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Topic: Key cryptography

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In the News (Fri 19 Jul 19)

  Public-key cryptography - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Public key cryptography is a form of cryptography which generally allows users to communicate securely without having prior access to a shared secret key, by using a pair of cryptographic keys, designated as public key and private key, which are related mathematically.
For most of the history of cryptography, a key had to be kept absolutely secret and would be agreed upon beforehand using a secure, but non-cryptographic, method; for example, a face-to-face meeting or a trusted courier.
Whatever the cryptographic assurance of the protocols themselves, the association between a public key and its owner is ultimately a matter of subjective judgement on the part of the trusted third party, since the key is a mathematical entity whilst the owner and the connection between owner and key is not.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Public_key   (2092 words)

 Public Key Cryptography
Cryptography is an algorithmic process of converting a plain text (or clear text) message to a cipher text (or cipher) message based on an algorithm that both the sender and receiver know, so that the cipher text message can be returned to its original, plain text form.
In asymmetric key cryptography, one key is used for encryption and another, mathematically related key, is used for decryption.
Further, public key cryptography is used in situations where the recipient of a message must have confidence that the message received was received as intended by the sender and has not been altered or forged in any manner.
www.sei.cmu.edu /str/descriptions/publickey_body.html   (2079 words)

 The Risks Of "Key Recovery," "Key Escrow," And "Trusted Third-Party" Encryption | 1998
Key recovery might serve a wide spectrum of access requirements, from a backup mechanism that ensures a business' continued access to its own encrypted archive in the event keys are lost, to providing covert law enforcement access to wiretapped encrypted telephone conversations.
Key recovery is sometimes also called "key escrow." The term "escrow" became popular in connection with the U.S. government's Clipper Chip initiative, in which a master key to each encryption device was held "in escrow" for release to law enforcement.
Key recoverability, to the extent it has a private-sector application at all, is useful only for the keys used to protect irreproducible stored data.
www.cdt.org /crypto/risks98   (10616 words)

 Why Use Private-Key Cryptography?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Basically, because the known algorithms for doing public-key cryptography are very slow, relative to the private-key algorithms.
The running time for encryption using a private key is slightly superlinear in the keysize: for instance, with IDEA, the keysize is 128 bits, the slowest basic operations are the multiplications, and there are 4 of those per round.
To be immune to linear-differential cryptanalysis, the number of rounds should probably scale with the logarithm of the number of bits you're using for a key.
www.scs.carleton.ca /~schriste/crypto/WhyPrivate.html   (486 words)

 How PGP works
Public key cryptography is an asymmetric scheme that uses a pair of keys for encryption: a public key, which encrypts data, and a corresponding private, or secret key for decryption.
In a public key environment, it is vital that you are assured that the public key to which you are encrypting data is in fact the public key of the intended recipient and not a forgery.
You can check that a certificate is valid by calling the key's owner (so that you originate the transaction) and asking the owner to read his or her key's fingerprint to you and verifying that fingerprint against the one you believe to be the real one.
www.pgpi.org /doc/pgpintro   (6772 words)

 RSA Security - 2.1.1 What is public-key cryptography?
In traditional cryptography, the sender and receiver of a message know and use the same secret key; the sender uses the secret key to encrypt the message, and the receiver uses the same secret key to decrypt the message.
The only requirement is that public keys be associated with their users in a trusted (authenticated) manner (for instance, in a trusted directory).
For instance, some public-key cryptosystems are designed such that deriving the private key from the public key requires the attacker to factor a large number, it this case it is computationally infeasible to perform the derivation.
www.rsasecurity.com /rsalabs/node.asp?id=2165   (663 words)

 Cryptography FAQ (06/10: Public Key Cryptography)
Intrinsic to public key cryptography is a `trapdoor function' D_K with the properties that computation in one direction (encryption, E_K) is easy and in the other is virtually impossible (attack, determining P from encryption E_K(P) and public key X).
The session key approach blurs the distinction between `keys' and `messages' -- in the scheme, the message includes the key, and the key itself is treated as an encryptable `message'.
Keys are quadruples (p,q,e,d), with p a 256-bit prime number, q a 258-bit prime number, and d and e large numbers with (de - 1) divisible by (p-1)(q-1).
www.faqs.org /faqs/cryptography-faq/part06   (1816 words)

 PKCS, Public-Key Cryptography Standards
The Public-Key Cryptography Standards are specifications produced by RSA Laboratories in cooperation with secure systems developers worldwide for the purpose of accelerating the deployment of public-key cryptography.
A modern branch of cryptography, popularly known as "public-key cryptography", in which the algorithms employ a pair of keys and use a different component of the pair for different steps of the algorithm.
Key pairs for data confidentiality may be generated, and perhaps escrowed, by CAs or RAs, but requiring a PKI client to generate its own digital signature key pair helps maintain system integrity of the cryptographic system, because then only the client ever possesses the private key it uses.
www.networksorcery.com /enp/data/pkcs.htm   (1055 words)

