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Topic: Knowledge representation

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In the News (Thu 21 Mar 19)

  Knowledge representation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Representing the knowledge in one way may make the solution simple, while an unfortunate choice of representation may make the solution difficult or obscure; the analogy is to make computations in Hindu-Arabic numerals or in Roman numerals; long division is simpler in one and harder in the other.
The term "Knowledge Representation" (KR) is most commonly used to refer to representations intended for processing by modern computers, and particularly for representations consisting of explicit objects (the class of all elephants, or Clyde a certain individual), and of assertions or claims about them ('Clyde is an elephant', or 'all elephants are grey').
The recent fashion in knowledge representation languages is to use XML as the low-level syntax.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Knowledge_representation   (1312 words)

 What is a Knowledge Representation?
Finally, knowledge representations are also the means by which we express things about the world, the medium of expression and communication in which we tell the machine (and perhaps one another) about the world.
The result is knowledge representations applied in ways that are uninformed by the inspirations and insights that led to their invention and that are the source of their power.
We suggest that representation technologies should not be considered as opponents to be overcome, forced to behave in a particular way, but should instead be understood on their own terms and used in ways that rely on the insights that were their original inspiration and source of power.
groups.csail.mit.edu /medg/ftp/psz/k-rep.html   (10517 words)

 [No title]
Knowledge representation (KR) refers to the general topic of how information can be appropriately encoded and utilized in computational models of cognition.
For example, temporal or dynamic knowledge is often represented by describing actions as functions on states of the world, using axioms to give sufficient conditions for the success of the action, and then using logical reasoning to prove constructively that a state exists that satisfies a goal.
Commercial applications use knowledge representation as an extension of database technology, where the "knowledge" is seen as a reservoir of useful information rather than as supporting a model of cognitive activity.
www.cs.umbc.edu /www/courses/graduate/771/papers/hayesp.html   (1103 words)

 Knowledge Representation
Knowledge is represented in a knowledge base, which consists of knowledge structures (typically symbolic) and programs.
Knowledge is represented in a labeled, directed graph whose nodes represent concepts and entities, while its arcs represent relationships between these entities and concepts.
Below is a table showing a survey of six AI texts and their coverage of various of knowledge representation and reasoning paradigms.
blackcat.brynmawr.edu /~dkumar/UGAI/kr.html   (1521 words)

 Knowledge-at-work: Knowledge representation - reification and hiding
Knowledge representations are difficult to grasp, subtle in what they empower and hide, essential for sharing, but so useless for transfer of key tacit stuff
Representations are material, they reify or allow ideas and experience to have an independent existence in an externalized form, they help to capture emergent thought.
Representations are both important and a side track for KM work - knowing what you sacrifice when choosing and using any knowledge representation, is a subtle, invisible, often unacknowledged, and yet cardinal competence in any form of knowledge work.
denham.typepad.com /km/2004/02/knowledge_repre.html   (434 words)

 Knowledge Representation - Language   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
From the notational point of view, emphasis is on data structures for representing the knowledge, while from the inferential point of view major concerns are discovering and implementing algorithms that draw the desired inferences.
At the third level of knowledge representation formalism, the epistemological level, the major concern are the knowledge structuring primitives that are needed for a satisfactory knowledge representation language and the types of inference strategy that should be make available.
Whereas the epistemological level is concerned with the types of knowledge structuring primitives that are needed, the conceptual level concerns itself with the actual primitives that should be included in a knowledge representation language.
www.dbmi.columbia.edu /homepages/wandong/KR/krlang.html   (273 words)

 CIRL Overview -- Knowledge Representation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Knowledge representation (KR) is the study of how knowledge about the world can be represented and what kinds of reasoning can be done with that knowledge.
CIRL's work in KR focuses on extending traditional representation methods in ways that improve their expressive power while retaining or enhancing machine abilities to reason using the representation in question.
First, it is incumbent on the knowledge representation and nonmonotonic communities to demonstrate that their ideas will eventually lead to improvements in the performance of implemented systems.
www.cirl.uoregon.edu /research/kr.html   (389 words)

 Knowledge Representation
As in other areas of computer science, it is also necessary to consider the ways in which the representation is to be manipulated and the uses to which it is to be put.
Some domains of knowledge, such as mathematical knowledge, are well-behaved in a certain sense, and are relatively straightforward to deal with.
It is important when choosing a knowledge representation scheme or language for a particular domain of knowledge, to consider the types of objects in the domain.
www.sis.pitt.edu /~logicp/KRPage/topic_page.htm   (618 words)

