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Topic: Khazaria

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  The Jews of Khazaria
The book aims to capture the history of Khazaria, a Jewish state near the Caspian sea that reigned between the 7th to 11th centuries, starting as a small tribe and growing in size and in power.
Khazaria was located roughly between of present day Hungary from its east and Persia in its west.
Khazaria kept peaceful ties with the Byzantine Empire to the South.
www.rechtman.com /khazaria.htm   (890 words)

  KHAZARS - LoveToKnow Article on KHAZARS   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-27)
They were the Venetians of the Caspian and the Euxine, the organizers of the transit between the two basins, the universal carriers between East and West; and Itil was the meeting-place of the commerce of Persia, Byzantium, Armenia, Russia and the Bulgarians of the middle Volga.
Khazaria became the apanage of his eldest son, and the centre of government amongst the eastern subjects of the Hun (448).
Throughout the 6th century Khazaria was the mere highway for the wild hordes to whom the Huns had opened the passage into Europe, and the Khazars took refuge (like the Venetians from Attila) amongst the seventy mouths of the Volga.
82.1911encyclopedia.org /K/KH/KHAZARS.htm   (2677 words)

 "Khazars" in Encyclopedia Britannica, 1897
Khazaria became the appanage of his eldest son, and the centre of government amongst the eastern subjects of the Hun (448).
Ten great invasions of Khazaria through the pass of Derbend are recorded, and many a retributive raid upon the Moslems; but in the end their fanaticism and enormous superiority of numbers prevailed.
The khakan and his chieftains were captured and compelled to embrace Islam (737), and till the decay of the Mohammedan empire Khazaria with all the other countries of the Caucasus paid an annual tribute of children and of corn (737-861).
khazaria.tripod.com /khazars-britannica.html   (2944 words)

 Kievan Rus Database (Khazaria)
Khazaria's remnants in the lower reaches of the Volga were known by the name of Saksins and did not play any perceptible role.
Khazaria was in the northwest of the Caspian Sea, near the portage between the lower reaches Volga and Don Rivers and the Caucasus.
In the letter of the Khazar kagan Joseph (purportedly from the second half of the 10th century), the Khazar state is described as bordering on the lands of the nomadic Ugrians in the north and on the Yaik River in the northeast.
members.aol.com /ingigerthr/Khazaria.html   (1402 words)

 Learn more about Khazaria in the online encyclopedia.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-27)
Khazaria also known as Khazar khaganate was the country of the Khazars, neighboring the Byzantine Empire in the southwest, Kievan Rus' in the northwest, and Azerbaijan in the southeast.
Much of Khazaria was covered by steppe land.
Khazaria bordered the Caspian Sea and Black Sea.
www.onlineencyclopedia.org /k/kh/khazaria.html   (182 words)

 Encyclopedia: Khazaria   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-27)
Cyril's visit to Khazaria, was the year of the conversion to Judaism.
The 2002 discovery of a coin hoard in Sweden further complicates the issue, as some of the coins bear dates from the early 800's and the legends "Ard al-Khazar" (Land of the Khazars) and "Moses is the Prophet of God".
Note also that the name "Khazaria" survived, at least for a time, as the general label for the region of Crimea and the lands beside the Sea of Azov utilized by Genoese merchant-colonizers in the area.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Khazaria   (4675 words)

 Khazars - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Cyril (who visited Khazaria in 861) did not identify the Khazars as Jews, the khagan of that period, Zachariah, had a biblical Hebrew name.
Ibn Fadlan relates that around 920 the Khazar ruler received information that Muslims had destroyed a synagogue in the land of Babung, in Iran; he gave orders that the minaret of the mosque in his capital should be broken off, and the muezzin executed.
The Schechter Letter relates the story of a campaign against Khazaria by HLGW (Oleg) around 941; this calls into question the timeline of the Primary Chronicle and other related works.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Khazaria   (6119 words)

Khazaria had an important Jewish community long before the conversion of the Kagan, or Khazar ruler, and nobles to Judaism.
Khazaria traditionally served as a gate between the Muslim lands and Eastern Europe.
The “bylina,“ heroic epics or folk songs from the Kiev period refer to Khazaria as a “country of Jews" or “Jewish heroes.“ By the middle of the thirteenth century the nation is heard of no more.
econc10.bu.edu /economic_systems/NatIdentity/FSU/Caucasus/khazaria.htm   (1537 words)

 CSJO: Congress of Secular Jewish Organizations   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-27)
Khazaria was an important trading center, on the crossroads of the trade routes between Europe and China.
At about the same time, in a global version of musical chairs, a tribe called the Pechenegs located in the area between the Volga and the Ural rivers and also ruthless according to Emperor Constantine, were retreating in advance of an onslaught from their neighbors to the east, the Ghuzz.
According to Martin Gilbert, Jews migrated from Khazaria to Lithuania in 1016, and Jews from Vilnius claim Khazar ancestry.
www.csjo.org /pages/khazars.php   (2878 words)

