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Topic: Khitan

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In the News (Thu 25 Apr 19)

  Khitan scripts and language
The Khitan people, who dominated a large chunk of Manchuria between 916 and 1125 AD, used two different scripts - the "large script", which came into use in about 920 AD, the "small script", which was reputedly created in about 925 AD by the Khitan scholar Diela, who was inspired by the Uighur alphabet.
The two scripts were used in parallel and appear to have little in common in terms of the forms of the characters and the ways they were assembled into compound characters.
Khitan, an extinct Altaic language which was once spoken in Manchuria.
www.omniglot.com /writing/khitan.htm   (185 words)

The Khitan, in Chinese Qidan (契丹 Pinyin: qi4 dan1) or Zhendan (震旦 zhen4 dan1), were an ethnic group who dominated much of Manchuria and classified in Chinese history as one of the Eastern Hu ethnic groups (東胡族 dong1 hu2 zu2).
Ancestors of Khitans was the Yuwen clan of the Xianbei.
The former was derived from Chinese, and the latter was apparently inspired by the Uighur alphabet.
www.teachersparadise.com /ency/en/wikipedia/k/kh/khitan.html   (286 words)

 Jilbab Online - Portal Muslimah Indonesia
Karena ada riwayat yang shahih bahwa Nabi shallallahu `alaihi wa salam berkata kepada wanita tukang khitan:
Maka penduduk Masyriq diperintah untuk khitan karena pada wanita mereka ada bagian yang bisa dipotong ketika khitan, sedangkan penduduk Maghrib tidak diperintah khitan karena tidak ada bagian tersebut pada wanita mereka.
Jadi hal ini kembali pada kandungan ta'lil (sebab/alasan)".Maksud perkataan beliau adalah bahwa ada sebagian wanita yang tidak ada pada mereka bagian yang bisa dipotong ketika khitan yaitu apa yang diistilahkan klitoris (kelentit).
www.jilbab.or.id /index.php?option=content&task=view&id=487   (1117 words)

 The Northern Frontier
In the winter of 1010, an army of 400,000 Khitan troops left the Naewon-song Fortress under the personal command of Emperor Shengzong and marched across the frozen Yalu River into the Koryo frontier.
Khitan combat troops under the command of General Xiao Baiya held two cities on the Koryo side of the Yalu River in anticipation of taking the region of the Six Garrison Settlements by force.
The Khitan were beset by continuous harassing attacks, forcing General Xiao to abandon all thoughts of conquest.
www.koreanhistoryproject.org /Ket/C05/E0501.htm   (2180 words)

 Khitan - China-related Topics KE-KH - China-Related Topics
As the Khitan language is still almost completely illegible, it is difficult to create a detailed history of their movements.
Ancestors of the Khitan were the Yuwen clan of the Xianbei, an ethnic group situated in the area covered by the modern Liaoning and Jilin provinces.
The Khitan were known as خطا in Arabic (Khata) and are mentioned by Muslim chroniclers as they initially fought with Muslims and later converted to Islam.
www.famouschinese.com /virtual/Khitan   (353 words)

 Khitan language - Biocrawler   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The Khitan language is a now-extinct language once spoken by the Khitan people.
There were two writing systems for the Khitan language, known as the large script and the small script; they were functionally independent.
Although there are several clues to its origins, which might point to different origins, the Khitan language is most probably Mongolic, and its agglutinizing nature is not particularly suited to purely monosyllabic logographs.
www.biocrawler.com /encyclopedia/Khitan_script   (161 words)

 The Liao Dynasty
The Khitan thus sat in control of a wide swath of northern China that stretched from the Gulf of Bo Hai to the northern extent of the Ordos Plateau.
The Khitan launched their third major assault against the Jurchen in the Chongan territories along the mid-reaches of the Yalu River in 989.
The Khitan assault was quickly repulsed, but it had the effect of agitating the royal court to a state of near panic.
koreanhistoryproject.org /Ket/C04/E0406.htm   (2679 words)

 Relics Reveal Glory of Khitan Kingdom
Like the Mayans, the prosperous Khitans seemed to fall and disappear suddenly after their last king was captured by the enemy troops of the Jin Dynasty (1115-1234) established by Nuchen, another ethnic group in China.
In the exhibition entitled "Khitan Kingdom," which is held from June 10 to October 10 at the National Museum of Chinese History in Beijing, archaeologists are displaying the most precious relics of the Liao Dynasty (916-1125) unearthed in Inner Mongolia since the New China was founded in 1949.
Around Youzhou, the Khitan army was at constant war with the army of the Northern Song Dynasty (960-1127), as described in the legend Generals of the Yang Family.
www.china.org.cn /english/MATERIAL/34650.htm   (1168 words)