Rather than using the same key to both encrypt and decrypt the data, the RSA system uses a matched pair of encryption and decryption keys.
Since the public key of the sender was used to verify the signature, the text must have been signed with the private key known only by the sender.
This way, only one Public Key, that of the certifying authority, has to be centrally stored or widely publicized, since then everyone else can simply transmit their Public Key and valid Digital ID with their messages.
www.verisign.com /docs/pk_intro.html   (1070 words)

 Netsurfer Focus on Cryptography and Privacy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Cryptography in the computer age typically involves the translation of the original message into a new and incomprehensible one by a mathematical algorithm using a specific "key".
Unlike private key or symmetric encryption where a single key is used for both encryption and decryption, public key (or asymmetric) encryption uses a public key-private key pair.
Public key cryptography enables digital signatures that verify the authenticity of a document, confirms the authorization of the sender, and non-repudiation of the transaction - all critical components to financial transactions.
www.netsurf.com /nsf/v01/03/nsf.01.03.html   (4210 words)

 CS 513 System Security -- Public Key Cryptography
In public key cryptography, some keys are known to everyone, so it would seem that the key distribution problem vanishes.
That secret key is then encrypted using public key cryptography, and the encrypted message and key are sent.
B sends this encrypted string back to A. A trys each of the million keys on the message it receives from B. The one that decrypts the message and obtains the pre-arranged string is the secret key that A will use henceforth to communicate with B. A wiretapper C could steal the million puzzles.
www.cs.cornell.edu /courses/cs513/2000SP/L26.html   (2205 words)

 What is public-key encryption? - A Word Definition From the Webopedia Computer Dictionary
An important element to the public key system is that the public and private keys are related in such a way that only the public key can be used to encrypt messages and only the corresponding private key can be used to decrypt them.
What's needed, therefore, is a global registry of public keys, which is one of the promises of the new LDAP technology.
Public key cryptography was invented in 1976 by Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman.
www.webopedia.com /TERM/P/public_key_cryptography.html   (533 words)

 Public Key Cryptography Explained   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
They described a radically new kind of code in which the key used to encrypt a message would be different from the key used to decrypt it.
The key was a 56-bits in length (2^56 or 7.205759403793e+16 different possibilities) and a group named bovine cracked the code.
The plaintext encoded secret key message was: "It's time to move to a longer key length." [Melski] This is quite true.
www.ccs.neu.edu /home/tdunn/honors   (1690 words)

 Private-Key Cryptography (Linktionary term)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Secret-key encryption uses one key, the secret key, that is used to both encrypt and decrypt messages.
The term "private key" is often used inappropriately to refer to the secret key.
With public-key encryption, a user has two keys, one that is made public and one that is held privately.
www.linktionary.com /p/priv_key_cryp.html   (126 words)

 Cryptography: Middle of Nowhere Collection
Public Key Cryptography by James Nechvatal This publication presents a state-of-the-art survey of public- key cryptography circa 1988 - 1990.
The Cryptography Project by Dorothy Denning The purpose of the Cryptography Project is to promote the development and use of encryption products that meet the security and privacy needs of users and the public safety, law enforcement, and national security needs of nations.
PGP Privacy Wars by Deborah Russel Cryptography used to be an arcane subject of interest only to the most secret military and intelligence agencies and to a handful of academics.
virtualschool.edu /mon/Crypto   (3469 words)

 Public-key cryptography   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
They described a system for encoding and decoding messages where the ``key'' for encoding could be made publicly known without fear that the ``hidden key'' for decoding messages could be discovered.
In other words, given only the public key and possibly an unlimited amount of encoded messages, it should be computationally infeasible to find the hidden key and thereby decipher the messages.
Thus, anyone in possession of the public key may encode messages, but only someone with the hidden key may decode them.
www.math.okstate.edu /~wrightd/crypt/crypt-intro/node16.html   (181 words)

 EPIC Archive - Cryptography Policy
Civil liberties and privacy advocates strongly oppose any attempts to require key escrow, key recovery or other means of accessing encryption keys, arguing that they are an unjustified restriction of individuals' fundamental privacy rights, detrimental to security, costly, subject to massive abuse, and ultimately ineffective crime prevention methods.
National Research Council, Cryptography's Role in Securing the Information Society (May 1996), NRC press release -- overview and recommendations -- full text of report.
Michael Froomkin, The Metaphor is the Key: Cryptography, the Clipper Chip and the Constitution, The University of Pennsylvania Law Review (January 1995).
www.epic.org /crypto   (508 words)

 Public Key Cryptography Demystified: Campus Technology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Public key technology has an important role to play in helping us protect our information and to be able to rely on the network to handle transactions of increasing value.
The certificate data structure is signed with the private key of the issuer so that a recipient can verify the identity of the signer and prove that data in the certificate has not been altered.
Public key certificates are then published, often in an institutional LDAP directory, so that users of the PKI can locate the certificate for an individual with whom they wish to communicate securely.
www.campus-technology.com /article.asp?id=7626   (2006 words)

