migrated from the steppes of southern Siberia on the banks of the Irtysh River to the Lower Volga region.
The Kalmyks settled in the wide open steppes from Saratov in the north to Astrakhan on the Volga delta in the south and to the Terek River in the southwest.
In December 1943, the Kalmyk SSR was abolished and its territory was divided and transferred to the adjacent regions, viz., the Astrakhan and Stalingrad Oblasts and Stavropol Krai.
www.oobdoo.com /wikipedia/?title=Kalmykia   (2322 words)

 Spartanburg SC | GoUpstate.com | Spartanburg Herald-Journal
The deportations had a profound effect on the non-Russian peoples of the Soviet Union and they are still a major political issue - the memory of the deportations played a major part in the separatist movements in Tatarstan, Chechnya and the Baltic republics.
December 1943: Deportation of Kalmyks from Kalmyk ASSR to Altai and Krasnoyarsk Krais and Omsk and Novosibirsk oblasts
November 1944: Deportation of 92,000 Meskhs, Kurds, and Khemshins from Southern Georgia, and 1,000 Lazs from Adjar ASSR to Uzbek SSR, Kazakh SSR, Kirgiz SSR.
www.goupstate.com /apps/pbcs.dll/section?category=NEWS&template=wiki&text=Population_transfer_in_the_Soviet_Union   (1877 words)

 The North Caucasus
The violent deportations were carried out w ith extraordinary speed, on an admittedly mostly unfounded accusation of collaboration with the enemy.
The deportations, or repressions as the peoples themselves prefer to call them, can be said to be genuine genocides because ethnicity was the sole criteria for selection, and practically nobody from the selection was spared.
For some, especially the deported peoples who were deprive'd of their lands for decades, this claim is part of a claim for rest itution.
www.socsci.uci.edu /istudies/Eurasia/Eurasia_spring06/ncauc.html   (9831 words)

 Kalmyk people - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Kalmyk Tayishis, by contrast, were given salaries and towns and settlements were established for them and their ulus (Khodarkovsky, 1992:39).
Towards that end, Kalmyk khuruls (temples) and monasteries were destroyed and property confiscated; the clergy and many believers were harassed, killed, or sent to labor camps; religious artifacts and books were destroyed; and young men were prohibited from religious training.
In 1944, the Soviet government exiled all Kalmyks not fighting in the Soviet army to Central Asia and Siberia, accusing them of collaborating with the German Army.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Kalmyk   (6925 words)

 Kalmykia in the Soviet Union, 1917-1942,1958-1992   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
In 1938 the cirilic alphabet was adopted and a new flag was hoisted.
Kalmyk ASSR was abolished in 1944 when the Kalmyks were deported for alleged collaboration with the Nazis.
Kalmyk Autonomous Province was abolished during the Second World War, when, in common with many other ethnic minorities, the Kalmyks were deemed to have displayed insufficient enthusiasm for fighting for Communism.
www.crwflags.com /fotw/flags/su-rukl.html   (185 words)

 Population transfer in the Soviet Union - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Deportation of 439,000 Germans (Volga Germans and from Saratov and Stalingrad oblast) to Kazakhstan, Krasnoyarsk and Altai Krais, and Novosibirsk and Omsk oblasts
Deportation of 91,000 Finns and Germans from Leningrad oblast to Kazakhstan, Krasnoyarsk and Altai Krais, and Novosibiksk and Omsk oblasts
Deportation of 138,000 Germans from Krasnodar and Ordzhonikidze krais, Tula oblast, Kabarda-Balkar ASSR and North Ossetian ASSR to Krasnoyarsk Krai, Irkutsk oblast and Kazakhstan
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Population_transfer_in_the_Soviet_Union   (1891 words)

In April 1944, all Balkars were deported to far-away places from the territory of the Kabarda-Balkar Autonomous Republic and the Republic itself was renamed the Autonomous Kabardin Republic".
The Kalmyk Autonomous Region (area: 28,000 square miles) was established in November 1920 and transformed into the Kalmyk Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic ('B' on map) (capital: Elista) in October 1935.
The Kalmyk Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic ('B' on map One) was dissolved and most of its territory ceded to a new Astrakhan Region of Russia.
harikumar.brinkster.net /AllianceIssues/All42-Settlements.html   (5248 words)