 Chinese History - Liao Dynasty (Khitan) 遼 literature, thought, philosophy, and the Khitan script ...
This first script is called the Large Khitan Script and borrows many Chinese characters without changing their original appearance, while also other characters are derived from a Chinese character and are changed slightly, and a third group of characters has no Chinese origin or counterpart but was invented independently.
But because the Khitan language is not related to the monosyllabic Chinese (one word - one syllable - one character) but belongs to the Altaic languages that are highly agglutinating (one word - many syllables) the Chinese logographic script does not provide an ideal writing system for Khitan.
Khitan princes, princesses, empresses and consorts were able to write Chinese poems, and some possessed large libraries like Yelü Bei 耶律倍 in his Wanghaitang Hall 望海堂 on top of Mt. Yiwulü 醫巫闭山.
www.chinaknowledge.de /History/Song/liao-literature.html   (1041 words)

 Relics Reveal Glory of Khitan Kingdom
"The Khitans are often regarded as bloodthirsty illiterates, due to the household Han legend 'Generals of the Yang Family,' and this exhibition is the first in China to display its grand culture," said Tala, archaeologist and deputy director of the Cultural Relic and Archaeology Research Institute of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
The Khitan army conquered, in the 10th century, the Bohai Kingdom (today's Northeast China), Northwest China's Gansu Province and the Gaoli Kingdom (northern part of the Korean Peninsula), according to the "History of Liao" published in the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368).
Featuring the colourful dresses of Khitan aristocrats, a gold belt with patterns of swimming dragons and a jade decoration with images of 12 animals are among the most eye-catching exhibits on display.
www.china.org.cn /english/TR-e/34573.htm   (1168 words)

 About China-History-Liao Dynasty
In 916, Yelu Abaoji, the chief of the Khitan tribe, established the Khitan Kingdom and proclaimed himself emperor.
For Khitan people, tribal system was adapted, in which they maintained their traditional rites and to a great extent retained their own style of cuisine and clothing.
The Khitan administrative system, called the orthodox system, was applied to Khitan officials who were called northern officials, while the Han administrative system was applied to the Han officials, who were called southern officials.
www.toureasy.net /html/aboutchina/ChineseHistory/Liao.htm   (1529 words)

 Spartanburg SC | GoUpstate.com | Spartanburg Herald-Journal   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The Khitan (or Khitai,) were an ethnic group which dominated much of Manchuria in the 10th century and has been classified by Chinese historians as one of the Eastern proto-Mongolic ethnic groups Donghu ().
The Korean kingdom of Silla was known by the Khitan to refer to themselves as a 'little China.' While their situation was not akin to that of Silla in a number of ways, they also did not want to fall into the same situation.
The Khitan were known as خطا in Arabic (Khata) and are mentioned by Muslim chroniclers, such as Ibn al-Athir, al-Thahabi and Ibn Khaldun.
www.goupstate.com /apps/pbcs.dll/section?category=NEWS&template=wiki&text=Khitans   (729 words)

 Khitan   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The Khitan, in Chinese Qidan (契丹 Pinyin: Qìdān), were an ethnic group who dominated much of Manchuria and classified in Chinese history as one of the Tungus ethnic groups (東胡族 dōng hú zú).
Kara-Khitai is the name given to the remnants of Khitans who escaped the conquest of the Jurchens and migrated to the Kara-Su.
The Khitan language is most probably Mongolic, however, and its agglutinizing nature is not particularly suited to purely monosyllabic logographs.
www.casimiro.com /wiki/en/wikipedia/k/kh/khitan.html   (275 words)

 Liao Dynasty - China History Forum, chinese history forum
Nonetheless, the Khitan language is generally classified as "proto-Mongol." Despite this, a considerable amount of the vocabulary of the Khitan language comes from Turkic-Uighur sources.
The Khitan people were sometimes subordinate to the Uighurs during the Tang Dynasty, but that ended when they (the Uighurs) moved to Xinjiang after A.D. It was then that they adopted writing from the Sogdian people (an Indo-European people) who used a form of the ancient Aramaic script.
It is from this tribe that Abaoji was born in 872 as the son of the Yila tribe chieftain.
www.chinahistoryforum.com /index.php?showtopic=779   (2584 words)

 Khitani   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The Khitans themselves mark their western boundary at the Great Wall and the mountains upon which it is built.
Each member of Khitan society has a place in the structure and codes of behavior which must be followed.
Khitan law flows from the overlord of the city-state.
hyboria.xoth.net /races/human_khitani.htm   (474 words)

 Cetak Berita
Pada anak yang tidak bisa menoleransi nyeri atau pertimbangan lain, prosedur khitan dilakukan dengan pembiusan umum.
Jadi, sebelum khitan, anak dianjurkan mengalami pemeriksaan hulu.
Sejauh ini tidak ada batasan umur melakukan khitan.
www.kompas.com /kirim_berita/print.cfm?nnum=78040   (523 words)

 Ancient Scripts: Khitan
Recall that Khitan was an Altaic language, and so it was highly polysyllabic (in contrast to Chinese's monosyllabic structure), so often words are written with more than one sign.
The Khitan state fell at 1125 CE, but the two scripts continued to be used until 1191.
Eventually part of the Khitan system was adopted into the Jurchen script.
www.ancientscripts.com /khitan.html   (436 words)

