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Topic: Kingdom of Poland

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  Poland - Open Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
The Republic of Poland, a country in Central Europe, lies between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania and Russia (in the form of the Kaliningrad Oblast exclave) to the north.
Poland used to be a single-party state and a satellite state of the Soviet Union between 1945 and 1989.
Poland's principal ports and harbours are Gdańsk, Gdynia, Kołobrzeg, Szczecin, Świnoujście, Ustka, Warsaw, and Wrocław.
open-encyclopedia.com /Poland   (2352 words)

 Brief history of Poland
The Kingdom of Poland is marked in white; Russia - in green, Austria - in yellow and Prussia - in blue.
of the Kingdom of Poland was divided between Prussia, Austria and Russia.
Poland was attacked by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union.
www.polishroots.org /genpoland/polhistory.htm   (881 words)

 CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Poland   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Poland revolted from the empire, and the Polish Church began a reform in accordance with Gregory's decrees.
The Church of Poland took part, it is true, in the Synod of Constance, at which Hus was burnt, but had not the strength to oppose effectively the reactionary tendency of the nobility, which sought to use heresy as a counterpoise to the influence of the Church.
The head of the Catholic Church in Poland was the Archbishop of Gnesen, primate of the kingdom and legatus nalus.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/12181a.htm   (17027 words)

 Poland   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
The Republic of Poland is a country located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania and Russia (in the form of the Kaliningrad Oblast exclave) to the north.
Poland enjoys a temperate climate, with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with frequent slopdropping and mild summers with frequent showers and thunder showers.
Poland has a large agricultural sector of private farms, that could be a leading producer of food in the European Union now that Poland is a member.
www.worldhistory.com /wiki/P/Poland.htm   (2377 words)

 Poland -> History on Encyclopedia.com 2002   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
In 1697 the elector of Saxony was chosen king of Poland as Augustus II by a minority faction supported by Czar Peter I. Augustus allied himself with Russia and Denmark against Charles XII of Sweden.
The western provinces of Poland were awarded to Prussia; Galicia was given to Austria; and Kraków and its environs were made a separate republic.
The Sovietization of Poland was accelerated; in 1949, Soviet Marshall Konstantin Rokossovsky was made minister of defense and commander in chief of the Polish army.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/section/poland_history.asp   (4078 words)

 Articles - Poland   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
In the 12th century Poland fragmented into several smaller states, which were later ravaged by the Mongol armies of the Golden Horde in 1241.
Poland was the first post-communist country to regain pre-1989 GDP levels.
Poland enjoys a temperate climate, with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters and mild summers with frequent showers and thunder showers.
www.worldhammock.com /articles/Poland   (2600 words)

 Heydel-Mankoo's Almanach de Polska: The Princely Houses of Poland
Title was recognised in Poland in 1775, in Austria in 1777, 1820 and 1827 and in Russia in 1844.
The right of the family to bear the title of Prince was recognised in Austria by Emperor Joseph II on 17 March 1783, in the Kingdom of Poland by the Senate on 25 March 1821 and in Russia by Czar Alexander II on 3 April 1868.
in 1784 and 1882; in the Kingdom of Poland in 1824 and in Russia in 1845, 1867
www.geocities.com /polishnobles/Princes.html   (1122 words)

 Law #643 from the Levanda Index - Copyright 2002 Michael Steinore
Two-month passports for Jews of the Kingdom of Poland for their passage into those Russian gubernias where their coreligionists are not allowed permanent settlement, will be issued for trade affairs and for commercial contracts, deliveries, and tax collection concessions, but only to those merchants that are herein determined for Russian Jews.
Jewish merchants of the Kingdom of Poland can receive passports issued by the Gubernia Administrations and the Warsaw Chief of Police to attend trade fairs at: Nizhegorod, Irbit, Koren, Khar'kov, and Sumy, for purchasing goods, and for wholesale sales, with limitation on their presence there to the time of the fair itself.
Jews in the Kingdom of Poland who do not have the right to enter the capitals and the interior gubernias of Russia, like Russian Jews, are to be immediately expelled by the police to their places of settlement.
www.angelfire.com /ms2/belaroots/l643.htm   (1154 words)

