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Topic: Kinematics


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  Kinematics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In physics, kinematics is the branch of mechanics concerned with the motions of objects without being concerned with the forces that cause the motion.
Because of its relative simplicity, kinematics is usually taught before dynamics or the concept of a force is introduced.
One fundamental equation in kinematics is the equation for the derivative of a vector described in a rotating frame of reference.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Kinematics   (959 words)

  
 Kinematics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
These simplest kinematic structures are often found in machine tools: two or three translational degrees of freedom along orthogonal axes, sometimes complemented by one or two rotational degrees of freedom.
This is one example of a kinematic structure, reducing the motion modelling and specification to a geometric problem of relative motion of reference frames.
kinematic chains document describes the kinematic and dynamics properties of kinematic chains.
www.orocos.org /kinematics.html   (607 words)

  
 Tekkotsu: Kinematics
Kinematics is the study of how things move.
To account for this, we have generalized the inverse kinematic solution so that you can solve for any point on (or off) of a link, and not just the bottom of the paw, which will allow you to do manipulation with any surface of the robot.
We developed the calculations for inverse kinematics in MATLAB, and our simulation and visualization tools may be of use to others as well.
www.cs.cmu.edu /~tekkotsu/Kinematics.html   (1421 words)

  
 Physics - Kinematics - Martin Baker
Kinematics: The study and description of motion, without regard to its causes, for example, we can calculate the end point of a robot arm from the angles of all its joints.
Kinematics can be studied without regard to mass or physical quantities that depend on mass.
I have defined a suggested kinematics node to represent the kinematics behavior because VRML and Java3D don't yet have such a node.
www.euclideanspace.com /physics/kinematics   (1608 words)

  
 3D Theory - Kinematics - Joints - Martin Baker
Forward Kinematics - From the amounts of rotation and bending of each joint in an arm, for example, the position of the hand can be calculated.
Inverse Kinematics - If the hand is moved, the rotation and bending of the arm is calculated, in accordance with the length and joint properties of each section of the arm.
For inverse kinematics (IK), the position of the end point is known, and we need to find the angles of the joints.
www.euclideanspace.com /physics/kinematics/joints   (1143 words)

  
 Inverse Kinematics on the Java 3D(tm) Scene Graph
Kinematics, the study of the motion of bodies without regard to their masses or the forces causing their motion, has been around for centuries.
This paper describes a general approach to solving inverse kinematics on the Java 3D™ scene graph and illustrates the approach using a particular example from classical mechanics with a focus on methods suitable for high fidelity simulation of continuous processes.
Kinematics studies the geometric properties of the motion of points without regard to their masses or to the forces acting on them.
www.brockeng.com /VMech/IK/IKSG.htm   (2852 words)

  
 Forward Kinematics and its Need for Control and Measurement   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Forward and inverse kinematics are terms to describe mapping from the space of inputs to the space of outputs of a non-dynamic mechanical system as shown in Figure 1.
Beacuse of the Stewart platform closed kinematic chain, the rigidity of the end effector, and the accuracy of the link length servos, a reasonably accurate feed-forward assignment is possible.
By looking at Figure 5, it is possible to see that the forward kinematics algorithm must find a point in each circle such that the distance among these points matches the dimension of the link of the moving platform.
www.ee.umd.edu /medlab/papers/robautforsem97/node2.html   (628 words)

  
 Kinematics
Kinematics deals with the motion of bodies and requires consideration of the geometry and time.
For a body possessing linear plus angular motion it is often not possible to have an instantaneous axis of rotation because all points may have non-zero velocities.
The most convenient method of kinematic analysis of rigid bodies in space 3 dimensions is by using the principles of relative motion.
www.roymech.co.uk /Useful_Tables/Mechanics/kinematics.html   (2433 words)

  
 IBM Software - CATIA V4 Kinematics (KIN) - Add-on Overview   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Kinematics supplies revolving, translational and spherical joints, gears, rack and pinion, universal joints, constant velocity joints, cables, and more for quick joint definition.
Kinematics allows you to change the step rate to speed up the process or increase the precision of the results.
You have employed Kinematics to study the motion of a human body in relation to a model to determine accessibility and ergonomics.
www-306.ibm.com /software/applications/plm/catiav4/prods/kin   (625 words)

