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Topic: Landsat program

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  Landsat Program
The Landsat Program is the longest running enterprise for acqusition of imagery of the earth from space.
The value of the Landsat Program was recognized by Congress in October, 1992 when it passed the Land Remote Sensing Policy Act (Public Law 102-555) authorizing the procurement of Landsat 7 and assuring the continued availabilty of Landsat digital data and images, at the lowest possible cost, to traditional and new users of the data.
The focus is on the development of Landsat 7 and Landsat-type remote sensing of the earth in the 21st century.
geo.arc.nasa.gov /sge/landsat/landsat.html   (504 words)

  Encyclopedia: Landsat program   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-27)
Landsat 6 was finally launched on October 5, 1993, but was lost in a launch failure.
The value of the Landsat program was recognized by Congress in October, 1992 when it passed the Land Remote Sensing Policy Act (Public Law 102-555) authorizing the procurement of Landsat 7 and assuring the continued availabilty of Landsat digital data and images, at the lowest possible cost, to traditional and new users of the data.
Landsat 5 is the fifth satellite of the Landsat program.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Landsat-program   (1627 words)

 Landsat 7 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Although the Landsat Program is managed by NASA, data from Landsat 7 is collected and distributed by the USGS.
Landsat 7 was designed to last for five years, and has the capacity to collect and transmit up to 532 images per day.
To continue the Landsat legacy, studies are underway to fly an equivalent scientific sensor on an NPOESS satellite towards the end of this decade.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Landsat_7   (617 words)

 Landsat: A Global Land-Observing Program, Fact Sheet 023-03 (March 2003)
Landsat's mission is to establish and execute a data acquisition strategy that ensures the repetitive acquisition of observations over the Earth's land mass, coastal boundaries, and coral reefs and to ensure that the data acquired are of maximum utility in supporting the scientific objective of monitoring changes in the Earth's land surface.
Landsats 1, 2, and 3 operated in a near-polar orbit at an altitude of 920 km.
The primary sensor aboard Landsats 1, 2, and 3 was the multispectral scanner (MSS).
erg.usgs.gov /isb/pubs/factsheets/fs02303.html   (1730 words)

 The Landsat Program
The Landsat Program is a series of Earth-observing satellite missions jointly managed by NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey.
This science, known as remote sensing, has matured with the Landsat Program.
Landsat satellites have taken specialized digital photographs of Earth’s continents and surrounding coastal regions for over three decades, enabling people to study many aspects of our planet and to evaluate the dynamic changes caused by both natural processes and human practices.
landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov   (92 words)

 RS:Principles: The Landsat Program
Data from Landsat is used for monitoring population changes in and around metropolitan areas, monitoring global deforestation and fire damage, estimating soil moisture and snow water equivalence, and monitoring flood, storm, earthquake and volcanic eruption damage.
The ERTS satellite, later re-named Landsat 1, marked the beginning of nearly three decades of the Landsat program, which continues to build a photographic record of our changing planet that is unmatched by any other research program in history.
In 1985, operation of the Landsat program was commercialized and the Earth Observation Satellite Company (EOSAT) assumed responsibility for operation of Landsat 4 and 5, managed the distribution of Landsat data, and built two new spacecraft (Landsat 6 and 7).
chesapeake.towson.edu /data/all_landsat.asp   (889 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-27)
Landsats 4 and 5 were virtually identical; each carried an MSS sensor and an improved scanner, the Thematic Mapper (TM), which has more bands and finer resolution than the MSS sensor.
Landsat 7 was launched on 15 April 1999, and carries the ETM+ sensor, great-grandchild of the MSS and a further improvement on the ETM.
The Landsat program is the longest-running program of remote sensing from space, with its 30th anniversary coming in July 2002.
edcwww.cr.usgs.gov /earthshots/slow/Help-GardenCity/Landsatstext   (809 words)

 GLCF: Landsat Technical Guide   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-27)
Landsat imagery is relatively high resolution earth observation data that is acquired through sensors on one of the NASA Landsat satellites.
Landsat Program for general details or the Landsat 7 Science Handbook for specific radiometric characteristics details about that sensor.
Landsat imagery is provided to the user from the GLCF in a specific series of formats, all of which are designed for maximum coverage of users who have access to basic graphical software.
glcf.umiacs.umd.edu /data/guide/technical/landsat.shtml   (581 words)

 Fact Sheet - LANDSAT
The Landsat program has provided over 20 years of calibrated data to a broad user community including the agricultural community, global change researchers, state and local governments, commercial users, and the military.
The Landsat 6 satellite, which failed to reach orbit in 1993, was intended to replace the existing Landsat satellites 4 and 5.
Landsat 4 and 5, which were launched in 1982 and 1984 respectively and are operating well beyond their three year design lives, represent the only source of a global calibrated high spatial resolution measurements of the Earth's surface that can be compared to previous data records.
www.fas.org /spp/military/docops/national/cnvrgft2.htm   (1021 words)