 [No title]
Knowledge Representation in The Many Faces of Go David Fotland 4863 Capistrano Ave San Jose Ca 95129 fotland@hpihoc.cup.hp.com February 27, 1993 Abstract: This paper describes the representations of Go knowledge in The Many Faces of GO, a strong computer Go program.
Knowledge is encoded in the algorithms that recognize low level features, in the data structures that describe the current position, and in patterns that are used to suggest plausible moves.
This is knowledge used to determine connectivity, eyes, potential eyes, and territory, as well as the move generators and move sorters used by the tactician.
www.smart-games.com /knowpap.txt   (3143 words)

A representation and reasoning system is composed of a language to communicate with a computer, a way to assign meaning to the language, and procedures to compute answers given input in the language.
Knowledge Representation research at the Computational Intelligence Research Laboratory (CIRL) at the University of Oregon.
The concepts that we discuss -- the representation of knowledge and the reasoning processes that bring knowledge to life -- are central to the entire field of artificial intelligence.
www.aaai.org /AITopics/html/repr.html#good   (3107 words)

 Knowledge Sharing Papers
The proposed technology consists of a shared knowledge representation (language and vocabulary), protocols for foreign data encapsulation and posting to the shared environment, and mechanisms for content-directed routing of posted information to interested parties via subscription and notification services.
Principal obstacles to all current work in knowledge sharing involve the difficulties of achieving consensus regarding what knowledge representations mean, of enumerating the context features and background knowledge required to ascribe meaning to a particular knowledge representation, and of describing knowledge independent of specific interpreters or inference engines.
Much current work on knowledge acquisition for intelligent systems concentrates on the use of predefined models of problem-solving methods to define the roles in which domain knowledge is used to solve particular application tasks.
www-ksl.stanford.edu /knowledge-sharing/papers/README.html   (4800 words)

 Knowledge Engineering: CGs, Knowledge Representation
Knowledge Engineering is the technique applied by knowledge engineers to build intelligent systems: Expert Systems, Knowledge Based Systems, Knowledge based Decision Support Systems, Expert Database Systems, etc. There are two main view to knowledge engineering.
In this view, the knowledge engineer attempts to model the knowledge and problem solving techniques of the domain expert into the artificial intelligent system.
The knowledge representation scheme studied is Conceptual Structure (Sowa, 1984), and the Knowledge Modelling techniques studied is the KADS (Schreiber, Wielinga, and Breuker, 1993).
pages.cpsc.ucalgary.ca /~kremer/courses/CG   (158 words)

 PARKA-DB: A Scalable Knowledge Representation System   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
In contrast to knowledge representation systems, the upper bound on the size of a database is not limited by the size of main memory, but rather by the size of external storage.
They allow a complex structural representation of the data (knowledge) that allows inferencing and complex query evaluation to be performed.
As a functional knowledge representation system, PARKA-DB is designed to support several applications including CaPER, a memory-intensive case-based reasoning system, ForMAT, a case-based logistics planning system developed by Mitre Corporation, and a set of medical informatics programs being developed at the University of Maryland (by Merwyn Taylor).
www.cs.umd.edu /projects/plus/Parka/parka-db.html   (844 words)

 UMBC CMSC771 Knowledge Representation and Reasoning
R.Brachman, The future of knowledge representation, in Proceedings of the Eighth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 1990.
The technology for building large knowledge bases (KBs) is yet to witness a breakthrough so that a KB can be constructed by the assembly of prefabricated knowledge components.
The DARPA Knowledge Sharing Effort: a Progress Report; in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning; Cambridge, Massachusetts; October 25-29, 1992.
www.cs.umbc.edu /771/current/syllabus   (1662 words)

 McCullough Knowledge Explorer and the MKR language   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
MKR is a very-high-level knowledge representation language with a rigorous epistemological foundation including context, genus-differentia definitions, ECP hierarchies (knits) and a unique characterization of the changes associated with actions.
Propositional knowledge is knowledge expressed using words and sentences.
MKR is a general-purpose knowledge representation language which is applicable to any domain.
rhm.cdepot.net   (649 words)

 Bootstrapping Knowledge Representation
Both Pask's work on knowledge representation and my own are distinguished from the more traditional AI approach by their underlying epistemology.
Suppose that a user is developing a knowledge representation consisting of different concepts together with their entailment relations.
In conclusion, the advantage of this representation scheme is that most of the intuitive and often used semantic categories (objects, classes, causality, whole-part relations, temporal precedence, etc.) can be directly expressed in it, using a simple and uniform format.
pespmc1.vub.ac.be /Papers/BootstrappingPask.html   (12846 words)