  
 Reference Material - IK   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Kinematics refers to generally the study of motion.
Inverse Kinematics reverses that hierarchy to a degree by allowing the child to - a defined degree - affect the movement of its parents.
When an item's individual control is given over in favor of a inverse kinematics, setting limits gives the user the ability to restrict the broad spectrum of movements possible.
art-design.smsu.edu /yarberry/Courses/Reference/IK   (597 words)

  
 Kinematics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Kinematics is a branch of physics and a subdivision of classical mechanics concerned with the geometrically possible motion of a body or system of bodies without consideration of the forces involved (i.e., causes and effects of the motions).
Kinematics aims to provide a description of the spatial position of bodies or systems of material particles, the rate at which the particles are moving (velocity), and the rate at which their velocity is changing (acceleration).
Velocity and acceleration, however, have direction as well as magnitude; velocity is always tangent to the path, while acceleration has two components, one tangent to the path and the other perpendicular to the tangent.
abyss.uoregon.edu /~js/glossary/kinematics.html   (309 words)

  
 Kinematics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Kinematic measurements are limited in what they can tell us about the causes of motion is - for this we need to look at the kinetics.
One important observation we can make from looking at the kinematics is the amount of up-down and sideways motion.
At extreme flexion of the hip (at heel-strike and toe-off) the knee is extended, while during stance knee flexion and ankle dorsiflexion help to reduce the effective height of the body.
guardian.curtin.edu.au /cga/teach-in/kinematics.html   (1206 words)

  
 Low-Inertia Parallel-Kinematics Systems for Submicron Alignment and Handling
PI is a leading supplier of micro- and nanopositioning systems and, by far, the most important industrial advocate of parallel mechanisms.
Principle of a monolithic 3-DOF planar parallel kinematics nanopositioning stage with PZT drives and wire-EDM-cut flexures.
In high-speed nanopositioning applications, one advantage of the parallel-kinematics approach over the stacked or nested serial kinematics systems is the ultra-low inertia resulting in higher resonant frequencies, faster step response and higher scanning rates.
www.parallemic.org /Reviews/Review012.html   (2304 words)

  
 Physics Classroom Table of Contents
Vector principles and operations are introduced and combined with kinematic principles and Newton's laws to describe, explain and analyze the motion of objects in two dimensions.
Concepts of work, kinetic energy and potential energy are discussed; these concepts are combined with the work-energy theorem to provide a convenient means of analyzing an object or system of objects moving between an initial and final state.
Newton's laws of motion and kinematic principles are applied to describe and explain the motion of objects moving in circles; specific applications are made to roller coasters and athletics.
www.glenbrook.k12.il.us /gbssci/phys/Class/BBoard.html   (1099 words)

  
 Applied Kinematics: Accident Reconstruction and Forensic Animation - Industrial Accident   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Oregon OSHA investigated with the assistance of Applied Kinematics' Bob Davis who used a total station to gather sufficient data from the accident scene to reconstruct a model of the collapse area.
OSHA found that there were violations of safety regulations by the construction company which caused or contributed to the collapse and the deaths of the workers.
Applied Kinematics was contracted to produce a model of the structure highlighting areas where beams were held together by single bolts during construction rather than at least two as required by law.
www.applied-kinematics.com /ak/case4.asp   (172 words)

  
 Kinematics: Facts and details from Encyclopedia Topic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
(kinematics is the branch of mechanics mechanics quick summary:
(kinematics is usually taught before dynamics or the concept of a force is introduced.
An object that rolls against a surface without slipping obeys the condition that the velocity velocity quick summary:
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/k/ki/kinematics.htm   (1173 words)

  
 Learn about Robot Inverse Kinematics
The inverse kinematics problem is much more interesting and its solution is more useful.
You may have to use your imagination a bit, but the schematic above is the planar part of the SCARA robot we discuss in the industrial robots section.
The inverse kinematics solution for Cartesian robots is trivial as all axes are perpendicular by definition and thus there is no coupling of the motions.
www.learnaboutrobots.com /inverseKinematics.htm   (484 words)