 LANDSAT and the Rise of Earth Resources Monotoring
The Landsat program had proved its value in the eyes of the selection committee in the two years since the launch of the first satellite in 1972, but proving its value to potential users and to the Office of Management and Budget and to Congress turned out to be substantially more difficult.
Landsat was a government enterprise because NASA leaders thought it would benefit the space program to show more practical results, and political issues such as the proper use of data collected over other countries made the government nervous of allowing private enterprise to get into the business in the early years.
Landsat was a relatively small project by NASA standards, but because of its practical goals it shows particularly clearly the problems of building a constituency for big science and technology projects and the complexities involved in determining the proper role of the government in the spectrum between research and practical applications.
history.nasa.gov /SP-4219/Chapter10.html   (7192 words)

 Learn more about Landsat program in the online encyclopedia.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-27)
In 1979 Presidential Directive 54 (Carter) transferred Landsat operations from NASA to NOAA, recommended development of long term operational system with four additional satellites beyond Landsat 3, and recommended transition to private sector operation of Landsat.
This occurred in 1985 when the Earth Observation Satellite Company (EOSAT), a partnership of Hughes and RCA, was selected by NOAA to operate the Landsat system under a ten year contract.
In 1992 various efforts were made to finally procure funding for followon Landsats and continued operations, but by the end of the year EOSAT ceased processing Landsat data.
www.onlineencyclopedia.org /l/la/landsat_program.html   (555 words)

 Remote Sensing Tutorial Introduction - Part 2 Page 15
The Landsat program is described and the orbital and instrumental parameters for this series of satellites are given.
All the Landsats follow a near-polar orbit (inclined about 98° to the equator; passing within 8° of the poles) and are sun-synchronous, meaning the orbit precesses about Earth at the same angular rate as Earth revolves about the Sun.
Later Landsats were operated by different organizations and another major receiving station was established at the United States Geological Survey's EROS Data Center in Sioux Falls, S.D. Processing at these places include reformatting of the raw data that involves orbital, geometric, and radiometric corrections.
rst.gsfc.nasa.gov /Intro/Part2_15.html   (1320 words)

 ES 351/771/775 Landsat introduction
According to Pecora, the EROS program of the USGS was conceived largely as a direct result of the demonstrated utility of Mercury and Gemini orbital photography to Earth resources studies (Lowman 1999).
Landsat digital images, collected over a 25-year period, are among the most important data assets available to the earth-science community.
Landsat was made part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program in 1994, and President Clinton established Landsat 7 as a joint program with NASA, NOAA (later dropped out), and the U.S. Geological Survey's EROS Data Center (EDC).
academic.emporia.edu /aberjame/remote/landsat/landsat.htm   (2868 words)

 The Landsat Program   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-27)
Landsats 4 and 5 carry both the MSS and the thematic mapper (TM) sensors; however, routine collection of MSS data was terminated in late 1992.
The MSS sensors aboard Landsats 4 and 5 are identical to the ones that were carried on Landsats 1 and 2.
Landsats 4 and 5 MSS scenes have an instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of 68 meters in the cross-track direction by 82 meters in the along-track direction (223.0 by 272.3 feet, respectively).
webphysics.iupui.edu /gpnew/gp2sup2a.htm   (2577 words)

 Landsat Coordinate Operations - Masters Thesis (March 2001)
It is evident that policies, and, in particular, the attempts at commercialization of the program, have kept the program from achieving the expectations of its early proponents in terms of the widespread science and applications use.
Early in the Landsat program it was realized that Landsat would provide the science community with their first significant opportunity to observe synoptic changes in surface cover, changes that had been difficult to record in the past using aerial platforms (Lauer, et al., 1997).
Landsat 4, 5 and 7 each have a 16 day repeat cycle, with coordinated operations two satellites could have potentially an eight day repeat cycle and with four satellites the repeat cycle could be as frequent as four days.
www.geog.ucsb.edu /~jeff/projects/thesis   (16287 words)

 USGCRP FY96 Program Descriptions - LANDSAT Program   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-27)
In virtually all global change studies that use Landsat data, the characteristics of the data set of greatest value are the ability to extract land cover information and the length of the data record.
Landsat data are fundamental in their basic and applied research programs that address global change issues.
The Program was restructured by the administration and new agency responsibilities established by presidential Decision Directive/NSTC-3 in May 1994.
www.gcrio.org /ocp96/progsum/NASA_16.html   (560 words)

 USGS Takes Complete Control Of Landsat 7 From NASA
Landsat 7 is part of a global research program known as NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term program focused on studying changes in the Earth's global environment, and part of the USGS' Gateway to the Earth Program which aims to make accessible over the World Wide Web all the agency's earth and natural science information.
Landsat 7 is proving to be a major resource for information about the land mass of the planet, and builds on previous satellite data, providing a crucial long-term record of the Earth's land surface.
In addition to environmental research, Landsat data is used by customers worldwide in the government, commercial and educational communities for applications in areas such as forestry, agriculture, geology, oceanography, land mapping and geographic research.
unisci.com /stories/20011/0116013.htm   (560 words)

