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Topic: LNG

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  LNG - Frequently Asked Questions
LNG is characterized as a cryogen, a liquefied gas kept in its liquid state at very low temperatures.
LNG is normally warmed to make natural gas to be used in heating and cooking as well as electricity generation and other industrial uses.
LNG peak-shaving facilities are used for storing surplus natural gas that is to be used to meet the requirements of peak consumption later during winter or summer.
www.energy.ca.gov /lng/faq.html   (1272 words)

 Sempra Energy - LNG   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-28)
In the form of LNG, natural gas can be shipped from the parts of the world where it is abundant to where it is in demand.
LNG is super-cooled natural gas, an energy source that has much lower air emissions than other fossil fuels, such as oil or coal.
The use of LNG is a proven, reliable and safe process, and it has been used in the United States since 1944.
www.sempra.com /lng.htm   (194 words)

Carrying LNG, one of the most profitable and feared fuels in the energy marketplace, the behemoth tanker will be on the last leg of its journey from a distant land, Trinidad, Indonesia, or perhaps Algeria.
The LNG will either be "thawed" to its gaseous form at the terminal and piped to homes and businesses throughout the Northeast, or carried as LNG in refrigerated trucks and converted to gas at remote sites.
That ship, similar to an LNG carrier, did not explode; the fire was contained, and the crew was uninjured, she says.
www.greenfutures.org /projects/LNG/LNG1-4-04.html   (2500 words)

 Green Car Congress: LNG
LNG is a purified natural gas that has been condensed into a liquid at atmospheric pressure by cooling it to approximately -160º C (-256º F).
FERC concluded that LNG terminals are engaged in foreign commerce and, as such, fall clearly within the authority granted to the FERC under Section 3 of the Natural Gas Act of 1938.
LNG supplies from Arun have been declining over the past decade, partly due to a shutdown prompted by separatist unrest in 2001, as well as a fire in August 2003, but mainly because of the depletion of local natural gas fields.
www.greencarcongress.com /lng   (5606 words)

 Center for Liquefied Natural Gas - Marine Information - LNG Vessel Safety   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-28)
LNG has been delivered across the oceans for about 45 years without major accidents or safety problems, either in port or on the high seas.
LNG is transported in double-hulled ships designed to prevent leakage or rupture in an accident.
LNG is stored in either double membrane containment systems made of special materials and located within the ship's inner hull or special three-quarter inch thick spherical tanks.
lngfacts.org /marine_information/vessel_safety.html   (839 words)

 PFRP lng
LNG is natural gas that is supercooled into a liquid state and shipped overseas in specially constructed tankers, then heated back into a gas and distributed through pipelines.
LNG evaporates immediately when it is warmed by contact with water, and natural gas will only burn if it makes up between 5 percent and 15 percent of the air around it.
In evaluating LNG proposals within and outside New England, the board noted that FERC did not weigh or rank projects based on safety and environmental concerns with their accompanying natural gas supply costs, needs and reliability to determine which project is most suitable overall.
pfrplng.blogspot.com   (7472 words)

 LNG Fact Sheet   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-28)
LNG tanks are always of double-wall construction with extremely efficient insulation between the walls.
LNG is stored as a "boiling cryogen," that is, it is a very cold liquid at its boiling point for the pressure it is being stored.
However, even at 100 psig, the LNG temperature will still be only about -200°F. [See also A Brief History of U.S. LNG Incidents.] First, one must remember that LNG is a form of energy and must be respected as such.
www.ch-iv.com /lng/lngfact.htm   (759 words)

 FERC: For Citizens - LNG Overview   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-28)
LNG is liquefied natural gas (methane) that has been cooled to an extremely cold temperature (-260° F/ -162.2° C).
LNG is also converted back to gas at the terminal, which is connected to natural gas pipelines that transport the gas to where it is needed.
LNG is stored in double-walled, insulated tanks that are designed to prevent any gas from escaping.
www.ferc.gov /for-citizens/lng.asp   (566 words)

 RasLaffan - LNG Facts   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-28)
LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) is simply natural gas which has been reduced to a liquid state by cooling it to a sub-zero temperature (-162;C).
The largest application for LNG is world trade where natural gas is liquefied and transported by large ocean tankers from remote reserves to markets in Asia, Europe and North America.
LNG is also emerging as an alternative motor fuel to diesel.
www.qp.com.qa /raslaffan/rlc.nsf/web/introlngfacts   (858 words)

