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Topic: Kinship systems

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  Kinship and descent - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Kinship and descent is one of the major concepts of cultural anthropology.
A unilineal society (such as the Iroquois system) is one in which the descent of an individual is reckoned either from the mother's or the father's descent group.
More importantly, kinship and descent enters the legal system by virtue of intestacy, the laws that at common law determine who inherits the estates of the dead in the absence of a will.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Kinship_and_descent   (600 words)

 Kinship - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Kinship is the most basic principle of organizing individuals into social groups, roles, and categories.
The crux of his argument was that anthropologists had founded the domain of “kinship” on the notions of human reproduction and the biologically defined relatedness of their own Euro-American culture.
Anthropologists have studied different systems of kinship in a wide variety of cultures; see family.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Kinship   (176 words)

 Eskimo kinship   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
The Eskimo system places no distinction between patrilineal and matrilineal relatives, instead focusing on differences in kinship distance (the closer the relative is, the more distinguished).
The Eskimo system is comparatively rare among the world's kinship systems and is at present used in most advanced Western societies (such as those of modern-day Europe or North America).
The system is largely used in bilineal societies where the dominant relatives are the immediate family.
www.nebulasearch.com /encyclopedia/article/Eskimo_kinship.html   (363 words)

 Reading Guide to
This is especially so in the anthropological study of kinship, where 'The linguist provides the anthropologist with etymologies which permit him to establish between certain kinship terms relationships that were not immediately apparent' (32), while the anthropologist can explain which types of kinship are common and which persist.
For anthropologists, 'kinship terms are elements of meaning; like phonemes, they acquire meaning only if they are integrated into systems', and the systems are 'built by the mind on the level of unconscious thought' (34).
This is so logically, since there must always be three types of family relations in any kinship system -- 'a relation of consanguinity, a relation of affinity, and a relation of descent -- in other words, a relation between siblings, a relation between spouses, and a relation between parent and child' (46).
www.arasite.org /lssa.htm   (1953 words)

 Crow kinship - Encyclopedia.WorldSearch   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Identified by Louis Henry Morgan in his 1871 work Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human Family, the Crow system is one of the six major kinship systems (Eskimo, Hawaiian, Iroquois, Crow, Omaha, and Sudanese).
The system is somewhat similar to the Iroquois system, but further distinguishes between the mother's side and the father's side.
The system is associated with groups that have a strong tradition of matrilineal descent.
encyclopedia.worldsearch.com /crow_kinship.htm   (297 words)

 Omaha kinship - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Omaha kinship is a kinship system used to define family.
Identified by Louis Henry Morgan in his 1871 work Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human Family, the Omaha system is one of the six major kinship systems (Eskimo, Hawaiian, Iroquois, Crow, Omaha, and Sudanese).
Currently the Omaha system is in use by the Dani tribe of Papua and the Ibo group of Nigeria.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Omaha_kinship   (248 words)

 AusAnthrop: Australian Aboriginal kinship and social organization
Kinship and social organisation are, in this respect and certainly in Australia, the privileged domain through which such recognition can be accomplished, either because it is implicitly expected by the legal system, or because it is one of the most efficient mechanisms for the inclusion of members among indigenous groups themselves.
Kinship today is understood as a much more broader domain as it was 30 years ago, where genealogies and formal models were supposed to demonstrate cross-cultural similarities, while, at least for some researchers, underlining simultaneously cultural specificities.
Kinship encompasses the norms, roles, institutions and cognitive processes referring to all the social relationships that people are born into or create later in life, and that are expressed through, but not limited to, an etic biological idiom.
www.ausanthrop.net /research/kinship/kinship2.php   (4179 words)