 [10.0] The Three Blows
In early March 1944, he issued orders indicating that 26 cities and major towns in German-occupied Soviet territory were to be set up as "fortified places" and held to the last.
On 5 May 1944, the Soviets began their assault with the Second Guards Army on the northern end of the German line, where the terrain was most favorable to the offense.
Conditions of the deportations were primitive and many died, possibly as many as a third, with the deportations proving particularly harsh on the very young and very old.
www.vectorsite.net /twsnow_10.html   (6730 words)

 Center of Information and Documentation of Crimean Tatars
In 1956, the repression and deportation – by governmental bodies of the USSR - of Balkarian, Ingushian, Kalmyk, Karachai and Chechen peoples from the Russian Federation was recognized as illegal, and they were permitted to return to their homeland.
A process of rehabilitation of deported peoples by national sign, including Crimean Tatar People, began with the adoption, on 14 November 1989, of the Declaration ”On the recognition as illegal and criminally repressive measures against peoples who suffered a forcible transfer, and on the provision of their rights” by the Supreme Council of USSR.
Inflationary and other processes in countries complicate the grave condition of former deported peoples, who have returned to Ukraine, as repatriates lose their personal savings in the return to Ukraine, they are unable to sell their own houses, and are forced to bear transport and other charges.
www.cidct.org.ua /en/studii/1(2000)/3.html   (1501 words)

 LALKAR online
Clearly the Meshketians are in a different category from the rest as their deportation took place after the war was over.
Deportation has been depicted as a "punishment", but in fact this was not its purpose.
Deportees were resettled and provided with homes, work, education, health care, etc. From the time of liberation of the Soviet Union until its collapse, the Chechen people as a whole benefited greatly from being a part of that great endeavour, and anti-Russianism largely fell off their agenda.
www.lalkar.org /issues/contents/nov2005/chechnya.php   (5071 words)

 Elista, Russia
In 1944, the entire population of the republic was deported to Siberia.
Russian people were brought in to repopulate the town and the name was changed to Stepnoy (Степно́й) until 1957, when survivors of the deportations were allowed to return.
The site has a public swimming pool and an excellent museum of Kalmyk Buddhist art, and is also infrequently used as a conference center.
www.creekin.net /c6224-n153-elista-russia.html   (261 words)

 Otto's Random Thoughts: Quotation of the Day
The following quotation is from an NKVD report of 15 July 1946 on the conditions of Kalmyk special settlers in Novosibirsk Oblast.
It has been noted that they are completely unadapted to the severe climate, unaccustomed to the conditions and do not know the language.
Many local party and economic organs have not employed themselves in arranging labor for the Kalmyks, considering it a matter for the NKVD.
jpohl.blogspot.com /2005/10/quotation-of-day_07.html   (296 words)

 Checheno-Ingushia in the Soviet Union
From 1944 to 1957 the territory and the remaining, undeported population was administered as “normal” (not autonomous) part of R.S.F.S.R. It should be noted that Chechenia and Inngushia were thus administered toghether from 1934 to 1992.
Groznyy Oblast was formed in 1944 on the site of the former Chechen-Ingush Autonomous SSR and includes the territory of the former Kizlyar Okrug, which was originally part of the Dagestan Autonomous SSR and from 1938 until 1944 in Ordzhonikidze Kray…
The territoty of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous SSR was distributed in 1944; the southern mountain strip passed to the Georgian SSR, the westernmost section to the North Ossetian Autonomous SSR, an eastern zone to the Dagestan Autonomous SSR, while the bulk of the territory made up part of the newly constituted Groznyy Oblast…
www.crwflags.com /fotw/flags/su-ruci.html   (374 words)

 Otto's Random Thoughts: August 2005
The Kalmyks in the US used their position outside Soviet control to lobby the US government, the United Nations and a number of Asian governments to pressure the USSR to improve the status of their kinsmen.
On 13 December 1953, a Kalmyk delegation met with UN officials and asked that the issue of the continued confinement of the Kalmyks to special settlements be placed on the organization's agenda.
The Kalmyks are a Mongol Buddhist people that migrated to their current home on the north west shores of the Caspian Sea from western Mongolia in the 17th century.
jpohl.blogspot.com /2005_08_01_jpohl_archive.html   (11016 words)

 war and social upheaval: World War II European Theater -- Soviet deportations
Those deported included Volga Germans and seven nationalities grom the Crimea and the northern Caucasus were deported (the Crimean Tatars, Kalmyks, Chechens, Ingush, Balkars, Karachai, and Meskhetians.
The Volga Germns were one of several nationalities Stalin deported to isolated areas of the country.
Those deported included seven nationalities from the Crimea and the northern Caucasus were deported (the Crimean Tatars, Kalmyks, Chechens, Ingush, Balkars, Karachai, and Meskhetians.
histclo.com /essay/war/ww2/cou/sov/sov-deport.html   (1500 words)

