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Topic: Land reform

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  Land Reform Revisited - Council on Foreign Relations   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
Land reform dates back to Roman times and the agrarian laws passed by the Senate around 133 BC, which indirectly led to the undoing of the Roman Republic and presaged the emergence of feudalism.
Land reform has also caused instability and even foreign intervention, as in Guatemala in 1954, when the United States helped overthrow an elected government because "its land-reform initiatives were unacceptable to American capital," said Julia Sweig, director of Latin American Studies at the Council on Foreign Relations.
Further, many of the land holdings are not redistributed to the poor but to political cronies with little farming experience—so called "cell phone farmers." There are a number of other impediments to land reform, including climate, the rising costs of farm production, and the volatility of global agricultural prices.
www.cfr.org /publication/9475/land_reform_revisited.html   (1943 words)

 United Nations - OCHA IRIN | Web Special | Land reform in Southern Africa   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
Land reform was one of the main promises made by the African National Congress when it came to power in South Africa in 1994.
Land claims official David Sello told IRIN that the commission might have to scrap the Bakgaga Bamuapa community claim and redo the validation process, because other claimants had also lodged claims seeking restitution for land gazetted for the Bamuapa.
Land reform activists are currently reviewing the status of all three land reform programmes in South Africa.
www.irinnews.org /webspecials/landreformsa/South-Africa.asp   (1152 words)

 United Nations - OCHA IRIN | Web Special | Land reform in Southern Africa   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
But whether land is in the hands of a white minority or a fl elite, redistribution in favour of the poor remains an emotive issue.
Land issues in "non-settled" countries tend to be more strongly associated with landlessness, environmental degradation, loss of land to peri-urban settlement, high population growth, unsustainable land use and weak systems of land administration, according to a synthesis of land issues in Southern Africa presented at a World Bank regional workshop last year.
The ICG is preparing a study on land reform in the subregion.
www.irinnews.org /webspecials/landreformsa/default.asp   (976 words)

 africanfront.com (AUF)
In most cases African land is "owned" by the governments of the constituent republics of the African Union, and in many cases it is the state government that allocates and reallocates land, on behalf of the people collectively who are the ultimate owner of the land.
Land disputes first became critical in Africa under the colonial occupation when Africans were disposed of land and moved into reserves, concentration camps, and "unskilled-labour" ghettoes.
Land use in Africa presents problems that unique to Africa, although there are correlations and similarities with land use else where.
www.africanfront.com /land_issues.php   (1516 words)

 Two Models of Land Reform and Development - Brazil
This model of land reform is now being challenged b the World Bank's attempts to solve the immense landless problem in Brazil by using "market mechanisms" to purchase land directly from the owners by the landless and then to force peasant families to survive in the global agricultural market.
The violence directed against land reform activists is largely the result of actions by the federal police and thugs hired by large land owners with the support of the Ruralista Party (the land owners' party) and the current Brazilian government of Fernando Henrique Cardoso.
The associations, land purchase negotiations, investment decisions as to land to purchase, crops to grow, infrastructure to develop, and terms of the loans to acquire land are all controlled by state and local government employees subject to influence and manipulation by local elites.
www.thirdworldtraveler.com /South_America/Land_Reform_Brazil.html   (3480 words)

Historically, land reform programs designed to address these imbalances have often failed because they did little more than give peasants land, without providing access to financial credit, technical expertise, or marketing assistance, all of which are necessary for success.
The Venezuelan government named this land reform program after Ezequiel Zamora, a revolutionary liberal leader from the nineteenth century who advocated a far-reaching land reform program for the peasantry and expressed an intense hostility to the land-owning oligarchy.
Before acquiring land, a participant needs to apply for a “carta agraria” (agrarian deed) from the National Land Institute (INTI) that verifies qualifications including demonstration of economic need and willingness to work an assigned plot of land.
www.rethinkvenezuela.com /downloads/landreform.htm   (1601 words)

 Land Reform in the Philippines
The last time the U.S. confiscated lands from the losers was during and after the American Revolution, and that was done by the colonial governments, not the U.S. In the U.S. re-occupation of the Philippines, land titles of Spanish collaborators were still undisturbed.
Land reform of this kind is free of defects that have made most other land reforms exercises in mere tokenism, stalling, graft and CIA militarism.
Land taxation raises money, and that without burdening any useful activity; by contrast, Liberal "land reform" buyouts cost money, raised, if at all, by taxing commerce, industry and labor in the cities and aborting urban development, the very thing this country needs most.
www.progress.org /land/mason.htm   (2738 words)

 World Hunger Notes-- Land Reform in Namibia: Slow Pace, Debatable Benefits by the UN Integrated Regional Information ...
The land reform process in Namibia is based on a "willing-seller, willing-buyer" principle, with the government having first option on any commercial farm for sale.
In a statement condemning the planned land invasions, the Lands and Resettlement Minister, Hifikepunye Pohamba, acknowledged that the "pace of acquiring land meant for resettling formerly disadvantaged landless Namibians is not moving fast".
Many beneficiaries of land reform were unable to secure loans because they had a long-term lease agreement with the state, and not title to the land.
www.worldhunger.org /articles/04/africa/namibialandreform.htm   (1550 words)

