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# Topic: Kernel

###### In the News (Tue 23 Jul 19)

 Kernel (computer science) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Kernels usually implement some hardware abstraction (a set of instructions universal to all devices of a certain type) to hide the underlying complexity from the operating system and provide a clean and uniform interface to the hardware, which helps application programmers to develop programs that work with all devices of that type. This is due in large part to the overhead of moving in and out of the kernel, a context switch, in order to move data between the various applications and servers. The design of Linux as a monolithic kernel rather than a microkernel was the topic of a famous flame war (or what then passed for flaming) between Linus Torvalds and Andrew Tanenbaum. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Kernel_(computers)   (1697 words)

 kernel (mathematics)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19) Unrelated to this, if f is any function in any context, then the kernel of f is a certain equivalence relation on the domain of f which is defined in terms of f. But in the case of Mal'cev algebras, it can be replaced by a simpler definition; the kernel of a homomorphism f is the preimage under f of the zero element of the codomain. Finally, for this last notion of kernel is generalised in a certain sense in category theory; the kernel of a morphism f is the difference kernel of f and the corresponding zero morphism (if this exists). www.yourencyclopedia.net /Kernel_(mathematics)   (242 words)

 [No title] Parts of the kernel remained untapped, bugs were left unfixed, kernel improvements had to be postponed, and kexts still sometimes broke. Now imagine 50 different threads all trying to get the kernel lock at the same time and you have what is known as "lock contention." The lock itself is also known as a "funnel" because it conceptually funnels all of the contending threads into a single, serialized stream of activity. As a consequence of the kernel's new multi-threading abilities, kernel extension writers have to be absolutely sure not to assume that they are the only process allowed in their part of the kernel at any given time. arstechnica.com /reviews/os/macosx-10.4.ars/4   (2498 words)

 KernelTrap Kernel panic - (RedHat - migrating from RH... The kernel can always access all of memory, but in some cases part of that memory will be available as high memory that needs to be mapped in first (see references to kmap() and kmap_atomic() in the kernel). Kernel panic - (RedHat - migrating from RHEL 3.0... kerneltrap.org   (1834 words)

 Digital Hermit - Kernel-Build-HOWTO This said, the newest Linux kernel (2.6.5 as of this writing) has noticeable improvements for the typical desktop user as a result of the improved scheduling system in the new kernel. Even for older kernels, rebuilding is often necessary for low memory situations, esoteric hardware, and in cases where every ounce of performance must be extracted. The Linux kernel is often likened to the conductor in an orchestra. www.digitalhermit.com /linux/Kernel-Build-HOWTO.html   (5411 words)

 kernel - a Whatis.com definition The kernel is the essential center of a computer operating system, the core that provides basic services for all other parts of the operating system. A kernel can be contrasted with a shell, the outermost part of an operating system that interacts with user commands. Kernel and shell are terms used more frequently in Unix operating systems than in IBM mainframe or Microsoft Windows systems. whatis.techtarget.com /definition/0,289893,sid9_gci212439,00.html   (273 words)

 Welcome to KernelNewbies.org This project is mostly about the Linux kernel, but discussion about other kernels is welcome too, especially if the source code of that other kernel is freely available, so everybody can learn. The audience mostly consists of people who are learning about the kernel, working on kernel projects or professional kernel hackers that want to help less seasoned kernel people. However, discussions totally unrelated to the kernel should not by held in this channel; the #offtopic channel is the right place for that. www.kernelnewbies.org   (530 words)

 Kernel Planet This will help the company by allowing kernel developers to help out with drivers and code before it is released to the general public, which will help them with their deadlines of releasing working drivers at the same time hardware is available. Kernel developers and subsystem maintainers will be willing to provide training on what the proper procedures are, and case studies of what has failed in the past, and why. The kernel developers are much better at writing code than documenting it, and if there was someone watching over this, and bugging the developers to keep it up to date when it lapses, it would help out immensely. planet.kernel.org   (12761 words)

 Kernel Traffic "Kernel Traffic" is the name of the overall collection of newsletters, and also the name of the original newsletter by Zack Brown that got the project started. Kernel Traffic is grateful to be developed on a computer donated by Professor Greg Benson and Professor Allan Cruse in the Department of Computer Science at the University of San Francisco. Kernel Traffic is hosted by the generous folks at kernel.org. www.kerneltraffic.org   (725 words)

