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Topic: Kurgan hypothesis


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  Kurgan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Kurgan (кургáн) is the Russian word (of Turkic origin) for tumulus, a type of burial mound or barrow, heaped over a burial chamber, often of wood.
Kurgan type barrows were characteristic of Bronze Age nomadic peoples of the steppes, from the Altai to the Caucasus and Romania.
Kurgan 11 of the Berel cemetery, in the Bukhtarma River valley of Kazakhstan, containing a tomb of ca.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Kurgan   (559 words)

  
 Kurgan hypothesis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The "Kurgan hypothesis" of Proto-Indo-European (PIE) origins assumes gradual expansion of the "Kurgan culture" until it encompasses the entire Pontic steppe, Kurgan IV being identified with the Yamna culture of around 3000 BC.
In the Kurgan hypothesis, the entire pontic steppes are considered the PIE Urheimat, and a variety of late PIE dialects is assumed to have been spoken across the region.
Mallory advocates the Kurgan hypothesis as the de-facto standard theory of Indo-European origins, but he recognizes valid criticism of Gimbutas' radical scenario of military invasion: almost all the arguments for invasion and cultural transformation are far better explained without reference to Kurgan expansion.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Kurgan_culture   (1409 words)

  
 Info and facts on 'Kurgan'   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Kurgan (кургáн) is the Russian (A native or inhabitant of Russia) word (of Turkic (A subfamily of Altaic languages) origin) for a type of burial mound ((archeology) a heap of earth placed over prehistoric tombs) or barrow, heaped over a burial chamber, often of wood.
Ryzhanovka kurgan, a 10 metres high kurgan 125 km south of Kiev (Capital and largest city of the Ukraine; a major manufacturing and transportation center), containing the tomb of a Scythian (The Iranian language spoken by the ancient Scythians) chieftain, 3rd century BC, excavated in 1996.
In the Kurgan hypothesis, the entire pontic steppes are considered the PIE Urheimat (additional info and facts about Urheimat), and a variety of late PIE dialects is assumed to have been spoken across the region.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/k/ku/kurgan.htm   (1688 words)

  
 Wikipedia: Kurgan
A kurgan is a type of burial mound heaped over a burial chamber, often of wood, that was characteristic of Bronze Age nomadic peoples of the steppes, from the Altai to the Caucasus and Romania.
Within the burial chamber at the heart of the kurgan, members of the elite were buried with grave goods and sacrificial offerings, sometimes including horse-sacrifices.
In 1956 Marija Gimbutas introduced her "Kurgan hypothesis" combining archaeology from the distinctive "Kurgan' burial mounds with linguistics to unravel the problem of the origins of Proto-Indo-European (PIE) speaking peoples.
www.factbook.org /wikipedia/en/k/ku/kurgan.html   (193 words)

  
 Read about Kurgan at WorldVillage Encyclopedia. Research Kurgan and learn about Kurgan here!   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Kurgan, Kurgan Oblast for a Russian city of that name.
Kurgan 11 of the Berel cemetery, in the
James Mallory advocates the Kurgan hypothesis as the de-facto standard theory of Indo-European origins, but he recognizes valid criticism of Gimbutas' radical scenario of military invasion: almost all the arguments for invasion and cultural transformation are far better explained without reference to Kurgan expansion.
encyclopedia.worldvillage.com /s/b/Kurgan   (1337 words)

  
 All words on Kurgan
See Highlander for the fictional character called Kurgan.'' ---- Kurgan (кургáн) is the Russian word (of Turkic origin) for a type of burial mound or barrow, heaped over a burial chamber, often of wood.
The Ipatovo kurgan revealed a long sequence of burials from the Maikop culture ca.
Overview of the Kurgan hypothesis The "Kurgan hypothesis" of Proto-Indo-European (PIE) origins assumes gradual expansion of the "Kurgan culture" until it encompasses the entire pontic steppe, Kurgan IV being identified with the Yamna culture of around 3000 BC.
www.allwords.org /ku/kurgan.html   (1555 words)

  
 KURGAN FACTS AND INFORMATION   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
In 1956 Marija_Gimbutas introduced her Kurgan_hypothesis combining kurgan archaeology with linguistics to locate the origins of the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) speaking peoples.
Kurgan type barrows were characteristic of Bronze_Age nomadic peoples of the steppes, from the Altai to the Caucasus and Romania.
The ''Ipatovo'' kurgan revealed a long sequence of burials from the Maykop_culture ca.
www.witwib.com /?s=Kurgan   (523 words)

  
 wikien.info: Main_Page   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
The Kurgan hypothesis suggests burials in barrows or tomb chambers.
A rough localization was attempted by reconstructing the names of plants and animals (importantly the beech and the salmon) as well as the culture and technology (a Bronze Age culture centered on animal husbandry and having domesticated the horse).
In the twentieth century Marija Gimbutas created a modern variation on the traditional invasion theory (the Kurgan hypothesis, see Kurgan) in which the Indo-Europeans were a nomadic tribe in southern Russia and expanded on horseback in several waves during the 3rd millennium BC.
www.kulkedisi.info /index.php?title=Proto-Indo-European   (1330 words)