 WW II - HISTORICAL BACKGROUND   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Poland entered into the family of European nations when Polish Prince Mieszko I and his court were baptized in 966.
At that time, the Kingdom of Poland combined with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was, except for the vast expanses of the Muscovy in the East, the largest state in Europe.
Poland's response was to build a new port in the small fishing village of Gdynia.
www.apacouncil.org /ww2/1hb.html   (1268 words)

In the last century Poland has profited from the weakness of its neighbours and its strong relationship with the Empire and the Papacy, even though it is only a little over 100 years since Christianity became the religion of its rulers and the pagan ways were abandoned.
The borders of the kingdom of Poland are not, however, set in stone - both opportunity and danger wait on all sides.
The borders of the kingdom of Poland are not, however, set in stone: both opportunity and danger wait on all sides.
www.freewebs.com /totalwar85/Faction/Poland.htm   (957 words)

 [No title]
Wladyslaw I Lokietek, (Ladislaus I the Short or Elbow-high) Duke of Leczyca (Lancicia) and Kujawy (Cuiavia)1267-1275, Duke of Sieradz (Siradia) 1288-1300, Duke of Pomorze (Pomerania) from 1296, Duke of Sandomierz 1289-1292, 1305, Duke of Wielkopolska (Greater Poland) 1314, Prince of Cracow from 1306, King of Poland 1320-1333.
To prevent his four sons from quarrelling, Boleslaw granted one province to each of them, and the fifth one, the senior palatinate, was to be given to the eldest brother on the grounds of primogeniture.
The coronation was a sign that he had cleared Poland's internal fragmentation and re-united and re-instated the country as an independent kingdom.
www.angelfire.com /scifi2/rsolecki/wladyslaw_I_lokietek.html   (1305 words)

 Kingdom of the first Piasts - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Kingdom of the first Piasts (Regnum Poloniae) was the state formed by the Boleslaus I of Poland in 1025 during his coronation.
However, the legal base for existence of this Christian kingdom was established in 1000 during the Meeting in Gniezno, when Poland was recognized as the state by Holy Roman Empire and the Pope.
The inheritance rule: all sons of the King have equal rights to the throne (the stronger becomes the king).
www.bexley.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Kingdom_of_the_first_Piasts   (197 words)

 Poland Coat of Arms - Polish White Eagle - Description in English and Polish
The Eagle has connections to the first capital of Poland, Gniezno, where Lech, the legendary ancestor of the Piast dynasty, found an eagle's nest and so assumed the Eagle as his personal coat of arms.
In 1295 King Przemysl II instituted the Crowned Eagle as the official emblem of the Kingdom of Poland.
After Poland's defeat at the beginning of World War II in 1939, and during subsequent occupation by Soviet and German troops, the White Eagle continued to be the cherished symbol of the Polish Underground Movement, as well as the official State emblem of the Polish Government in exile.
www.pewterplaques.com /polandsmall.html   (303 words)

 Polish History: chapter/book-length sites
An illustrated history of Poland in 21 chapters which was published in 1917.
A history of Poland, primarily in the realm of diplomatic and military actions, in seven sections.
In outline form the site seeks to answer the question: "What was Poland in 1918?" The result is a longer answer than: "A state without clearly defined borders which hadn't existed for 123 years.
info-poland.buffalo.edu /web/history/overview/link.shtml   (552 words)