 An Alternate History of the   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-27)
This causes obvious problems for trading and Khazaria is forced to trade within itself and to the Mongols who control the Moscow area and most of the areas east of that.
Khazaria protests strongly since this is the only water outlet to the rest of the world.
This was a surprise for Khazaria and Allies.
www.althist.com /khanate.htm   (4661 words)

 Samandar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Samandar (also Semender) was a city in Khazaria on the western edge of the Caspian Sea, south of Atil and north of the Caucasus.
It was inhabited by Jews, Christians, Muslims, and members of other religious faiths, and had houses of worship for each faith.
From the 720s to about 750, Samandar served as the capital of Khazaria.
www.wikipedia.org /wiki/Samandar   (113 words)

 Child Toy-The Rabbi King- David of Khazaria   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-27)
Khazaria was finally wiped out by the forces of Ghengis Khan, but evidence indicates that the Khazars, themselves migrated to...
The empire of Khazaria, a Turkish state in southern Russia which converted to Judaism in the 700's, boasted an advanced civilization and a history which spanned from the early 600's until its destruction by the emerging Russian state in the late 900's and early 1000's.
His Khazaria is a collection of villages and wandering tribes struggling to fend off their external foes while simultaneously having to deal with internal dissention.
www.go2share.net /z_toygame/A_the_rabbi_king_david-0738840114.htm   (578 words)

 TroyRutter.com - Books : The Jews of Khazaria   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-27)
The Jews of Khazaria recounts the eventful history of the Kingdom of Khazaria, which was located in Eastern Europe and flourished as an independent state from about the year 650 to the year 1016.
Considering how little is known about Khazaria, how much history has been either censored or re-written by the former Soviet Union, and the relatively sparse amount of archaelogical work that has been conducted in the region, Brook brings much information to light, detailing the tribal and linguistic origins of the Khazars.
Khazaria was located roughly between of present day Hungary from its east and Persia...
www.troyrutter.com /0765762129/The_Jews_of_Khazaria.htm   (463 words)

 The Jews of Khazaria by Kevin Alan Brook : Booksamillion.com (0765762129, Paperback)
The Jews of Khazaria presents the full history of the Khazars, a Turkic people who founded a large empire in eastern Europe in the early Middle Ages.
Khazaria was an economic and cultural superpower which was connected to several important trade routes and was one of the largest-sized political formations of its time.
Khazaria was the only nation in its region with a permanent standing army.
www.booksamillion.com /ncom/books?isbn=0765762129   (249 words)

 An Introduction to the History of Khazaria
Jews were able to flourish in Khazaria because of the tolerance of the Khazar rulers, who invited Byzantine and Persian Jewish refugees to settle in their country.
Khazaria was an important trade route connecting Asia and Europe.
Saint Cyril came to Khazaria in 860 in a Byzantine attempt to convert the Khazars to Christianity, but he was unsuccessful in converting them away from Judaism.
www.khazaria.com /khazar-history.html   (2374 words)

Besides the Jewish population already living in Khazaria, a large number of Jews persecuted in the Byzantine Empire and other areas fled to that land of freedom and prosperity.
Even though Khazars were excellent warriors and imposed their rule over several warlike peoples, Khazaria was one of the most pacific states in the world, and had the most advanced justice system.
Khazaria prevented Islam from spreading north of the Caucasus Mountains and thanks to this, all of Eastern Europe has not been overrun by the Arabs and become Islamic.
www.imninalu.net /Khazars.htm   (3270 words)

 Khazaria (586-1083 AD) - DBA 93
Khazaria served as the western anchor of the northern Silk Road for several centuries, specifically 7th through 10th, as well as a major buffer state between the Christian and Islamic worlds.
Khazaria was ruled (at least symbolicly) by the Khagan (also Kagan or Gaghan) who hailed from a "royal" Khazarian lineage.
Kevin Brook's excellent book, The Jews of Khazaria, not only pulls together all the past research in a comprehensive and critical manner, but also brings to light the latest of the ongoing research into this fascinating empire of the steppes.
www.fanaticus.org /DBA/armies/dba93.html   (1661 words)

 Re: [CTRL] Khazaria.......
This fact is revealed in the strange correspondence between the khagan Joseph, the last Jewish king of Khazaria, and Hasdai Ibn Shaprut, the celebrated Jewish vizier to the caliph in southern Spain.
In 969, the Khazars were driven out of the entire Caspian Sea region and retreated into the Bosporus region of the Black Sea where, in a smaller and more compact area, they were able to stem the advance of the invaders.
After the fall of the Jewish kingdom of Khazaria, they continued to arrive, fleeing from the Russian boyars of Kiev who after several centuries of vassalage to the Jewish kings had finally risen in revolt and conquered them.
www.mail-archive.com /ctrl@listserv.aol.com/msg10816.html   (1710 words)