 Conflict Studies Research Centre   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
The scourge of mass deportation was inflicted on the Karachai, the Balkar, the Chechen, the Ingush, the Kalmyk Buddhist people from north of the Kuma River and, from the Transcaucasus, the Meskhetian turks in Georgia".
The Meskhetian Turks were deported on the orders of Stalin in November 1944 because of concerns over the German-Turkish relationship and the proximity of the Meskhetian Turks to Turkey.
Having covered the circumstances of the deportation in 1944, the Fergana pogrom and continuing exile, it is now appropriate to turn attention to the difficult questions of who and what exactly are the Meskhetian Turks.
www.pims.org /Events/Projects/CSRC/TheMeskhetians.htm   (5376 words)

 Kalmykia - Wiki   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
The Kalmyk Khanate reached its peak of military and political power under Ayuka Khan (1669 -1724).
Telo Rinpoche is the head of Kalmyk Buddhist Union, which most Buddhists in Kalmykia belong to.
There is a Kalmyk Buddhist temple in Belgrade, Serbia, and several Kalmyk Buddhist temples in Monmouth County, New Jersey, where the vast majority of American Kalmyks reside, as well as a Tibetan Buddhist Learning Center and monastery in Washington County, NJ.
www.lumrix.com /help/index.php/Kalmykia   (2216 words)

The Republic of Kalmykia (Kalmyk: Хальмг Таңһч; Респу́блика Калмы́кия) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic).
According to the 2002 Census, Kalmyks at 155,938 make up 53.3% of the republic's population.
Kalmyk diaspora II See also Kalmyk deportations of 1944
www.reference.com /browse/wiki/Kalmykia   (2269 words)

 Chechnya: Rewriting History   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
The poor state of the deportations monument, commemorating the wholesale exile of the entire Chechen population and the death of 100,000 of them, reflects a changed attitude to this tragedy in Russia as a whole large.
Tamara Chagayev, a journalist who studied the most notorious massacre of February 1944, when 700 women, children and old people were declared “untransportable” and burned alive in the mountain village of Khaibakh, contrasts this attitude with the official Russian position ten years ago.
The forgotten aspect of February 1944, the archivist said, was there was actually fierce resistance to it and “whole cargoes of soldiers’ corpses came down from the mountains.” Many rebels stayed on in the mountains and one of them, Khasukha Magomadov, was captured only in the 1970s.
www.freeserbia.net /Articles/2004/History.html   (1265 words)

 NIS Observed
Virtually all the members of eight nations Chechens, Ingush, Balkars, Karachai, Kalmyk, Volga Germans, Crimean Tatars and Meskhetian Turks were sent to Central Asia.
In 1956 Khrushchev rehabilitated all but the last three nations listed, allowing the others to return to their original places of residence and in some cases restoring (to some degree) the regional autonomy they had enjoyed prior to the deportations.
A recent publication of the International Organization for Migration (IOM) refers to Soviet archival documents which suggest that Soviet authorities failed to overcome the complexities of the social issues involved in repatriation.
www.bu.edu /iscip/digest/vol4/ed0406.html   (6835 words)

The possibility of a German attack was used to justify the resettlement of the ethnically mixed population of Mtskheta, in southwestern Georgia.
Every month during the June-August 1944 period, equal quantities of flour, groats, and vegetables will be allocated by the USSR People's Commissariat of Procurement (comrade Subbotin) to the Uzbek SSR Council of People's Commissars for distribution to the special settlers, in accordance with Appendix No. 2.
By 20 May 1944, the Main Administration for the Transport and Supply of Petroleum and Petroleum Products (comrade Shirokov) is to allocate and supply 400 tons of gasoline to locations specified by the USSR NKVD, and 200 tons of gasoline are to be placed at the disposal of the Uzbek SSR Council of People's Commissars.
www.ulfsbo.nu /ussr/rel_inf_3.html   (1398 words)