  
 Kurgan, Russia
See Kurgan Oblast for the Russian district of that name.
Wave 2, mid 4th millennium BC, originating in the Maikop culture and resulting in advances of "kurganized" hybrid cultures into northern Europe around 3000 BC.
JP Mallory advocates the Kurgan hypothesis as the de-facto standard theory of Indo-European origins, but he recognizes valid criticism of Gimbutas' radical scenario of military invasion: almost all the arguments for invasion and cultural transformation are far better explained without reference to Kurgan expansion.
creekin.net /c6245-n153-kurgan-russia.html   (1366 words)

  
 Family Tree DNA Forum - R1a says I'm Kurgan, am I also Viking?
The Kurgan people were an Indo-European culture existing during the fifth, fourth, and third millennia BC; they lived in northern Europe, from Russia across Germany, and various authorities have mounted a case for them being THE proto-Indo-European culture, from which all Indo-European cultures descend.
The word kurgan means barrow or grave in Slavic and Turkic; Kurgan culture is characterized by pit-graves or barrows, a particular method of burial.
Kurgan horse-herders may have been like their possible decendents, the Scythians, who rode geldings only, their main herds being kept wild under stallions, and controlled through the mares which were hobbled near the settlements and milked regularly.
www.familytreedna.com /forum/archive/index.php?t-834.html   (2240 words)

  
 Kurgan Theory or Ypothesis - Balkan Forums   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Kurgan is the Russian word (of Turkic origin) for a type of burial mound or barrow, heaped over a burial chamber, often of wood.
The Kurgan culture is not the sort of giant advance needed to explain language replacement.
The Kurgan theory centres on possible archaeological evidence for an expansion into Europe and the Near East by Kurgan horsemen beginning in the sixth millennium BP7, 8.
www.balkanforums.com /showthread.php?t=747   (2513 words)

  
 Indo-European - PakAF.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
The scholarly opinions became basically divided between a European hypothesis, positing migration from Europe to Asia, and an Asian hypothesis, holding that the migration took place in the opposite direction.
In the twentieth century, Marija Gimbutas (1956) created a modern variation on the traditional invasion theory (the Kurgan hypothesis) which regards the Indo-Europeans as nomadic horsemen in what is today South Russia and Eastern Ukraine, expanding in several waves during the 3rd millennium BC.
Colin Renfrew (1987) is the main propagator for another theory according to which the Indo-Europeans were farmers in Asia Minor who introduced agriculture into southeast Europe around 7000 BC and assimilated the Preindoeuropeans.
www.pakaf.com /read/Indo-European   (765 words)

  
 Aryan Invasions
Kurgan I people were from the Volga steppe; Kurgan II, who were culturally more advanced, developed in the North Pontic area between the Lower Dniester and the Caucasus mountains; Kurgan III people were again from the Volga steppe.
The Kurgan culture of the 5th millennium B.C. in the Volga foreststeppe and steppe and its newly acquired territory north of the Black Sea agrees with much that is reconstructed on a linguistic basis as PIE.
In the Kurgan culture of the steppe, agriculture was secondary to a pastoral economy.
users.cyberone.com.au /myers/gimbutas.html   (20924 words)

  
 All Empires History Forum: THE ORIGIN OF ALL CIVILIZATIONS   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
The "kurgan" hypothesis makes sense because of the plethora of historical, linguistic, anthropological and archaeological evidence which points to an origin of all Indo-European peoples in the vicinity of the Caspian Sea and/or central Asia.
The "kurgan" hypothesis makes sense because of the plethora of historical, linguistic, anthropological and archaeological evidence which points to an origin of all Indo-European peoples in the vicinity of the Caspian Sea and/or central Asia.  Any good evidence linking Indo-European peoples to a central European origin is practically non-existent.
The regions where the Kurgan tradition penetrated and where the later "Celts" and "Germanics" lived had cultural traditions of their own which were mixed in with the intruding culture.
www.allempires.com /forum/forum_posts.asp?TID=2042&PN=1   (1643 words)

  
 The Virtual Pomegranate
Gimbutas' hypothesis locates the homeland of Proto-Indo-European speakers in the area of south Russia and documents their movements into Europe from the end of the fifth millennium BC.
Marija Gimbutas named the Proto-Indo-European speakers "Kurgans" after their burial mounds, and "Old Europe" refers to the Neolithic cultures of Europe before the Indo-European influence; both terms were coined by Gimbutas.
The facile rejection of this rather modest hypothesis is testimony to the hold that androcentric religions and the theories which support them have on the imaginations of many scholars (Goldenberg 1997: 45).
chass.colostate-pueblo.edu /natrel/pom/old/POM10a2.html   (4636 words)

