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Topic: Kuwaiti oil fires


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In the News (Mon 19 Aug 19)

  
  Kuwaiti oil fires - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Kuwaiti oil fires were a result of the scorched earth policy of Iraqi military forces retreating from Kuwait in 1990 after conquering the country but being driven out by the military forces of the United States and other nations (see Gulf War).
Whether this syndrome has been caused by the oil fires, by chemical attack, or other causes has not been determined, and the longterm environmental effects of the fires have yet to be fully understood.
The fires were the subject of a 1992 IMAX documentary film, Fires of Kuwait, which was nominated for an Academy Award.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Kuwaiti_oil_fires   (423 words)

  
 OIL FIRES,   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
The 11 ACR was stationed 30 to 80 miles from the oil field fires during a time of high winds (Shamel winds) that dispersed the smoke plume from the fires and at a time 40% of the oil fires had been extinguished.
The government position on the oil fires is the result of incorrect analysis of the actual exposure to the oil fires and incorrect assessment of the toxicity of the soot and petroleum exposure.
Specific to the oil in the environment there, those breathing or enveloped in oil fire smoke was 96 percent; within clear visual area of the oil fires was 90 percent; worked in, lived in, or made travel through the burning oil fields was 72 percent; washed in water with an oily sheen was 68 percent.
www.penfield-gill.com /presentations/CDCall-final.htm   (8844 words)

  
 The Environmental Literacy Council - Oil in the Ocean
Major oil spills, such as the 2006 spill off the coast of Lebanon or the 2002 Prestige accident off the coast of Spain, pose serious threats to birdlife, fisheries, and marine ecosystems.
According to the 2003 National Research Council report, Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, Fates, and Effects, 70 percent of the oil that reaches ocean waters from human activities (also called anthropogenic sources) is the result of consumer use, and in North American waters that figure jumps to close to 85 percent.
Oil from consumer uses and recreational boat motors can concentrate in sensitive coastal ecosystems before it has a chance to be dispersed in the ocean.
www.enviroliteracy.org /article.php/540.html   (1323 words)

  
 KUWAIT Case
Perhaps the greatest fear from the Kuwaiti oil fires was effect of the vast amount of raw crude that seeped into the Persian Gulf.
The Kuwaiti oil fires caused a precipitous drop in foreign worker remittances to their homelands, which in turn caused their families to suffer from a lack of sustained income.
The oil fires caused almost one and one half billion barrels of oil to flow in to the Persian Gulf, which covered almost 440 miles of Gulf coastline.
gurukul.ucc.american.edu /ted/KUWAIT.HTM   (3828 words)

  
 Combustion
Although surface blowout fires in gas and oil wells do not occur very often, normally ten instances per year worldwide, the extinguishments of the oil well fires in Kuwait was integrated to contain the catastrophic incident.
Water to fight fires was obtained from the Persian Gulf, the shoreline of which was only about three miles from the edge of the Bergan complex of fields.
It is used on liquid hydrocarbon fires to smother the fuel surface (excludes oxygen), suppress vapor emissions (explosive vapor release is restricted), generate steam (removes heat and displaces oxygen), cool surface (heat absorption) and reflect radiant heat.
www.msu.edu /~muhannad/oil_fires.html   (1720 words)

  
 CNN.com - Kuwait still recovering from Gulf War fires - Jan. 3, 2003
Concern is mounting that Saddam may torch his own oil fields in the event of war as he did to Kuwait fields in the 1991 Gulf War.
The fires, according to a report prepared for Gen. Norman Schwarzkopf, the allied commander in the Gulf War, consumed more than 4 million barrels of oil a day at their height.
Although much of the oil gushing from the ground burned in the fires, a sticky residue formed lakes that mar the landscape of Kuwait to this day.
www.cnn.com /2003/WORLD/meast/01/03/sproject.irq.kuwait.oil.fires   (777 words)

  
 Environ Health Perspect 106-3, 1998: Brain et al.
The Kuwaiti oil wells set on fire by retreating Iraqi troops at the end of the Persian Gulf War released complex particles, inorganic and organic gases, and hydrocarbons into the atmosphere, damaging the environment where many people live and work.
To assess the relative pulmonary toxicity of the oil well fire particles, we instilled hamsters intratracheally with samples of particulate air pollution collected in the town of Ahmadi, which is a residential area located directly downwind from hundreds of oil fires.
Oil well fire particles are in the smaller size range, usually less than 3.5 µm mass median aerodynamic diameter, which is the size range that was sampled for these pulmonary toxicity evaluations.
www.ehponline.org /members/1998/106p141-146brain/brain-full.html   (5747 words)