 Land reform in Zimbabwe - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Land Apportionment Act 1930, which was the basis for subsequent Acts and continued in effect until independence, allocated the land of the colony between areas where only Europeans could own property, areas which were held in trust for African tribes on a collective basis and areas where only Africans could own property.
Thus some land was purchased by the land fund, but few peasants were resettled while hundreds of abandoned and expropriated white farms ended up in the hands of cabinet ministers, senior government officials and wealthy indigenous businessmen.
Land reform was an important step in achieving economic development in many Third World countries since the post-World War II period, especially in the East Asian Tigers and "Tiger Cubs" nations such as Taiwan, South Korea, and Malaysia
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Land_reform_in_Zimbabwe   (2219 words)

 Land Reform
Agriculture in Guatemala is characterized by extremely unequal land distribution In 1998, according to the Ministry for Agriculture, Grains and Food (MAGA in Spanish), 96% of producers cultivated 20% of the land mass and lived in subsistence conditions.
Using various experiences from different countries, it is argued here that the pro-market critique of conventional land reforms is theoretically flawed and is unsupported by empirical evidence, and that initial outcomes of pro-market land policies show that they do not significantly reform pre-existing agrarian structures in favour of the rural poor.
It narrates how the de Leon heirs circumvented land reform by faking a voluntary offer of sale where the land was supposedly sold, in smaller parcels, to “farmer-beneficiaries.” These beneficiaries, however, were actually members of the clan, which includes some of the country’s wealthiest bankers, businesspeople, and socialites.
www.landaction.org /category.php?section=73   (5471 words)

 Venezuela's Agrarian Land Reform: More like Lincoln than Lenin
Land reform poses perhaps the greatest challenge yet to Chavez’s stormy presidency, as it historically has been the Achilles’ heel of left-of-center regimes.
His land reform program should thus be viewed in the broader context of his “Bolivarian Revolution,” which can be described as an attempt to reverse much of the damage the country suffered by the problems of its mismanaged oil wealth, coupled with the clientelism, profligacy and corruption of the leprous series of COPEI/AD governments.
Furthermore, the previous land reform in Venezuela never got to the core of the problem, which was the retention of large, unused but arable tracts of land by the latifundistas.
www.venezuelanalysis.com /articles.php?artno=1384   (3118 words)

 Zimbabwe Land Reform
Land possession has been a major area of dispute for whites and fls in Zimbabwe for decades.
Moreover, much of the land that had been distributed, remained in the hands of the fl elites, and was not accessible for lower-class Zimbabweans.
In July 2000, President Mugabe stated that he would adopt a "fast-tracts" land reform process in Zimbabwe where a national committee, the National Land Identification Committee, would identify tracks of land for redistribution.
www.hrcr.org /hottopics/zimbabwe.html   (641 words)

The Land Bank was induced by the government into accepting a lease between the council and the management company as security (until the land is transferred) whilst there were still previously established leases in place.
Some R 2 bil in land reform projects failed last year because the Land reform grants that were to be used in conjunction with the Land Bank to get the projects going suddenly disappeared out of the picture.
That was a no-no because government want to ensure that no white land owner is ever properly compensated or compensated at all for participating in the land reform program as invited by the government to do.
www.izak.co.za /LandReformWebPage.htm   (4274 words)

The Bank itself remarked that the reforms under ESAP "could certainly not be regarded as a roaring success," noting that the percentage of households classified as poor rose from 40 percent in 1991 to over 60 percent in 1995, and that "the programme design itself was flawed, particularly in the under-estimation of its social consequences."
(a) Land is at the core of the crisis in Zimbabwe and cannot be separated from other issues of concern to the Commonwealth, such as the rule of law, respect for human rights, democracy and the economy.
He said land reform had to be credible and legal and required adequate compensation to those whose land was being expropriated.
www.hrw.org /reports/2002/zimbabwe/ZimLand0302-05.htm   (2053 words)

 Stefan Landsberger's Chinese Propaganda Poster Pages--Land Reform
Long before the Land Reform Law was promulgated on 30 June 1950, the CCP had been experimenting with measures to return the land to the vast numbers of peasants.
Despite the centrality of Land Reform in the party's policies, publication data from 1949 indicate that less than two percent of the total poster production was devoted to typical rural topics, including methods to improve production.
Before long, the land that had been handed out to the peasants was slowly returned to the state.
www.iisg.nl /~landsberger/tg.html   (549 words)