  
 Lingua Franca - 07/02/2004: Language Evolution
Russell Gray is an evolutionary biologist at the University of Auckland who’s leapt into trying to find the answer that linguists have never been sure of; although there have been plenty of theories.
And the Kurgan hypothesis, which is perhaps the most widely accepted one, suggests that all these languages sprang from a common source about 6,000 years ago on the Russian steppes.
There must be a way of testing between the Kurgan and the Anatolian hypothesis.
www.abc.net.au /rn/arts/ling/stories/s1038067.htm   (2311 words)

  
 [No title]
He supports the Kurgan hypothesis, according to which PIE was spread by horsemen going outwards from a homeland in the eastern Ukraine, just north of the Black Sea.
Gimbutas, Marija, _The Journal of Indo-European Studies_ (several articles over the years) and _The Civilization of the Goddess_ -- An abundance of work on the archeology of the Kurgans (she was the first to propose the Kurgan -- IE link), as well as reconstructions of their culture.
Scientific American, March 1990, Gamkrelidze and Ivanov, "The Early History of Indo-European Languages" -- A departure from the Kurgan hypothesis; the IE homeland was in the Kura-Araxes area.
homepage.mac.com /lpetrich/www/writings/NostraticRefs.txt   (2128 words)

  
 Kurgan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
They are also called Burial mounds or tumuli and the custom was in use until the 11th century in Scandinavia.
The bodies of important or wealthy people, together with grave goods were placed in such graves out of respect or for religious reasons.
This page was last modified 12:53, 25 Aug 2004.
www.encyclopedia-online.info /Kurgan   (296 words)

  
 History of The Balkans Encyclopedia, Definition, History, Biography   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Mallory, dating the migrations earlier to around 4000 BC and putting less insistence on their violent or quasi-military nature, is still widely held.
Ulfilas was the apostle to the Goths and he translated the Bible from Greek into the Gothic language, fragments have survived and are known as the Codex Argenteus.
The creed of Ulfilas, as appended to a letter praising him written by his foster-son and pupil the Scythian Auxentius of Durostorum (modern Silistra) on the Danube, who became bishop of Milan, was a clear statement of central Arian tenets.
www.artbytexans.com /encyclopedia/History_of_the_Balkans   (8694 words)

  
 Slavs   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
A common theory is that the Proto-Indo-Europeans, and also the later Proto-Slavs, originated from the steppes of Ukraine and southern Russia (see Kurgan hypothesis).
However, other scholars believe that the Proto-Slavs had been in north-east Central Europe since very early times, and were the bearers of the Lusatian culture and later the Przeworsk culture (and were also part of the Chernyakhov culture).
Another recent theory, relying on the multiregional origin hypothesis claims an autochthonous Slavic origin from pre-glacial times.
www.comicscomics.com /search.php?title=Slavs   (1461 words)

  
 Pacifica Graduate Institute | Joseph Campbell & Marija Gimbutas Library | Marija Gimbutas - Life and Work
In 1956 Marija presented her "Kurgan Hypothesis" at an international conference in Philadelphia.
With this theory, she was the first scholar to bring together linguistic and archaeological knowledge to solve the problem of the origins of Proto-Indo-European speaking peoples (whom she named "Kurgans" after their distinctive burial mounds) and to trace their migrations into Europe.
She was chosen to be a Fellow of the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University for the academic year 1961-62 where she developed her enormous tome Bronze Age Cultures of Central and Eastern Europe (Moulton, 1965).
www.online.pacifica.edu /cgl/Gimbutasbio   (1408 words)

  
 Nordic or not? - Page 5 - Stormfront White Nationalist Community   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
There you go, these are all theories, people tend to believe in the ones that suits their agendas more.
I for example find the "Kurgan expnasion" hypothesis flawed and subscirbe to the Anatolian one.
I suspect that Kevorkian has it right - we are getting confused between the peoples of the Fertile Crescent/ Mespotamia (= contemporary Iraq) and the quite different claim that Anatolia and the Kurgan culture was the source of IE expansion.
www.stormfront.org /forum/showthread.php?p=1869952   (956 words)

  
 Encyclopedia: Kurgan hypothesis   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Marija Gimbutas (Vilnius, Lithuania January 23, 1921 – Los Angeles February 2, 1994) researched the Neolithic and Bronze Age cultures of Old Europe, a term she introduced, in works published between 1946 and 1971, that opened new views by combining traditional spadework, linguistics and mythology.
Importance and applicability Most of human history is not described by any written records.
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www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Kurgan-hypothesis   (713 words)

  
 Proto-Indo-European   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
They practiced a polytheistic religion centered on sacrificial rites, probably administered by a priestly caste.
The Kurgan scenario is well known as a theory of Indo-European origins, but its status remains speculative.
A modified form of this theory by JP Mallory, dating the migrations earlier to around 4000 BC and putting less insistence on their violent or quasi-military nature, is still widely held.
comicscomics.com /search.php?title=Proto-Indo-European   (1335 words)

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