 Modern History Sourcebook: Tsar Nicholas I: Imperial Manifesto on Poland, March 25, 1832
Poland, conquered in the year 1815 by the victorious arms of Russia, obtained by the magnanimity of Our illustrious predecessor, the Tsar Alexander, not only its national existence, but also special laws sanctioned by a Constitutional Charter.
The tranquility and happiness which the kingdom of Poland had enjoyed to a degree till then unknown, vanished in the midst of civil war and a general devastation.
The kingdom of Poland, again subject to Our scepter, will regain tranquility, and again flourish in the bosom of peace, restored to it under the auspices of a vigilant government.
www.fordham.edu /halsall/mod/1832poland.html   (286 words)

 Kingdom of Poland   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
The territory of Congress Poland included areas which during the Partitions of Poland were initially annexed by Prussia and Austria but then, due to the result of the Napoleonic Wars, were taken over by Russia.
Those included mostly the historical region of Masovia, northern parts of Little Poland (most of which then belonged to Galicia), eastern fragments of Greater Poland (whose other parts constituted the Prussian Province of Posen), and certain regions of historical Lithuania.
The northeastern fragment of the Kingdom, which now belongs to Lithuania, is shown in green and a small area now in Belarus is marked in yellow.
www.polishroots.com /genpoland/kpol.htm   (334 words)

 First World War.com - Primary Documents - Speech by Polish Member of Prussian Legislature Regarding German Rule in ...
In his speech Trompczynski lambasted the German military authorities in Poland for their policy of seizing able-bodied Polish workmen for deportation to Germany to provide labour for the German war effort.
But the military authorities have twisted the matter still more to the detriment of the workmen by declaring that all workmen from the Kingdom of Poland without regard to the nature of their agreement are considered unfree, i.e., prisoners who are not allowed to go home.
Further, the Minister of the Interior has issued an order that subjects of the Kingdom of Poland can be employed only in big or middling undertakings and not in small ones.
www.firstworldwar.com /source/poland_prussianspeech.htm   (1102 words)

 Krakow Info - Poland's history
Fierce and practically ceaseless wars of the 17th c and the 18th c sapped the country’s strength and eventually led to its partition among aggressive neighbor empires of Russia, Austria and Prussia by the end of the 18th century.
In the aftermath of the WW II Poland lost the eastern half of its prewar territory to the Soviets and was put under the control of the Soviet Union which installed a puppet communist regime in Warsaw and ruthlessly quelled all opposition.
As communists brought Poland to actual bankruptcy, they agreed to negotiate a peaceful transition to democracy with opposition in 1988.
www.krakow-info.com /Pol-hist.htm   (456 words)

 Poland   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
966 - the Vatican recognized Mieszko I as the leader of a Christian state, and Poland was a kingdom until the first partition of 1772.
1795 - By the third partition Russia annexed 62 percent of Poland's area and 45 percent of the population, Prussia 20 percent of the area and 23 percent of the population, and Austria 18 and 32 percent, and the name "Poland" disappeared from Europe.
Poland's borders are set by the postwar Potsdam conference; Poland loses territory to the Soviet Union but gains some from Germany.
history.acusd.edu /gen/WW2Timeline/poland.html   (656 words)

 Poland - History - The Period of Partitions
Poland - History - The Period of Partitions
Poland's long parliament which sat for four years and compiled and passed the worlds' second Constitution in 1791
A description of the events that led and followed Poland's Second Partition.
info-poland.buffalo.edu /web/history/partitions/link.shtml   (183 words)

 Galicia Map
Galicia (Polish Galicja) is a historic region of eastern Europe (in present-day Poland and Ukraine).
When Poland was first partitioned in 1772, eastern Galicia, together with the territory to the west, between the San and the Vistula, was attached to Austria; and in 1795 further lands, both west and east of the Vistula, passed also to Austria.
Bukovina (in present-day Romania and Ukraine) is an eastern European territory consisting of a segment of the northeastern Carpathian Mountains and the adjoining plain.
www.rollintl.com /roll/galicia.htm   (852 words)