 Kinship Readers Guide
Kinship in ancient Israel and Judah, as well as in first-century Palestine, was affected by the political sphere especially in terms of law—mostly in terms of deviance—for example: incest (Lev 18:6-19), rape (Deut 22:23-29), adultery (Lev 20:10), marriage (Lev 21:7; Deut 25:5-10), divorce (Deut 24:1-4), and inheritance (Num 27:1-11; Luke 12:13).
Kinship was affected by religion in terms of purity, for example: intercourse regulations (John 7:53—8:11) and the status of spouses (Deut 7:1-4; Luke 1:5).
And finally, kinship was interactive with the economic sphere in terms of occupations (Mark 1:16-20), and the distributions of dowry, indirect dowry, bridewealth, and inheritance (Luke 12:13).
www.kchanson.com /ARTICLES/kinship.html   (7394 words)

 kinship --  Encyclopædia Britannica
Kinship systems are universal throughout human society, differing among cultures in their importance in the broader social structure, the number of relatives they include, and the...
Kinship is based largely on descent from both parents, though with some orientation toward the authority of the father.
A pioneer in the study of kinship systems, Morgan was the author of ‘League of the Ho-dé-no-sau-nee, or Iroquois' and ‘Ancient Society'.
www.britannica.com /eb/article?tocId=9109755   (845 words)

 AllRefer.com - kinship (Anthropology: Terms And Concepts) - Encyclopedia
kinship, relationship by blood (consanguinity) or marriage (affinity) between persons; also, in anthropology and sociology, a system of rules, based on such relationships, governing descent, inheritance, marriage, extramarital sexual relations, and sometimes residence.
Kinship patterns are so specific and elaborate that they constitute an important and independent field of anthropological and sociological investigation.
In many societies the concept of kinship extends beyond family ties, which vary in breadth and inclusiveness, to less precisely defined groupings such as the clan, where consanguinity is often hypothetical if not actually mythological.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/K/kinship.html   (280 words)

 Parsons - Sex Roles in American Kinship System   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Undoubtedly the kinship system constitutes one of the important sets of factors underlying this emancipation since it does not, as do so many kinship systems, place a structural premium on the role of either sex in the maintenance of the continuity of kinship relations.
On the one hand our kinship system is of a structural type which, broadly speaking, interferes least with the functional needs of the occupational system, above all in that it exerts relatively little pressure for the ascription of an individual's social status--through class affiliation, property, and of course particular "jobs"--by virtue of his kinship status.
But in the modern American kinship system, to say nothing of other aspects of the culture and social structure, there are at least two pressures which tend to counteract this dependency and have undoubtedly played a part in the movement for feminine emancipation.
www2.pfeiffer.edu /~lridener/courses/PARSONS3.HTML   (2002 words)

 [No title]
Although families and kinship systems vary cross-culturally, their universal primary function is to: A.
Kinship systems do not serve a function; they are simply traditions in every society.
Kinship systems include ideal behavior, actual behavior, terminology and the social groups considered important in the society.
uwacadweb.uwyo.edu /anth1200/PracticeExam2.doc   (1545 words)

 Kinship and Kinship Terminologies
Grouping lineal and collateral relatives under the same term is technically called "merging", and in kinship systems in general the relatives most frequently merged are a parent and sibling of the same sex, a sibling and parallel cousin, or a son or daughter and nephew and niece.
In some kinship systems, this is not the case: it is, for example, fairly common for grandfather and grandson to be called by the same term.
Many parts of life are impacted by kinship, and in most societies kinship relations influence things like who one can and can not marry, who one must show respect to, who one can joke with, and who one can count on in a crisis.
www.era.anthropology.ac.uk /Era_Resources/Era/Kinship/kinIntro.html   (1714 words)

 Paper Topics
In terms of cultural evolution, the "African" system is at the "tribal" or "chiefdom" level, while the "Eurasian" system is at the "feudal" or "state" level.
Early analysis shows that although kinship systems do change for the immigrant populations, they also become a support system for the people to adapt to their new surroundings.
Kinship systems constantly undergo transformations due to the impact of dominant cultures, change in the environment, or other external factors.
www.unl.edu /rhames/courses/paper_topics.htm   (3819 words)