  
 Character Animation: Skeletons and Inverse Kinematics
Another school of thought on hierarchies uses the "inverted tree" model, where the parent (the hip or pelvis) is referred to as the "root." While no part of a hierarchy is ever really referred to as the "trunk," the children, and their children, become "branches." (See Figure 1.
Animation seems simple with Forward Kinematics and basic hierarchies—until your character has to do something like walk without her feet sliding across the floor, or stay in place while turning her body to look behind her.
NOTE: Some animation packages allow the application of Inverse Kinematics to "non-skeletal" objects such as cubes, spheres and null objects, although creating and operating IK chains built this way is usually much more complex.
www.intel.com /cd/ids/developer/asmo-na/eng/dc/games/graphics/20433.htm?page=2   (1278 words)

  
 General Kinematics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
General Kinematics Corporation, incorporated in 1960, was established to market, design, and custom fabricate innovative vibratory materials handling and processing equipment.
As new process and efficiency challenges emerge, General Kinematics is uniquely qualified to address these needs with advanced technology, innovative engineering, new materials and manufacturing techniques...
General Kinematics Finger Screens are designed to perform more efficiently with recycled wood or paper than perforated or wire mesh screens.
www.robbinsassoc.com /GeneralKinematics.htm   (1506 words)

  
 Inverse Kinematics
Kinematics is the process of calculating the position in space of the end of a linked structure, given the angles of all the joints.
I came up with this method for inverse kinematics with a little thought and trial and error.
And to conclude, vector b is different for joints whose axis of rotation is parallel to the bone.
freespace.virgin.net /hugo.elias/models/m_ik.htm   (1591 words)

  
 Kinematics Graph Interpretation Project
The primary goal of the Kinematics Graphing Project is to investigate the ability of students to interpret kinematics graphs and to generate a set of suggestions for faculty teaching the subject.
The test used to collect the data is included at the end of the article and should prove useful for other researchers studying kinematics learning as well as instructors teaching the material.
Students believe kinematics variables behave identically or very similarly and should therefore be graphed identically or very similarly.
www2.ncsu.edu /ncsu/pams/physics/Physics_Ed/TUGK.html   (851 words)

  
 What is inverse kinematics?
There are two basic ways to pose a joint chain: forward kinematics and inverse kinematics.
With forward kinematics, when you pose a joint chain you have a specify the rotations of each joint individually, starting from the parent joint on down to all the joints below.
With inverse kinematics, when you pose a joint chain all you have to do is tell the lowest joint chain's hierarchy where you want it to be, and all the joints above it will rotate automatically.
www.alias.com /eng/support/studiotools/documentation/Animating/aboutAnimation10.html   (531 words)

  
 Kinematics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Based on the kinematics of each process expected energy deposition is pre-calculated for both neutron and photon interactions.
Energy deposition is included separately for each process, e.g., there are separate energy deposition tables for elastic, inelastic, fission, etc. The details of how energy deposition is calculated are included in the documentation for the processing system OMEGA [8] and will not be discussed in detail here.
Warning - in order to consistently use this thermal scattering model it is important that the Doppler broadened cross sections and kinematic sampling both use exactly the same temperature for the medium through which the neutrons are transporting.
www-phys.llnl.gov /N_Div/TART/TART3_Data.html   (7858 words)

  
 Kinematics Overview
Kinematics deals with describing motions - after all, if you are going to study something (like motion) you had better be able to describe it completely, accurately, and consistently.
In physics, you can describe an object's motion if you can tell where the object is going to be, how fast it will be going, and its direction of motion at any given time.
The Physics Department - Mechanics, Kinematics - part of Zona Land, very well done.
www.batesville.k12.in.us /physics/PhyNet/Mechanics/Kinematics/KineOverview.html   (284 words)

  
 Glossary for M. Casco Courses
Mechanics is normally limited to a small number of large slow objects, as opposed to statistical mechanics which deals with large numbers of objects, relativistic mechanics which deals with objects moving near the speed of light and quantum mechanics which deals with objects more or less the size of atoms.
Mechanics encompasses the topics of kinematics and dynamics.
Normal in this sense is usually used in refering to a vector's orientation relative to some surface.
www.mcasco.com /glossary.html   (3742 words)

  
 IKAN - Inverse Kinematics using Analytical Solutions   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
IKAN is a complete set of inverse kinematics algorithms suitable for an anthropomorphic arm or leg.
IKAN uses a combination of analytic and numerical methods to solve generalized inverse kinematics problems including position, orientation, and aiming constraints.
IKAN methodology is explained very well in the paper Real-time inverse kinematics techniques for anthropomorphic limbs, submitted to the Journal - Graphical Models.
hms.upenn.edu /software/ik   (269 words)

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