 Eastern Europe FAQ   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Poland (I: Lodz region, 1976; II: Eastern Galicia, 1980; III: Western Galicia and Silesia, 1984; IV: Warsaw region, 1989; V: Volhynia and Polesie, 1990; VI: Poznan, Pomerania and Danzig, 1999; VII: Kielce and Lublin, 1999).
Between 1772 and 1795, Poland was partitioned between Russia, Austria, and Prussia, and ceased to be an independent nation for over 100 years, until it was re-established after WWI in 1918.
There were 60 gubernias in 1914, including 15 in the Pale of Settlement and 10 in the Kingdom of Poland.
www.jewishgen.org /infofiles/eefaq.html   (5241 words)

 Articles - Kingdom of Poland (1916-1918)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
The Kingdom of Poland (generally called Regency Kingdom of Poland, Królestwo Regencyjne) was the state proclaimed by Imperial Germany and Austria-Hungary within the former Russian territory of Congress Poland (however without defined borders) on November 5, 1916.
The Polish language was reinstituted in all of the territory of Congress Poland and the educational and political institutions banned by Russia after the Polish uprisings of 1830 and 1863 were reopened.
The Kingdom had its own currency, called Marka polska (Polish mark) and received a Constitution on 12th September 1917 (monarchy, a two-chambers-parliament, no political responsibility of the ministers).
www.gaple.com /articles/Kingdom_of_Poland_(1916-1918)   (443 words)

 Glossary of Places: Co   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
After much tension and conflict, the people of Poland revolted again in the Polish National Liberation Insurrection of 1863-64, but were brutally suppressed.
Changing the name to Land of the Vistula (Wisla in Polish: the largest river in Poland, flowing by canal through Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia), Alexander II began a policy of cultural genocide, stripping away the Polish language and culture in place of a brutal Russification policy.
Congress Poland was ruled by the Russian Empire for a century, until briefly captured by Germany in World War I; and later given independence by the Soviet government.
www.marxists.org /glossary/places/c/o.htm   (244 words)

 List of Estonian rulers - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
2.2 House of Vasa Kings of Sweden and Poland (1587 - 1660)
House of Vasa Kings of Sweden and Poland (1587 - 1660)
Sigismund III of Poland (King 1587-1632) known also as Sigismund of Sweden
www.peekskill.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/List_of_Estonian_rulers   (493 words)

 A new map of the Kingdom of Poland with its dismembered provinces. / Kitchin, Thomas / 1787
A new map of the Kingdom of Poland with its dismembered provinces.
Short Title: A new map of the Kingdom of Poland with its dismembered provinces.
Full Title: A new map of the Kingdom of Poland with its dismembered provinces.
www.davidrumsey.com /maps2552.html   (464 words)

 Haskalah and Hasidism in the Kingdom of Poland - Marcin Wodzinski
Marcin Wodzinski is Director of the Centre for the Culture and Languages of the Jews, and of the Department of Jewish Studies, of the University of Wroclaw.
His special fields of interest are the social history of the Jews in nineteenth-century Poland, the regional history of the Jews in Silesia, and Jewish sepulchral art.
He is the author of several books, articles, and reports, the co-editor of Jews in Silesia, and co-editor of the bi-annual scholarly periodical Studia Judaica and the Bibliotheca Judaica series.
www.littman.co.uk /cat/wodzinski.html   (186 words)

 Kingdom of Poland   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
was established according to resolutions of the Congress in Vienna (1815) and thus it was often referred to as "Congress Poland".
Those who remained Orthodox usually felt themselves to be Ukrainians.
became part of the independent Republic of Poland.
www.polishroots.org /genpoland/kpol.htm   (334 words)

 Poland   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Jadwiga marries Jagiello of Lithuania, beginning a personal union between Poland and Lithuania.
1815: The Treaty of Vienna establishes the Kingdom of Poland under Russian control
1919: The Treaty of Versailles cedes Posen and West Prussia to Poland
campus.northpark.edu /history/WebChron/EastEurope/PoleChron.html   (154 words)

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