  
 CNN.com - Pentagon has reports Iraqi oil wells ablaze - Mar. 20, 2003
This NOAA satellite image taken March 20 shows an undetermined number of oil well fires in Iraq, the plumes of which are visible, indicated by the arrow.
Before the fires, Iraq was responsible for intentionally releasing some 11 million barrels of oil into the Arabian Gulf from January to May 1991, oiling more than 800 miles of Kuwaiti and Saudi Arabian coastline.
The amount of oil released was categorized as 20 times larger than the Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska and twice as large as the previous world record oil spill.
www.cnn.com /2003/WORLD/meast/03/20/sprj.irq.oil.wells/index.html   (456 words)

  
 [No title]
A former Saudi oil minister, Sheikh Ahmed Zaki Yamani sees this worst case scenario: war with Iraq might provoke Saddam to use his Scud missiles with chemical and biological warheads to attack the Kuwaiti and Saudi oil fields.
Even more so than the Kuwaiti oil fires Saddam set in 1991, chemical and biological attacks would make the oil fields unusable and exceedingly complicated to clean up and restore to functioning.
This is 25 percent of the world's oil production even though it has only 4 percent of the world's population and 3 percent of its reserves.
home.comcast.net /~robertmag73/follow_that_oil.doc   (1051 words)

  
 Mideast Ecology Notes: Evaluating the Impact of Kuwaiti Oil Fires
The researchers are now in the process of applying the data to large-scale atmospheric chemistry models to better understand the fires' environmental impact.
According to estimates from the UN World Meteorological Organization, more than 5 million barrels of oil and 70 million cubic meters of gas were burning every day in the Gulf during the summer.
Emissions from these fires are estimated at 3,000 tons of nitrogen oxide a day, 500,000 tons of carbon dioxide daily and 40,000 tons of sulfur dioxide.
www.washington-report.org /backissues/1091/9110071a.htm   (369 words)

  
 Kuwaiti - ClanBrandon Books
Devastating oil wells as revealed by Iraqi documents: Economic and environmental damage and Kuwaiti efficacy in protecting oil wealth — Item may not be in stock.
Kuwaiti resistance as revealed by Iraqi documents — Item may not be in stock.
The environmental and health impact of the Kuwaiti oil fires: Proceedings of an International Symposium held at the University of Birmingham...
www.clanbrandon.co.uk /book-shop/kuwaiti.htm   (567 words)

  
 GIS/EM4 Using Modeled Data and Geographic Informations System (GIS) Technology for the Investigation of Gulf War ...
Additional epidemiological studies assessing modeled oil fire exposure and adverse health outcomes in Gulf War veterans are currently underway to further assess the validity of the modeled exposure and risk data.
The exposures U.S. Troops received from oil fire emissions was one of the most completely characterized of all the possible exposures they encountered in the Persian Gulf.
Future research in the area of oil fire exposure effects should concentrate on the impact of the particulate component from the oil fires and include sand base contributions.
www.colorado.edu /research/cires/banff/pubpapers/171/index.html   (4226 words)

  
 portland imc - 2004.11.25 - US Special Forces mem. admits U.S./U.N. set Kuwaiti Oil Fires in 1991
This report describes in detail how extensively Kuwait will be destroyed, how the oil wells will be set on fire, and then how it will all be rebuilt 'better than before', with despotism, rather than democracy, even more strongly entrenched than it had been before.
GULF WAR VET ADMITS SETTING OIL WELL FIRES UNDER U.N. During the past six years, the American Gulf War Veterans Association has received numerous reports from veterans stating that US forces were responsible for the setting of the oil well fires at the end of the Gulf War.
Kuwait's oil wells, torched during the final phase of the 1991 Gulf War, were set ablaze by fast-moving strike teams of U.S. Special Forces, not by Iraqi troops, as reported at the time, according to a U.S. Army officer who was there.
portland.indymedia.org /en/2004/11/304515.shtml   (3060 words)