 Sunah, Khitan terhadap Kaum Perempuan
Sudah puluhan ribu peserta khitan massal dan belum pernah ada tekanan dari pihak luar seperti dua tahun terakhir ini," katanya.
"Dalam sebuah hadis Nabi Muhammad ditegaskan ada perkara yang merupakan fitrah manusia termasuk khitan baik bagi laki-laki maupun perempuan.
"Khitan perempuan di Afrika memang sudah melebihi batas karena melakukan pemotongan lalu dijahit sehingga wanita tidak bisa merasakan kepuasaan seksnya," ujarnya.
www.pikiran-rakyat.com /cetak/2005/0405/25/0302.htm   (389 words)

 The origins and history of the Khitan - China History Forum, chinese history forum
The Khitans (or "Qi Dan" in chnese) were a mongoloid ancient tribe that dwelled in the steppe of the Mongolia.
Later the Khitan was attacked by the Tuoba tribe (拓跋部) and escaped towards Huang river region.
Among the Khitan wall murals that we have found, there are quite a number depicting the process of breaking camp or returning to camp, showing that the Khitan did preserve their nomadic lifestyle to some extent.
www.chinahistoryforum.com /index.php?showtopic=11974   (5679 words)

 Liao Dynasty
The Liao Dynasty was established by the Khitan tribe (Qidan).
Since the Liao Dynasty was founded by the Khitan, the northern officials were considered superior, but the southern administrative system was actually the feudal system that was practiced in the Central Plain states.
The Khitan dialect and the Han language were the main languages of the Liao.
www.chinaculture.org /gb/en_aboutchina/2003-09/24/content_22814.htm   (1419 words)

 Chinese History - Liao Dynasty (Khitan) 遼 (www.chinaknowledge.de)
Already in the 10th century, they had developed an own script, modeled after the Chinese script, that was in fact not very suitable for an agglutinating language like that of the Khitan.
In 1120, the Song government established an alliance with the Jin empire 金 in Manchuria to attack the Liao empire.
They brought Chinese customs with them, and the high amount of Nestorian believers among them was the origin of the tale of the king-priest John in Inner Asia.
www.chinaknowledge.de /History/Song/liao.html   (413 words)

 The Historical Interaction between the Buddhist and Islamic Cultures before the Mongol Empire - Chapter 13
The Khitans followed a blend of the Han Chinese and Korean traditions of Buddhism together with their native form of shamanism.
The Khitan emperor, Xingzang (Hsing-tsang), took Buddhist precepts in 1039 and prohibited the sacrifice of horses and oxen at funerals in 1043.
Since the Khitans had been familiar with Han Chinese Buddhism for centuries before declaring their dynasty and also because the most extensive Buddhist literature was available in the Chinese language, Han civilization soon overshadowed Uighur elements as the main foreign influence on Khitan society.
www.berzinarchives.com /e-books/historic_interaction_buddhist_islamic/history_cultures_13.html   (2186 words)

 What happened to Khitan people? - Asia Finest Discussion Forum
The Khitan was a confederation of nomadic tribes living on the Mongolia steppe.
Khitan is also thought to be the origin of the word Cathay, which is what Marco Polo called China in his journals after living there from 1275 to 1292.
In 1120, the Song government established an alliance with the Jin empire 金 in Manchuria to attack the Liao empire.
www.asiafinest.com /forum/index.php?showtopic=62096   (1085 words)

 Gilded Splendor: Treasures of China’s Liao Empire (907-1125) - Art - Review - New York Times
The Khitan, a seminomadic people devoted to horses, hunting, archery and falconry, whose peripatetic emperors ruled from portable tent-houses called yurts, were certainly less cultivated than the established Han.
For a thousand years they were dismissed by Chinese historians as lacking a civilization of their own, but the Khitan have been redeemed by late-20th-century archaeological discoveries that reveal a culture far more complex than previously thought.
The simple but beautiful death masks peculiar to Khitan tradition — the ones worn by her and her husband are displayed — were fashioned from gold sheet, and precisely incised to convey facial features.
www.nytimes.com /2006/10/13/arts/design/13liao.html?ex=1318392000&en=8481abec2f0bb918&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss   (989 words)

 James DeW. Perry
This essay examines the foreign relations of the Khitans, a nomadic people of Inner Asia, with particular emphasis on Khitan relations with China and Chinese states from the time of the Sui dynasty through the Five Dynasties period.
The Khitan leadership consistently demonstrated sensitivity to the need to seek security with a more powerful ally when necessary, and to avoid conflict with stronger neighbors.
However, Khitan foreign policy can often be seen to extend well beyond Khitan capabilities, suggesting failures of strategic intelligence and military and political analysis.
www.people.fas.harvard.edu /~jdperry/papers.html   (1081 words)

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