 Kernel Traffic #335 For 27 Nov    (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19) As soon a new kernel is released a two weeks windows is open, during this period of time maintainers can submit big diffs to Linus (usually the patched sitted in -mm kernels for a few weeks). The current kernel development model is to merge stuff early, which hopefully motivates the people who _do_ test -rc kernels to actually test -rc1, since they know that that's the one that has _all_ the really relevant goodies. We release the final 2.6.x kernel with as much testing as we can, but it's just an undeniable fact that a lot of people will try that kernel only after the release, and often it might be weeks after the release. www.kerneltraffic.org /kernel-traffic/latest.html   (6745 words)

 NetBSD Documentation: Kernel Since these kernels tend to include support for all the available device drivers and many models of machines that you are not using, you are encouraged to compile your own custom kernel. This is compounded by kernel compiles using the -O2 optimisation level which tells the compiler to use extra memory and time to make the kernel as fast as possible. Since GENERIC kernels are used for basic installation, it is important that they be stable and known to work; as such, device drivers that are not yet stable are not compiled into GENERIC kernels by default. www.netbsd.org /Documentation/kernel   (2815 words)

 The Linux Kernel Archives This is the primary site for the Linux kernel source, but it has much more than just Linux kernels. May 12, 2005: There is now an RSS feed available to track the latest kernel versions. The Linux kernel, as well as several other pieces of software, are maintained using the git source code control system. kernel.org   (1276 words)

 Kernel Newsflash This document is for the 2.2, 2.4 and 2.5 series kernels. This is the same kernel (other than a name change) as the new development kernel (2.5.0). Alan's kernels are available from ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/people/alan/ or a mirror near you. www.atnf.csiro.au /~rgooch/linux/docs/kernel-newsflash.html   (1033 words)

 The Linux Kernel Hackers' Guide   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19) Go read The Linux Kernel if you want an introduction to the Linux kernel that is better than the KHG. The great majority of the code in the kernel is new device drivers; between 1.2.13 and 2.0 the size of the source code more than doubled, and most of that was from adding device drivers. I struggled along with the help of many other hackers to produce a document that lived primarily on paper, and was intended to document the kernel in much the same way that a program's user guide is intended to document the program for users. www.tldp.org /LDP/khg/HyperNews/get/khg.html   (2050 words)

 Linux Links - The Linux Portal: Kernel It enables many kernel enhancements, which are otherwise self-contained, to become loadable kernel modules and retain a substantial degree of independence from the kernel source Kernel Spinlock Metering for Linux: used to instruct the kernel to turn lock metering on or off, and to retrieve the metering data from the kernel and display it in a human-readable format Kernel changes do the monitoring of syscalls, filesystem actions, and processes, and they implement the communication protocol. www.linuxlinks.com /Kernel   (1337 words)

 Running a Kernel Using the kernel directly may be preferred for performing very large calculations since all memory is available to the kernel. When you run a remote kernel, remember that kernel commands involving files act on the remote computer's file system, not the local computer's file system. This procedure assumes that your computer is recognized as a "trusted host" by the remote machine, which means that you don't have to give your password to launch the remote kernel. documents.wolfram.com /v4/GettingStarted/RunningaKernelDirectly.html   (637 words)

 kernel - Glossary - CNET.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19) Modern operating systems are typically built in layers, with each layer adding new capabilities, such as disk access techniques or a graphical user interface. But the essential layer, the foundation on which the rest of the operating system rests, is typically called a kernel. In general, the kernel provides low-level services, such as memory management, basic hardware interaction, and security. www.cnet.com /Resources/Info/Glossary/Terms/kernel.html   (60 words)

 Installing the kernel and sound drivers The kernel is the core of linux and provides all services that programs need to interface with the hardware. This kernel is the one that has the best low latency performace but it may happen that it cannot run in your hardware (or has problems). The new kernel includes the latest ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface) at that should make power management work on newer laptops, but I have seen one laptop that did not like the ACPI enabled kernel and had to be rebooted with acpi turned off for the fan to work. ccrma.stanford.edu /planetccrma/software/installkernelandsound.html   (2864 words)

 Debian -- kernel-package   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19) In general, this package is very useful if you need to create a custom kernel, if, for example, the default kernel does not support some of your hardware, or you wish a leaner, meaner kernel. It also scripts the steps that need be taken to compile the kernel, which is quite convenient (forgetting a crucial step once was the initial motivation for this package). If you are running on an intel x86 platform, and you wish to compile a custom kernel (why else are you considering this package?), then you may need the package bin86 as well. packages.debian.org /testing/misc/kernel-package.html   (227 words)