 Anti-Globalist: Eduard Hodos: The Jewish Syndrome-3: The Second Khazaria   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-27)
The beginning of the creation of the second, atheistic Khazaria was marked by the Russia-wide pogrom which echoed from one end of the endless Orthodox Christian Empire to the other.
The main blow was aimed at the Orthodox Church and the monarchy in the person of the Anointed One, the last Russian Emperor Nicholas II and his family.
The breakneck pace with which the Second Khazaria was built was accompanied by a "shock wave" of destruction of Christian shrines.
oag.ru /library/hodos/js3-3.html   (1475 words)

 The Khazars Kingdom, Gog and Magog, Jewish Khazars   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-27)
Yet upon closer scrutiny this kingdom, known as Khazaria, or the Kingdom of the Khazars, is clearly revealed in a vast body of historical evidence, much of which has come to light only in the last three to five decades.
He "with his nobles dismounted from their horses," says Gibbon, "...and fell prostrate on the ground, to adore the purple of the Caesar." So enamored was the Byzantine Emperor with this display of obeisance that it eventually led to the offer, along with many riches, of the Caesar's daughter Eudocia in marriage.
This, and internal factions within Khazaria, was the prolog to the scattering of the Khazar/Jewish seed throughout Russia and eastern Europe -- and eventually, as shall be shown, to the reshaping of world history.
thewinds.org /library/khazars.html   (7194 words)

 The New York Review of Books: APPOINTMENT IN KHAZARIA
By the time Khazaria was defeated by Prince Sviatoslav in the 960s, Khazaria consisted of a largely Moslem population with a very thin Jewish ruling overlordship, numerically insignificant, and which rapidly disappeared from the scene.
During the two centuries of Jewish rule in Khazaria, several hundred, possibly thousand, Karaite Jews (a new sect) were forced to leave Bagdad, where, throughout the ninth century, they suffered increasing prejudice at the hands of local Jews.
Nevertheless, it did not originate from Khazaria but from the Crimea; when it reached Eastern Europe, Jewry from Central Europe had already taken root; and, finally, in its Karaite form, it remained distinct from the mainstream of Judaism which was ethnically and culturally European in its origins.
www.nybooks.com /articles/8646   (1194 words)

 Los Khazares
Este reino, llamado Khazaria, era uno de los países más interesantes y influyentes del mundo medieval, mostrando un gran poder en asuntos económicos y diplomáticos.
Khazaria representó "el esfuerzo más significativo en la búsqueda del establecimiento de un estado judío independiente en la Diáspora", según señaló el ex - presidente de Israel, Itzhak Ben-Zvi, en su libro " Los Exiliados y los Redimidos".
Pero aun después del otoño final de Khazaria en el siglo 11, allí seguían habiendo muchos Khazares que continuaban siendo judíos.
www.jajz-ed.org.il /spanish/los_khazares.htm   (1553 words)

 Khazaria.com - History of Jewish Khazars, Khazar Turk, Khazarian Jews
Khazaria News is a free email newsletter that discusses the latest news in Khazar studies, including new archaeological discoveries, new books, new conference reports, and new exhibitions.
The second link presents the display on 8th-9th century Khazar objects (including arms and armor) from the northwestern Caucasus from the March-September 2003 exhibit "Horse and Rider" at the State Historical Museum in Moscow.
Sarkel's fortress was one of Khazaria's most important, serving both as a defensive structure and a trading caravan stopover.
www.khazaria.com   (1829 words)

 wiki/Khazaria Definition / wiki/Khazaria Research   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-27)
Joseph was the son of Aaron the Mighty, a Khazar ruler who defeated a Byzantine-inspired war against Khazaria on numerous fronts.
The Schechter Letter relates the story of a campaign against Khazaria by HLGW (Oleg) around 941; this calls into question the timeline of the Primary Russian Chronicle and other related works.
Whilst at Baghdad [I] saw ambassadors from the kings of Meshech, for Magog (n.b.- medieval Christian writers said that the Khazars lived in the land of Gog and MagogGog and Magog are, respectively, the names of a mysterious Biblical land and its people, who feature in apocalyptic prophecy.
www.elresearch.com /wiki/Khazaria   (14079 words)

 The Khazars    (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-27)
Their kings had names like Yosef and Aharon and one of their generals was named Pesach after the Jewish holiday that was celebrated around his birth.
This kingdom, called Khazaria, was one of the most interesting and influential countries of the medieval world, wielding great power over economic and diplomatic affairs.
Khazaria was "the most significant attempt at the establishment of an independent Jewish state in the Diaspora", according to former Israeli President Itzhak Ben-Zvi in his book The Exiled and the Redeemed. 
www.wzo.org.il /discussion/articles/khazars.htm   (2417 words)

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