  
 Tab B   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
Al-Besharah, J. "The Kuwaiti Oil Fires and Oil Lakes - Facts and Numbers." The Environmental and Health Impact of the Kuwaiti Oil Fires.
Ayers, J.G. "Potential Respiratory Effects of the Kuwaiti Oil Fires on the Population of Kuwait." The Environmental and Health Impact of the Kuwaiti Oil Fires.
Gundersen, D.T., S.W. Kristanto, L.R. Curtis, S.N. Al-Yakoob, M.M. Metwally, and D. Al-Ajmi, "Subacute Toxicity of the Water-Soluble Fractions of Kuwait Crude Oil and Partially Combusted Crude Oil on Menidia beryllina and Palaemonetes pugio." Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, January 1996.
www.gulflink.osd.mil /oil_well_fires/oil_well_fires_tabb.htm   (2111 words)

  
 NASA Observatorium Education-History   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
The Kuwaiti oil field fires were easily visible from space.
It shows a few of the smoke plumes from the 700 oil wells blown up by the defeated Iraqi army as they fled Kuwait.
By November all of the oil fires had been extinguished, though the cleanup of the fires and the oil released into the Persian Gulf is still going on.
observe.arc.nasa.gov /nasa/exhibits/history/history_9.html   (284 words)

  
 C:\PROGRAM FILES\SOFTQUAD\HOTMETAL PRO\gifs\brain-wa.htm   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
We assessed the health effects of particles from the Kuwaiti oil fires by instilling hamsters intratracheally with particles (less than 3.5ìm in size) collected in Ahmadi, a residential area in Kuwait located down wind of oil fires soon after cessation of hostilities.
Thus, the smoke from the Kuwaiti oil fires may contribute to both acute and chronic cardiopulmonary disease and death.
Most epidemiological studies of the effects of these particles have been performed on healthy members of the armed services or fire fighting crews and may not be representative of the citizens of Kuwait who were exposed to this smoke, including children, the elderly, and those with pre-existing cardiopulmonary disease.
www.eli.org /ecw/brawar.htm   (518 words)

  
 End Notes   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
El Desouky, M. And M.Y. Abdulraheem, "Impact of Oil Well Fires on the Air Quality in Kuwait", in The Environmental and Health Impact of the Kuwait Oil Fires, Proceedings of an International Symposium Held at the University of Birmingham, October 1991, p.
Al-Besharah, J. "The Kuwait Oil Fires and Oil Lakes - Facts and Numbers." The Environmental and Health Impact of the Kuwait Oil Fires.
Ayres, J.G. "Potential Respiratory Effects of the Kuwaiti Oil Fires on the Population of Kuwait." The Environmental and Health Impact of the Kuwait Oil Fires.
www.gulflink.osd.mil /oil_well_fires/oil_well_fires_en.htm   (4866 words)

  
 The Environmental Literacy Council - Kuwaiti Oil Fires
The Environmental Literacy Council - Kuwaiti Oil Fires
Upon being driven out of Kuwait, Iraqi soldiers dumped millions of gallons of oil into the Persian Gulf and set fire to hundreds of active oil wells, leaving spewing flames and fl smoke into the sky for months after the end of hostilities.
Upon the discovery of wildflowers next to an oil lake, scientists discovered that some plants can grow in petroleum polluted soil, and actually cleanse the soil of the oil.
www.enviroliteracy.org /subcategory.php/289.html   (271 words)

  
 Science Friday Kids Connection, April 4, Hour Two: Environmental Effects of 1991 Kuwati Oil FIres
The oil well fires, which burned for months, produced thick, fl clouds of smoke so extensive that they could be seen from space.
The oil dump, 20 times the size of the Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska, held severe consequences for the Kuwaiti coastal region, killing off wildlife and fouling beaches.
The oil has also strangled large areas of coral reef by coating the coral and blocking it from sunlight and food.
www.sciencefriday.com /kids/sfkc20030404-1.html   (1485 words)