 Shetland Sheepdog Stamps
In 1944, Stalin accused the Balkars of collaborating with Nazi Germany and deported the entire population.
The Kalmyks settled the Volga River region in the seventeenth century.
This was abolished during the Second World War, when, in common with many other ethnic minorities, the Kalmyks were deemed to have displayed insufficient enthusiasm for fighting for Communism.
www.animalstamps.com /Sheltie.htm   (5049 words)

 Endangered languages in Europe and North Asia
Other larger minority languages such as Corsican, Gagauz, Kalmyk, Kashubian, Nogay and Walloon, as well as Campidanese Sardinian and Logudorese Sardinian, are also losing speakers on a scale that makes it necessary to define them as endangered.
Spoken in the Kalmyk Republic and the adjacent part of Astrakhan, Rostov, and Volgograd provinces and Stavropol’ Region in the Russian Federation.
Kalmyk may be historically seen as an outlying dialect of Oyrat, but now it clearly functions as a distinct language, although the differences are largely limited to lexicon.
www.helsinki.fi /~tasalmin/chris.html   (17752 words)

 Population transfer in the Soviet Union - Education - Information - Educational Resources - Encyclopedia - Music
Separatism, resistance to Soviet rule and collaboration with the invading Germans were cited as the main official reasons for the deportations, although an ambition to ethnically cleanse regions may have also been a factor.
Volga Germans and seven nationalities of the Crimea and the northern Caucasus were deported: the Crimean Tatars, Kalmyks, Chechens, Ingush, Balkars, Karachays, and Meskhetian Turks.
The death toll from these deportations was huge: 60% of the Baltic deportees were estimated to have perished, and nearly half of the entire Crimean Tatar population died of hunger in the first eighteen months after being banished from their homeland.
www.music.us /education/P/Population-transfer-in-the-Soviet-Union.htm   (562 words)

 The languages of the Russian Federation today
On the other hand, the Ubykh nation as a whole emigrated to the Ottoman Empire when their homeland was annexed to Russia.
Many languages of the area suffered severely from the mass deportations of whole nations in the aftermath of the Second World War though all except the Volga Germans were allowed to return to their homes after a decade in exile.
The independent state of Tannu-Tuva was forcibly annexed to the Soviet Union in 1944, but the Tuvan people have not ceased to cultivate their language and culture vigorously, despite the loss of political autonomy.
www.helsinki.fi /~tasalmin/rf.html   (1462 words)

 TIME.com: Excerpts from the Historic Secret speech -- Jun. 11, 1956 -- Page 3   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
the mass deportations from their native places of whole nations, together with all Communists and Komsomols without any exception; this deportation action was not dictated by any military considerations.
At the end of 1943 a decision was taken and executed to deport all the Karachai from the lands on which they lived.
In April 1944 all Balkars were deported to faraway places.
www.time.com /time/magazine/article/0,9171,862147-3,00.html   (711 words)

 Union of Councils for Soviet Jews: Bigotry Monitor: Volume 2, Number 31
On July 9, Kalmyk President Kirsan Ilyumzhinov told the Russian news agency Interfax that the Dalai Lama's visit would be solely devoted to the pursuit of "religious goals".
During the night of August 2-3, 1944, the Roma camp at Auschwitz-Birkenau was liquidated, and close to 3,000 men, women, and children were killed in the gas chambers.
In addition to their systematic destruction at Auschwitz, Roma were killed elsewhere in German-occupied territory by SS squads, regular army units or police, often shot at the village's edge, and dumped into mass graves.
www.fsumonitor.com /stories/080902Russia.shtml   (2978 words)

 [No title]
This, of course, did not contribute toward unity of the party ranks and of all strata of working people, but, on the contrary, brought about annihilation and the expulsion from the party of workers who were loyal but inconvenient to Stalin.
We refer to the mass deportations from their native places of whole nations, together with all Communists and Komsomols without any exception; this deportation action was not dictated by any military considerations.
In April 1944, all Balkars were deported to faraway places from the territory of the Kabardino-Balkar Autonomous Republic and the Republic itself was renamed the Autonomous Kabardian Republic.
www.angelfire.com /mi4/books/stalincrimes.html   (18693 words)

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