 Politics of Oil - The Center for Public Integrity
LNG is the liquefied form of natural gas.
Proponents argue that LNG is a clean fuel and that better shipping technology and the high prices for domestic natural gas make it an attractive option for Americans.
LNG delivers only a small percentage of natural gas in the U.S., but it is a staple in other nations around the world.
www.publicintegrity.org /oil/report.aspx?aid=430&sid=100   (3015 words)

 Encyclopedia: LNG   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-28)
Liquefied natural gas or LNG is natural gas that has been cooled until it becomes liquid, and it is stored in tanks.
The risks of freighting gas as LNG are not clear, some claim that since the gas is cooled rather than compressed, spilled LNG would vaporize from its liquid form, then disperse or burn slowly if ignited, and not explode.
Generally, however, there is little risk to importing natural gas through LNG terminals and in recent years companies like Cheniere Energy were leading the way in constructing terminals in Texas and Louisiana to bring in LNG.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/LNG   (574 words)

 portland imc - 2005.02.07 - Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Threatens Oregon
Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) is natural gas that is generally procured abroad, chilled to -259oF, and shipped at this cooled temperature in tankers 1000 ft in length (approximately the size of an aircraft carrier).
LNG is non-flammable in its liquid state, but it can rapidly expand into its gaseous form when released from its holding tanks.
LNG is capable of causing freeze burns because of its extremely cold temperature.
portland.indymedia.org /en/2005/02/310169.shtml   (2265 words)

 DANGER ZONE: LNG attack could torch parts of Hub
They minimized the impact of a major spill if an LNG tanker was attacked, saying any resulting fires would be relatively small and contained.
Fay's study is based on 14,000 cubic meters of liquefied gas escaping an LNG tanker, which is not all of its contents.
Holes in LNG Study: In correspondence, Quest study author tells federal agencies that findings should not be used to judge safety of new gas terminals
www.wildcalifornia.org /pages/page-115   (1103 words)

 Liquefied Natural Gas R&D at GTI
LNG is one of the world's most rapidly growing fuels.
In the United States, LNG is emerging as an important supplemental source of fuel to meet growing natural gas demand.
Oil and Gas Journal's LNG Observer Gas Technology Institute is pleased to be cooperating with Oil and Gas Journal in the revival of The LNG Observer, a magazine published by GTI between 1989 and 2001 and now a quarterly supplement to Oil and Gas Journal—the energy industry's leading information source.
www.gastechnology.org /webroot/app/xn/xd.aspx?xd=1ResearchCap\1_5EandP\1_5_1_AreasOfRsch\LNG\LNG_1_OVERVIEW\LNG_Overview.xml   (573 words)

 Fluxys LNG
Fluxys LNG recently signed long term capacity reservation contracts with Qatar Petroleum/Exxonmobil, Distrigas and Tractebel Global LNG for a total of around 9 billion cubic metres of natural gas per year as of 2007.
Fluxys LNG offers from its LNG terminal in Zeebrugge essentially the service of receiving and unloading LNG carriers, buffer storage of the unloaded LNG, regasification and send-out into the Fluxys transmission grid for onward redelivery.
The Fluxys LNG terminal provides shippers with a flexibility tool as well as it serves as a gateway for the supply of natural gas to expanding markets across a major part of Continental Europe and in the United Kingdom.
www.fluxyslng.net   (235 words)

 Study: LNG tankers make spectacular targets for terrorists
However, LNG is highly volatile and in the era of terrorism may offer more opportunities for terrorist strikes on vulnerable energy infrastructure targets located near residential neighborhoods.
One such disaster scenario was developed by James Fay, a professor emeritus of mechanical engineering at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, a former chairman of the Massachusetts Port Authority and a member of the Union of Concerned Scientists.
He predicts parts of Rhode Island and Massachusetts could be devastated by an attack on LNG tankers regularly passing through navigation canals close to residential areas in Boston and the Rhode Island shoreline on their way to the terminal in Everett, Mass.
www.iags.org /n0121041.htm   (1265 words)

 LNG Ignites Controversy: Catastrophic Threats Loom Over Humboldt Bay
LNG tankers are the length of three football fields and carry 33 million gallons of this hazardous material at a time
If approved, LNG would be brought into Humboldt Bay on tankers the length of three football fields, stored in a pair of tanks 15-stories tall, and fed it into a power plant and a pipeline leading to the Central Valley.
There are a number of inherent, catastrophic risks associated with any LNG facility, and EPIC is concerned that Calpine is attempting to trivialize very serious environmental and community safety concerns associated with its proposal.
www.wildcalifornia.org /humboldtbay/LNG   (210 words)

 Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) threatens California's coastal communities - Coasts - California - Sierra Club
LNG is natural gas that has been super-cooled to minus 259 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 161 degrees Celsius), until it becomes a liquid.
It is believed that an explosion on a LNG tanker would have the power of a small nuclear explosion, as such LNG tankers and plants are considered a prime target for terrorist attacks.
A proposed LNG terminal in Northern California was recently put on hold due to public outcry.
www.sierraclub.org /ca/coasts/lng.asp   (462 words)

 NPR : Louisiana Parish Embraces LNG Terminals
LNG (liquefied natural gas) is natural gas, primarily methane, which has been cooled to its liquid state at minus 260°F
At least five LNG plants are in the works in Cameron Parish or off its shores.
Cameron Parish is already home to a new LNG facility, where special tankers convert the liquid back into gas and offload it into a buoy pipeline system that takes it to shore.
www.npr.org /templates/story/story.php?storyId=4607362&sourceCode=RSS   (413 words)

 E & E, Inc. - Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-28)
With this in mind, the LNG industry can move forward without delay by counting on E and E for environmental support services, with its extensive experience in addressing the key siting, environmental permitting, engineering, safety, and regulatory elements associated with the planning, design and operation of LNG liquefaction and regasification facilities.
The firm's LNG projects include assessments of siting requirements; baseline environmental and land use surveys and impact analyses; FERC and Deepwater Port environmental reports and applications; and evaluations of the operational constraints and hazards associated with the plant, terminal facilities, and shipping of LNG.
In addition, E and E has studied the compatibility of LNG facilities with the present and projected uses of waterways and adjacent lands, the potential risks to the general public near prospective sites, and the potential effects of facility construction and operation on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.
www.ene.com /services/lng.asp   (516 words)

 Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-28)
Even larger LNG tankers are being designed that will lower unit transportation costs still further.
Qatar’s gas reserves are the third largest in the world, and the country’s North Field is the world’s biggest single source of nonassociated natural gas (gas not produced with oil).
To handle the LNG, we are progressing plans to build $600 million onshore LNG receiving terminals near Corpus Christi, and Port Arthur, Texas, in the U.S. and another in South Wales in the UK.
www2.exxonmobil.com /corporate/Campaign/Campaign_energydemand_LNG.asp   (707 words)

 Sempra Energy - LNG   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-28)
Energía Costa Azul is the first LNG project in Baja California to receive all three key approvals: the CRE permit, the land-use permit and the environmental permit.
In October 2004, we signed a sales-and-purchase agreement with BP and its Tangguh LNG partners for the supply of 3.7 million tonnes of liquefied natural gas (LNG) per year, the equivalent of 500 million cubic feet of natural gas a day.
Sempra LNG plans to build Port Arthur LNG along the Port Arthur ship channel in Texas that is an entryway from the Gulf of Mexico.
www.sempra.com /lng_sreplans.htm   (890 words)

 Liquefied Natural Gas: Caution! :: Mississippi Chapter Sierra Club
Liquefied natural gas (LNG), a cooled version of the natural gas that many Americans use to heat their homes, is imported from countries such as Qatar and Nigeria to meet our country’s growing energy demands.
Four LNG ports already exist in Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland and Massachusetts, but proposals have been made for 40 more of both on- and off-shore terminals.
The Mississippi Chapter is especially concerned with the cluster of these proposed facilities in the Gulf region, including two onshore LNG ports in Pascagoula and one south of Dauphin Island, AL.
mississippi.sierraclub.org /lng   (563 words)

 Troubles in  Indonesia's LNG Industry
LNG producers and buyers are concerned that poor policy and weak government management threaten Indonesia’s competitiveness.
In the 1990’s, oil and gas revenues, of which LNG represents about half, comprised nearly 27 percent of the country’s domestic budget revenues.
The current amalgam of LNG sellers is unlikely to improve soon — Pertamina is reportedly not eager to play a subordinate role to BPMIGAS and has carved out authority to remain the government’s negotiator and seller of record for Japan’s LNG contracts.
www.usembassyjakarta.org /econ/LNG_reports.html   (1710 words)

 Forbes.com: US lacks 'real-world' model to evaluate LNG safety   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-28)
LNG is natural gas chilled to minus 259 degrees Fahrenheit for transportation aboard tankers from Algeria, Trinidad, Qatar and other exporting nations.
LNG now accounts for about 2 percent of U.S. gas supply, but the government estimates imports will make up 11 percent of domestic supply by 2015.
After it arrives at a U.S. terminal by tanker, LNG is returned to a gaseous state.
www.forbes.com /home/newswire/2004/05/14/rtr1372155.html   (851 words)

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