 Landsat 7 Science Data Users Handbook
The purpose of the Landsat program is to provide the world's scientists and application engineers with a continuing stream of remote sensing data for monitoring and managing the Earth's resources.
Landsat 7 is the latest NASA satellite in a series that has produced an uninterrupted multispectral record of the Earth's land surface since 1972.
Its purpose is to provide a basic understanding of the joint NASA/USGS Landsat 7 program and to serve as a comprehensive resource for the Landsat 7 spacecraft, its payload, the ground processing system, and methodologies for rendering Landsat 7 data into a form suitable for science.
ltpwww.gsfc.nasa.gov /IAS/handbook/handbook_toc.html   (203 words)

This fact, coupled with the advanced age of Landsat satellites 4 and 5, resulted in a reassessment of the Landsat program by representatives of the National Science and Technology Council.
Acquiring a Landsat 7 satellite that maintains the continuity of Landsat-type data, minimizes development risk, minimizes cost, and achieves the most favorable launch schedule to mitigate the loss of Landsat 6.
Ensure data continuity by the development and launch of a Landsat 7 satellite system which is at a minimum functionally equivalent to the Landsat 6 satellite in accordance with section 102, P.L. In coordination with DOC and DOI, develop a Landsat 7 ground system compatible with the Landsat 7 spacecraft.
www.ostp.gov /NSTC/html/pdd3.html   (997 words)

 Landsat Remote Sensing Strategy, NSTC-2, May 5, 1994   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-27)
This directive provides for continuance of the Landsat 7 program, assures continuity of Landsat-type and quality of data, and reduces the risk of a data gap.
The Landsat 6 satellite which failed to reach orbit in 1993 was intended to replace the existing Landsat satellites 4 and 5, which were launched in 1982 and 1984.
In the Fall of 1993 the joint Department of Defense and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Landsat 7 program was being reevaluated due to severe budgetary constraints.
www.au.af.mil /au/awc/awcgate/nstc3.htm   (1130 words)

 GLCF: Landsat
First launched in 1972, the Landsat satellite series constitutes one of the longest continuous records in Earth observation.
The objective of the Landsat program has always been to provide multispectral imagery of the Earth’s land areas at moderate resolution (30-90 meter horizontal resolution) to support resource assessment, land-cover mapping, and to track inter-annual changes in the environment.
Applications of Landsat data are quite diverse, comprising Earth Science, commercial applications, and government/military use.
glcf.umiacs.umd.edu /data/landsat   (344 words)

 National Space Law: Printer Friendly version   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-27)
The Landsat Program Management may, subject to appropriations and only under the existing contract authority of the United States Government agencies that compose the Landsat Program Management, enter into contracts with the private sector for services such as, but not limited to, satellite operations and data preprocessing.
The Landsat Program Management shall, subject to appropriations and only under the existing contract authority of the United States Government agencies that compose the Landsat Program Management, expeditiously contract with a United States private sector entity for the development and delivery of Landsat 7.
The Landsat Program Management shall promptly notify the Congress of any significant deviations from the expected cost, delivery date, and launch date of Landsat 7, that are specified by the Landsat Program Management upon award of the contract under this section.
www.oosa.unvienna.org /SpaceLaw/national/united_states/15_USC_chapter_82_E_pf.html   (5955 words)

 FY95 Program Summaries: Landsat Program   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-27)
NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SCIENTIFIC MERIT: The Landsat Program is assisting a broad range of global change research activities by providing data suitable for long term studies of land cover and biogeochemical processes.
As such, Landsat data are used widely in natural science and social science research directed, generally, toward phenomena that affect the physical and cultural landscape and, specifically, toward significant issues in global change research.
Landsat data are fundamental in modeling phenomena that affect global environments such as the distribution of snow and ice (hence, climate change) and atmospheric phenomena when those phenomena are influenced by ground processes.
www.gcrio.org /OCP/progsum/nasa.landsat.html   (402 words)

22 January 1975 Landsat 2 Spacecraft: Landsat 1-2-3.
05 October 1993 Landsat 6 Spacecraft: Landsat 6.
The Landsat 7 remote sensing satellite was to be operated by NASA/Goddard until October 2000, when operations would be transferred to the US Geological Survey.
www.astronautix.com /project/landsat.htm   (315 words)

 The Landsat Program - About
In 1975, NASA Administrator Dr. James Fletcher predicted that if one space age development would save the world, it would be Landsat and its successor satellites.
Since the early 1970s, Landsat has continuously and consistently archived images of Earth; this unparalleled data archive gives scientist the ability to assess changes in Earth’s landscape.
For 34 years, the Landsat program has collected spectral information from Earth’s surface, creating a historical archive unmatched in quality, detail, coverage, and length.
landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov /about   (165 words)

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