 Don Davis' Publications in Cryptography and Computer Security
A public-key security system trusts its users to validate each others' public keys rigorously and to manage their own private keys securely.
A "compliance defect" in a cryptosystem is such a rule of operation that is both difficult to follow and unenforceable.
This paper presents five compliance defects that are inherent in public-key cryptography; these defects make public-key cryptography more suitable for server-to-server security than for desktop applications.
world.std.com /~dtd   (1692 words)

 JEP: A Primer on Public-Key Cryptography
Cryptography, the stuff of spy movies and dramatic World War II victories, is also important to electronic publishing.
The L and R keys have to be built at the same time, when the lock is first made.
Locking something using the R key is effectively Acme's signature: Bob can read the thing that was signed and can be confident that he knows who sent it.
www.press.umich.edu /jep/04-04/polito.html   (2408 words)

 Prehistory of Public Key Cryptography
Simmons was on his way to Australia to give a talk; he said he was immediately struck by the implications of this technique for nuclear weapons command and control -- his field -- so he tore up his talk and made up a new one on the plane.
In other words, non-repudiation -- a classic use for public key cryptography -- was important; if a bomb is used, they (or their heirs, or civilization's heirs...) want to know who ordered it.
Pending declassification of the rest of the memo, I suspect that this is the crucial seed that led to the invention of public key cryptography at NSA.
www.cs.columbia.edu /~smb/nsam-160   (816 words)

 MPKC 2003: Mathematics of Public-Key Cryptography
MPKC 2003 is sponsored by the National Science Foundation; the Illinois Center for Cryptography and Information Protection at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; and the Coordinated Science Lab at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
There is, however, a constantly expanding flow in the opposite direction, from cryptography to number theory.
Abstract: "We demonstrate that some finite fields, including GF(2^210), are weak for elliptic-curve cryptography in the sense that any instance of the elliptic-curve discrete-logarithm problem for any elliptic curve over these fields can be solved in significantly less time than it takes Pollard's rho method to solve the hardest instances.
mpkc2003.mwisc.org   (2229 words)

 Amazon.com: Books: RSA and Public-Key Cryptography   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Although a vast literature exists on the subject of RSA and public-key cryptography, until now there has been no single source that reveals recent developments in the area at an accessible level.
Acclaimed author Richard A. Mollin brings together all of the relevant information available on public-key cryptography (PKC), from RSA to the latest applications of PKC, including electronic cash, secret broadcasting, secret balloting systems, various banking and payment protocols, high security logins, smart cards, and biometrics.
He includes a number of illustrative and motivating examples, as well as optional topics that go beyond the basics, such as Lenstra's elliptic curve method and the number field sieve.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/1584883383?v=glance   (703 words)

 Key Management Standards   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The Federal Government currently has no standard for the establishment of cryptographic keys for unclassified applications.
A Second Key Management Workshop was held on November 1-2, 2001.
A key wrapping algorithm specification is available in.doc and.pdf formats (files updated 12/3/01).
csrc.nist.gov /encryption/kms   (135 words)

 The Cryptography Project
The Cryptography Project focuses on encryption policy, but some technology is also covered.
A Taxonomy for Key Key Recovery Encryption Systems - May 1997 paper on key recovery terminology and approaches - revised from A Taxonomy for Key Escrow Encryption Systems - March 1996 CACM - coauthored with Dennis Branstad
Cryptography and Liberty 1999: An International Survey of Encryption Policy by EPIC
www.cosc.georgetown.edu /~denning/crypto   (1532 words)

 The Metaphor is the Key: Cryptography, The Clipper Chip, and the Constitution
The Metaphor is the Key: Cryptography, The Clipper Chip, and the Constitution
Voluntary EES Is Unlikely to Displace Un-Escrowed Cryptography
Mandatory Escrow of a Key Is a Fourth Amendment "Search or Seizure"
www-swiss.ai.mit.edu /6095/articles/froomkin-metaphor/text.html   (193 words)

 IEEE P1363: Standard Specifications For Public Key Cryptography   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Posted new research contribution by T. Kwon proposing Revision of AMP in IEEE P1363.2 and ISO/IEC 11770-4 (June 8, 2005).
Posted revised draft PAR for Pairing Based Cryptography (June 4, 2005).
Other recent additions to this site can be found here.
grouper.ieee.org /groups/1363   (169 words)

 The Metaphor is the Key: Cryptography, The Clipper Chip, and the Constitution © 1995 A.Michael Froomkin   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The Metaphor is the Key: Cryptography, The Clipper Chip, and the Constitution © 1995 A.Michael Froomkin
This document is intended to be viewed with a frame capable Web browser.
Clicking here will take you to the noframes version.
osaka.law.miami.edu /~froomkin/articles/clipper.htm   (49 words)

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