 Paper on Cherokee Kinship Systems
The main characteristic of a Crow type system "is found in the descent pattern from the father's sister, whereby the father's sister's female descendants through females are classed with the father's sister, and her male descendants through females are classed with the father" (Spoehr 164).
In the Cherokee kinship system there are four important lineages: the father's matrilineal, the mother's matrilineal, the mother's father's matrilineal, and the father's father's matrilineal.
The kinship system was the basis for all social interaction and determined who a person could or could not marry.
www.boulder.net /~gillman/anthpaper/anthpap.html   (2981 words)

 Kinship Systems - Mathematics and the Liberal Arts
Kinship systems of the Aranda of Australia, and in Ambrym in the New Hebrides.
How elders in Ambrym used diagrams to elucidate the kinship systems, and explicitly explained the patricycles of degree 2 and the matricycles of degree 3.
Seidenberg, A., The ritual origin of counting The ancient Egyptians appear to be an exception as they associated the square with the earth and the circle with the sky.
math.truman.edu /~thammond/history/KinshipSystems.html   (830 words)

Why do some kinship systems, within this larger and apparently homogeneous group of systems, make a difference between affinal and consanguineal, whereas others do not is an unsolved puzzle so far.
But among those systems that possess a specific vocabulary for affinal kin, differences can be clearly spotted from one system to another.
In doing so I will produce a model that can be used to locate individual kinship systems, or terminologies, in an encompassing structure (the typology itself), and lead to hypotheses concerning their geographical and historical distribution.
monsite.wanadoo.fr /anthropologist/page8.html   (476 words)

 Lectures notes #1   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
The world system is an international hierarchy of diverse societies and cultures integrated into a single economic system based on unequal exchange that allows wealth to accumulate in the core.
The core is composed of the wealthy industrial countries at the center of the world system where the recipient of unequal exchange reside.
The system is itself so homogenous that it could be treated as a single culture.
www.ualberta.ca /~deburgos/Lecturesnotes.htm   (3883 words)

 Feinberg and Ottenheimer/The Cultural Analysis of Kinship. Chapter 7   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
One of the points he made insistently is that while all kinship classifications slot people into categories of relatives, the definitional criteria for, or as he said, the "distinctive features" of, those categories need not be the same as the ones used in the American kinship system.
Second, whatever form of kinship system Trobrianders have, it is not based on a belief that only women are biologically related to their children.
One of the ways in which the Trobriand kinship system differs from all of the Western kinship systems of my acquaintance is that it is an entirely postnatal construct.
www.press.uillinois.edu /epub/books/feinberg/ch7.html   (7970 words)

 [No title]
Based on the result of the questionnaires, Morgan posited that all kinship systems in the world could be divided into two large groups: descriptive systems and classificatory systems.
Some societies with classificatory systems fall into this stage, where people use one general term to categorize their father and the father’s brothers, or their mother and the mother’s sisters.
Morgan believed that “most civilized” family structure is patriarchal monogamy, where a male is the head of a married couple and their descent is reckoned in the male line.
www.mnsu.edu /emuseum/cultural/anthropology/Morgan.html   (455 words)

 The 'household' and its structure
If two kinship systems differ markedly in their structure, it is not possible to simply translate the terms from one system to the other.
All kinship systems have terms that are 'classificatory' in the sense that they classify people together according to a set of underlying structural principles.
Rather, a 'first' kinship system is like a first language: the individual 'born into' the system carries its grammar unconsciously in their head.
epress.anu.edu.au /caepr_series/no_22/ch03s07.html   (3756 words)

 Anth 351: Family Organization and Kinship
While all cultures have a system for recognizing kin and non-kin and degrees of relatedness, the specifics of those systems have great variability.
After detailing the common (ideal) forms of kinship, we will explore kinship ethnographically as one aspect of a matrix which includes social, historical, economic, and ideological components.
To explicate the links between kinship practices and the historical, economic, and ideological contexts in which these practices are produced and reproduced.
www.ac.wwu.edu /~anthro/Saunders/anth351s.html   (496 words)