 LWN: Kernel development According to Andrew Morton's September 5 kernel status report, there is quite a bit of stuff yet to be merged, so we may not see 2.6.14-rc1 for a few more days. The 2.6.6 kernel contained, among many other things, a patch implementing single-page (4K) kernel stacks on the x86 architecture. Cutting the kernel stack size in half reduces the kernel's per-process overhead and eliminates a major consumer of multi-page allocations. lwn.net /Articles/149977   (1506 words)

 Kernel Encyclopedia Article, Information, History and Biography @ OurLocalColor.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19) Looking For kernel - Find kernel and more at Lycos Search. Kernel (serbia's leading dnb producers and djs - Phase and Toxic, also known as Codex) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. www.ourlocalcolor.com /encyclopedia/Kernel   (231 words)

 Open Directory - Computers: Software: Operating Systems: Linux: Kernel   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19) Kernel Documents - Index of online documents and printed books, with keywords and descriptions. Kernel Newsflash - List of known bugs, organized by version number. Kernel Traffic - A weekly summary of the high volume linux-kernel mailing list. dmoz.org /Computers/Software/Operating_Systems/Linux/Kernel   (362 words)

 Kernel Drivers - where Windows Drivers are built - device drivers, kernel drivers, filesyste filters, storage devices, ... Kernel Drivers - where Windows Drivers are built - device drivers, kernel drivers, filesyste filters, storage devices, network, NDIS, USb Whether you require a day or a year of consulting time, we can help you to get your project up and running. Relying on years of experience in the Windows kernel, we can assist your engineering team to make the right architectural choices now. www.kerneldrivers.com   (126 words)

 Kernel The word kernel can mean more than one thing. The kernel of an operating system is its essential component, such as the Linux kernel. In mathematics, kernel has several different, somewhat unrelated meanings; see kernel (mathematics), or go directly to kernel of a function, kernel (algebra), or kernel (category theory). www.brainyencyclopedia.com /encyclopedia/k/ke/kernel.html   (156 words)

 List of mirror aliases by country If the country you are located in is not listed, select a country that is close to you, network-wise. We either need the IP number or the.lkams.kernel.org address used in the lists of sites (click on a country) in order to identify the failing site, since most of the standard names are ambiguous and/or change with time. The Linux Kernel Archives Mirror System currently consists of 119 sites in 49 countries or territories. www.kernel.org /mirrors   (298 words)

 [No title] The kernel is at the core of the operating system. Noel Davis shows us the Lion worm; a race condition in the Linux kernel; buffer overflows in several SCO Unix utilities; a new version of MySQL that fixes a major security problem; vulnerabilities in some Cisco routers, switches, and concentrators; and problems with Raptor Firewall, CrazyWWWBoard, Solaris tip, and Pitbull LX. While much of this material is similar to what might be covered in any guide to the UNIX kernel, there is specific information about issues relating to a PC architecture such as PCI and interrupt handling. www.linuxdevcenter.com /topics/linux/kernal   (774 words)

 Kernel (Java 2 Platform SE v1.4.2) The X origin and Y origin indicate the kernel matrix element that corresponds to the pixel position for which an output value is being computed. Returns the kernel data in row major order. For further API reference and developer documentation, see Java 2 SDK SE Developer Documentation. java.sun.com /j2se/1.4/docs/api/java/awt/image/Kernel.html   (164 words)

 Kernel @ LINUXWORLD MAGAZINE   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19) The new Linux 2.6.6 kernel, a maintenance release correcting vulnerabilities existing in previous releases, was released this week. Alan Cox, second most influential Linux kernel hacker after Linus Torvalds, is going to take a year off from his work at Red Hat maintaining the 2.2 kernel and will study for an MBA...plus perfect his Welsh. The Linux 2.6 kernel is expected to be released this summer, bringing not only a huge improvement in performance but also big cost savings to the many enterprises ready to migrate from Unix. linux.sys-con.com /read/category/31.htm   (1595 words)

 definition of kernel The essential part of a seed; all that is within the seed walls; the edible substance contained in the shell of a nut; hence, anything included in a shell, husk, or integument; as, the kernel of a nut. A single seed or grain; as, a kernel of corn. The central, substantial or essential part of anything; the gist; the core; as, the kernel of an argument. www.brainydictionary.com /words/ke/kernel182291.html   (280 words)

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