  
 NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Safari 2000
The fires that raged across southern Africa this August and September produced a thick "river of smoke" that observers compared with the aftermath of the Kuwaiti oil fires in 1991.
The intensive SAFARI 2000 six-week field campaign was planned to coincide with the dry-season fires.
The thick haze layer from these fires produced between Aug. 23 and Sept. 7 was heavier than campaign participants had seen in previous field studies in the Amazon Basin and during the Kuwati oil fires.
www.gsfc.nasa.gov /gsfc/earth/environ/safari2000final.htm   (976 words)

  
 oil kuwait - Books, journals, articles @ The Questia Online Library
Exposures to the Kuwait oil fires and their association with asthma...Airborne studies of the smoke from the Kuwait oil fires.
Iraqi oil revenues to be transferred...consequences of Kuwait invasion UN...and occupation of Kuwait.
Later the crude oil must be pumped out or forced...chemical composition of crude oil varies from one locality to another...
www.questia.com /search/oil-kuwait   (1797 words)

  
 FOXNews.com - Iraqi Oil Well Fires Not a Major Health Threat - Blog | Blogs | Popular Blogs | Video Blogs
Greenpeace claims, "Fires from 600 deliberately damaged Kuwaiti oil wells … created a blanket of soot, gases and aggressive chemicals [that] led to immediate respiratory problems in local populations and generated serious long-term risks of birth defects and cancer in exposed people."
Agence France-Presse reported, "The release of oil and smoke from [Iraqi] fires would likely have long-term health effects." Again, the alleged health effects were unspecified.
Blood samples were tested and compared with a group of people living in the U.S. Although the median concentration of certain substances (volatile organic compounds or VOCs) was quite elevated among firefighters, VOC concentrations in non-firefighting personnel were equal or lower than levels found among people in the U.S. survey.
www.foxnews.com /story/0,2933,81045,00.html   (978 words)

  
 On predictions of nuclear winter from Kuwaiti oil well fires   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
Your readers should be assured that a global disaster is not imminent, as they might conclude from Monday's editorial "On the Brink of Environmental Ruin" and Tuesday's headline "Iraqis Ignite Kuwaiti Oil Fields".
Second, the notion that Mideast oil well fires could cause "nuclear winter" evolves from Mr.
Numerous oil well fires in Kuwait could cover that country with smoke and could affect adjacent downwind nations.
www.johnstonsarchive.net /opinion/opinion1991-01.html   (207 words)

  
 Iraqi Oil Well Fires Not a Major Health Threat   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
Peak soot emissions were equivalent to 3 million heavy-duty diesel trucks being driven at 30 miles per hour, according to a 1992 study in the journal Science.
Faced with the lack of evidence of health effects, anti-warriors might counter that it has only been 12 years since the Kuwaiti oil well fires and health effects like cancer may take 20 or more years to develop.
The oil fields should be under the protection of coalition forces.
www.freerepublic.com /focus/f-news/865217/posts   (376 words)

  
 Deployments - Gulf War - Oil- Fire-Smoke in the Gulf War: Bibliography
An evaluation of air pollutant exposures due to the 1991 Kuwait oil fires using a Lagrangian model.
Evaluation of model back trajectories of the Kuwait oil fires smoke plume using digital satellite data.
Asthma and exposure to oil fire smoke among Gulf War veterans.
www.pdhealth.mil /deployments/gulfwar/gulfwar_health_oilfire5.asp   (440 words)

  
 The Fires This Time - Newsweek The War in Iraq - MSNBC.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
In between fighting fires, Adair flew to Washington to testify before the Gulf Pollution Task Force and also met with the president to discuss the challenges firefighters faced in Kuwait.
He still considers his role in putting out the Kuwaiti oil-well fires one of his greatest tasks and achievements.
But if the United States attacks Iraq and Saddam’s troops set oil-well fires in their own country, Adair says the men he trained would face an even tougher—and much more dangerous—job putting out those fires.
msnbc.msn.com /id/3068547/site/newsweek   (1333 words)

  
 TRENDS: CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS
The Middle East, as represented here, is 15 nations that may contribute a large fraction of the world's oil but through their own energy consumption produce only 5.7% of global CO
The 1991 Kuwaiti oil field fires resulted in 130 million metric tons of carbon being emitted to the atmosphere, more than the 2002 total fossil-fuel CO emissions of the 9th largest national emitter, South Korea.
The three major fuel consumers discharge 68% of the region's CO : Iran, 98.1 million metric tons of carbon in 2002; Saudi Arabia, 92.8 million metric tons of carbon; and Turkey, 56.7 million metric tons of carbon.
cdiac.esd.ornl.gov /trends/emis/tre_mde.htm   (258 words)

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