 Kinship Degree Systems   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Most bilateral kinship systems and some unilineal ones make essential distinctions between relatives on the basis of kinship distance for purposes of assigning group membership, determining inheritance and succession rights, and organizing other important social events and interactions.
For example, Western kinship degree calculations have varied historically and geographically between the Roman or civil system and the Germanic or canon system, which is currently the standard both in Catholic church regulations and English common law.
Circles of kinship are often defined in terms of the ambiguous measure of "cousin range".
www.umanitoba.ca /anthropology/tutor/descent/cognatic/degree.html   (168 words)

 untitled   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
All children are members of the descent group of which their mother is a member.
Kinship systems and Descent structure a very important aspect of society, whom one should marry.
Male Yanomamo manipulations of kinship classifications of female kin for repro advantage: Kin terminology and biology not exactly correlated but based on descent, sex, age considerations.
darkwing.uoregon.edu /~sugiyama/lecture10.html   (606 words)

 Abstracts and links to kinship and genealogical articles in PDF format - Douglas R. White
The formal concepts treated in the mapping of kinship networks are: kinship axioms, parental graph structure, core, circuits of consanguineally and affinally linked kin, sides and divides, homeomorphic mappings, homomorphisms as potentially simplifying mappings of kinship, elementary structure, and order-structure.
This article, one of a series, approaches the topics of marriage and kinship through a revitalized kinetic structural approach that shifts the primary focus from abstract models of rules, terminologies, attitudes and norms to exploration of concrete relations in a population, analyzed graph-theoretically in their full complexity as networks.
Thus the "kinship system" can evolve dynamically across a class of network models influenced stochastically by age distributions at marriage in accordance with Tjon Sie Fat's algebraic model, and to incorporate non-Alyawarra lineages in ways that are incompatible with both the RB and the Atkins models, thereby violating the Axiom of Algebraic Closure.
eclectic.ss.uci.edu /~drwhite/links2KINpdf.htm   (4894 words)

 Kinship -- Cultural Anthropology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Basis of kinship in 60% of world’s cultures
in about half of the societies the nuclear family is enclosed within some kind of extended family, a larger kinship group that includes more than a single set of spouses and their children
kinship terminology in which Mo and MoSi are called by the same term, Fa and FaBr are called by the same term, and MoBr and FaSi are called by different terms
www.d.umn.edu /cla/faculty/troufs/anth1604/cakinship.html   (739 words)

 Reflections on Anthropology | Web Links
Quote: "One of the Linkages Projects is an effort to assemble a large database on human communities from around the world, including kinship data sets and genealogies, along with rich ethnographic data, as recorded by anthropologists, or in many cases, historians, demographers, sociologists, or political scientists.
The kinship section of the emuseum at Minnesota State University at Mankato.
A collection of quotes Part 2 Symbols used to represent kinship relations Part 3 Watch an interactive kinship symbols tutorial here (Flash plug-in needed) Part 4 Introduction to Australian Indigenous Social Organisation: transforming concepts." Kinship systems were (and still are) extremely complicated and sophisticated among Australian Aborigines.
highered.mcgraw-hill.com /sites/0072485981/student_view0/chapter18/web_links_.html   (580 words)

 A & B Anthropology SuperSite
Use Brian Schwimmer's tutorial site on "Systems of Measuring Kinship Degree" to determine your own kindred in a bilineal/bilateral kinship system.
Include in your analysis how marriage customs reflect kinship systems and wider social structures in addition to cultural or religious beliefs and values.
Changes in kinship systems through cultural contact may occur because of economic factors that put pressure on obligations of marriage or on systems of ownership and inheritance.
www.ablongman.com /html/anthro/cult-act4.html   (7059 words)

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