 Knowledge Representation
Knowledge Representation (KR) is a major concern in AI, but no textbook exists.
At the epistemological level, there are four main concerns: If there exists a natural way of organising knowledge, the KR language has to respect this; the KR language has to be modular; attention to the granularity (=size of the information chunks) is important; and the language should support the actual primitives of the conceptual level.
TELL adds knowledge to the knowledge base, ASK can return three possible answers: yes, no or unknown (the situation is more complicated when “wh” questions are asked).
users.skynet.be /bs661306/peter/doc/hpv00r03-841.htm   (7300 words)

 Knowledge structuring for learning
It is therefore central to understanding the principles of effective representation of knowledge in self-instruction systems based on active recall and repetition spacing.
What makes a bright mathematician is not just mathematical knowledge, not inborn talent, but the ability to associate various components of his or her knowledge of problem solving in mathematics.
The core knowledge of intelligent thinking, in mathematics and beyond, is the rules of mathematical derivation in the most abstract and universally applicable form.
www.supermemo.com /english/ol/ks.htm   (10207 words)

 KAW98: Visual Languages
Two dimensional representations of programs, such as flow charts and even the indentation of textual programming languages, are extremely helpful to aid program understanding (Smith 1977).
For example, Figure 4 is a conceptual graph representation of the surprisingly complex sentence "Tom believes that Mary wants to marry a sailor." Conceptual graphs are bipartite, with rectangular boxes representing concepts (and individuals) and rounded (or elliptical) boxes representing relations between the concepts (and individuals).
Sowa's Conceptual Graphs is also a knowledge representation language, and is used in natural language interpretation, natural language generation, and reasoning.
pages.cpsc.ucalgary.ca /~kremer/papers/KAW98/visual/kremer-visual.html   (5501 words)

 Semantic Knowledge Representation
The Semantic Knowledge Representation (SKR) Project was recently initiated at NLM in order to develop programs to provide usable semantic representation of biomedical free text by building on resources currently available at the library.
As an example of the type of enhanced representation we are proposing, (2) contains the semantic propositions which represent some of the information contained in the text in (1).
The set of propositions in (2) considered as the semantic representation of (1) is not complete; however, it represents the major relationships and concepts contained in the text.
skr.nlm.nih.gov   (367 words)

 Towards Knowledge Representation
Artificial intelligence is not a panacea for knowledge representation problems in the sense that some claimed in the 1980s.
The objective of formally acquiring knowledge by parsing and interpreting text is of interest to a large community of researchers and to industry.
To the degree that modelling in specific and knowledge representation in general are closely related to distributed database management and data dictionaries/repositories (in terms of the information technologies used to implement automated modelling capabilities), it is again quite possible that no additional or specialized capabilities are needed beyond those addressed under existing standards projects.
www.mel.nist.gov /workshop/jtc1-96/papsaris.htm   (5880 words)

 CS4725 ---- Knowledge Representation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Seminal paper on knowledge representation, the use of logic in AI, the situation calculus, and the connection between many areas of philosophy and AI.
Ernest Davis and Leora Morgenstern: "Epistemic Logics and their Applications (foils)" A powerpoint presentation of a tutorial on logics of knowledge given at IJCAI-93, the International Joint Conference of Artificial Intelligence.
The initial course announcement (written up for the CVN program), including a general description of the course and the initial syllabus, can be found here; however, the information at this location is rapidly becoming out of date.
www-formal.stanford.edu /leora/krcourse   (1366 words)

 Knowledge Representation Panel
Knowledge representation allows computers to reconfigure and reuse information that they store in ways not narrowly prespecified in advance.
It includes the latest ontologies in the ontology library, developed by academic and industrial users around the world, and available in several knowledge representations and hypertext formats.
Loom, developed under ARPA sponsorship and distributed world-wide, is a general-purpose knowledge representation system that promotes the use of explicit, declarative domain models in constructing intelligent systems and applications.
www.ai.mit.edu /projects/iiip/conferences/www95/kr-panel.html   (393 words)

 Open Directory - Reference: Knowledge Management: Knowledge Representation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
John Sowa on Knowledge Representation - Provides background material and tutorials on ontology and related topics in logic, conceptual graphs, and natural language semantics.
KIF is a language designed for use in the interchange of knowledge among disparate computer systems.
Knowledge Representation Resources - A list of knowledge representation resources, part of the AI Education Repository at the University of Southwestern Louisiana.
dmoz.org /Reference/Knowledge_Management/Knowledge_Representation   (205 words)

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