 Land Reform in Southern Africa
Reforming the skewed land ownership patterns across the region followed the implosion of Apartheid in Southern Africa in the early nineties.
And as land is the asset to be transferred, speedy and comprehensive land information is an essential management tool for Land Reform.
And yes South African land managers study at the Polytechnic of Namibia and the first Namibian is indeed enrolled in the South African Master course in Land Information Management.
www.itc.nl /news_events/archive/projects/0005.asp   (535 words)

 BBC NEWS | World | Americas | Venezuela land reform gets going
Vestey's and the other land owners were given 60 days to appeal against the decision that the land is not theirs.
Captain Eliezer Otaiza, the man put in charge of Venezuela's new land reform, says that whatever happens in the courts, the government wants the ranchers to continue raising cattle on a part of the land.
He believes an effective, but peaceful, land reform in Venezuela is the key to building a new, more self-sufficient economy.
news.bbc.co.uk /1/hi/world/americas/4498293.stm   (681 words)

 Inkezo Land Company - Independant Land Reform Initiative
The end product of rural land reform should be a significant change in the racial distribution of land ownership and a well-balanced mix of farming systems under a variety of secure tenure forms.
This vision is important as it highlights sustainability as a goal for land reform, underpinned by competence and racially diverse ownership.
A drive to facilitate a broader base of fl land ownership and empowered farming is a logical extension of the activities undertaken to date.
www.inkezo.co.za   (541 words)

 FAO : SD Dimensions : Institutions : Land tenure
Land fragmentation and its impact in Central and Eastern Europe countries and the Commonwealth of Independent States
Egalitarian land distribution and labour migration in rural China
Land reform and administration with private-public sector partnerships: lessons from the Black Sea region
www.fao.org /sd/LTdirect/landrf.htm   (1715 words)

 Land Reform (Scotland) Act 2003
A print version is also available and is published by The Stationery Office Limited as the Land Reform (Scotland) Act 2003, ISBN 0 10 590044 3.
Land which may be bought: salmon fishings and mineral rights
Land which may be bought in addition to eligible croft land
www.opsi.gov.uk /legislation/scotland/acts2003/20030002.htm   (652 words)

 Access to Land: Land Reform and Security of Tenure   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
Agrarian reform, above all, should be recognized as an obligation of national governments, as this process is necessary within the framework of human rights and as an efficient public policy to combat poverty.
These agrarian reform processes must be controlled by peasant organizations-including land rental markets-and must guarantee both individual and collective rights of producers over shared lands, and be articulated within coherent agricultural and trade policies.
The latter is so-called 'market-assisted' or 'negotiated' land reform
www.landnetamericas.org /index.asp?documentID=3543   (7605 words)

 Scotsman.com News - Land reform   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
Crofting Reform Bill to be debated in Scottish Parliament
LABOUR ministers were left trying to organise a damage- limitation exercise last night after the...
THE Scottish Land Fund yesterday made its final grant, after five years that have helped to change...
news.scotsman.com /topics.cfm?tid=694   (490 words)

 Land Reform Act   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
The Five Nations Indian Land Reform Act sailed through the House after bipartisan sponsorship from Wes Watkins (R-Okla.) and Brad Carson (D-Okla.).
The Act would reform legislation that places an unfair burden on individual members of the Cherokee, Muscogee (Creek), Seminole, Choctaw and Chickasaw nations who own nearly 400,000 acres of restricted Indian land.
The bill, known as the Five Nations Indian Land Reform Act, was set aside by one of its sponsors, Senator James Inhofe (R-Okla.), at the request of oil and gas producers.
www.chadsmith.com /land.htm   (1190 words)

 Department of Land Affairs - South Africa
To be a global leader in the creation and maintenance of an equitable and sustainable land dispensation that results in social and economic development for all South Africans.
Glen Sonwabo Thomas: Director General, Department of Land Affairs: LAND REFORM CONTRIBUTION TO WOMEN'S/S EMPOWERMENT.
Minister for Agriculture and Land Affairs, Ms Lulu Xingwana: Launch of the Limpopo Land Claims Commission's Annual Report, 11 August 2006
land.pwv.gov.za /home.htm   (547 words)

 Seizing City Assets: Ten Steps to Urban Land Reform
This powerpoint by Bruce Katz, presented to the Vacant Land Forum, examines the 10 steps to urban land reform.
It highlights the steps with innovative case studies and programs from cities and counties that are struggling with vacant land and brownfields.
The Urban Center hosts and participates in a variety of public forums.
www.brookings.edu /es/urban/speeches/20030709_katzvacantland.htm   (169 words)

 Land Reform Land Policy Land Tenure   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
Land reform is a bigger issue than ever.
Land Reform and Taxation: A United Nations Presentation
Land Reform and Tax Reform in the Philippines
www.progress.org /land   (82 words)

 Venezuelanalysis.com - Opinion and analysis page
Venezuelan Land and Factory Expropriations as seen from the Labor Ministry and the Union Federation
Land for People not for Profit in Venezuela
Venezuela: the promise of land for the people
www.venezuelanalysis.com /articles.php?sec=land   (456 words)

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