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Topic: Language change

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In the News (Tue 16 Jul 19)

  Language - MSN Encarta
Languages continually undergo changes, although speakers of a language are usually unaware of the changes as they are occurring.
Sound change is the area of language change that has received the most study.
This illustrates an important principle of sound change: It tends to be regular—that is, a particular sound change in a language tends to occur in the same way in all words.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761570647_6/Language.html   (743 words)

  Language change - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Language change is the manner in which the phonetic, morphological, semantic, syntactic, and other features of a language are modified over time.
One of the first studies of linguistic change in progress was William Labov’s study in Martha’s Vineyard in 1963.
AS already mentioned the sociolinguist William Labov famously recorded the change in pronunciation in a relatively short period in the American resort of Martha’s Vineyard and showed how this was the result of social tensions and processes.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Language_change   (986 words)

 Language Change   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-08-18)
In keeping with this metaphorical view of things, accounts of language change have traditionally been system-based; that is, social factors and contexts have largely been disregarded in favour of descriptive accounts of change focusing on language-internal histories.
'Language' change is initiated at the level of the individual, and spreads from individual to individual (a group of individuals we commonly call a society, but to do so is to disguise the fact that they are individuals.
Language is a form of behaviour; language change is a change in linguistic behaviour.
venus.va.com.au /suggestion/change.html   (1384 words)

 Language Change - Title
Another fact about language change, clearly established on the basis of approximately 100 studies, is that women are usually a generation ahead of men in sound change.
Sounds change in a number of ways, and sound change is one of the most well understood aspects of language change, thanks to the long history of work in comparative/historical linguistics, and also to the research on sound change in progress by another member of the Penn linguistics faculty, Dr. Bill Labov.
Languages that share innovations are considered to have shared a common history apart from other languages, and are put on the same branch of the language family tree.
www.ling.upenn.edu /courses/Fall_1997/ling001/langchange.htm   (3898 words)

 evolution of language   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-08-18)
The emergence of language is a defining moment in the evolution of modern humans.
Language is an innovation that changes radically the character of human society.
Language is strongly related to cognition and enfolded within each language are ideas about nature and society.
gladstone.uoregon.edu /~tosawa1/112/languagechange.html   (318 words)

 Linguistics Theory: Language Change
English is measured in three "cataclysmic" changes that generally coincide with historical events that had a profound effect on the language.
Lexical changes (the addition, modification, or removal of words from the general lexicon) are perhaps the quickest changes in language.
Of all of these, it is important to note that the parent languages were reconstructed by measuring the differences of the "daughter" languages.
www.geocities.com /Athens/Acropolis/1470/chap-3.html   (487 words)

 Historical linguistics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
At first historical linguistics was comparative linguistics and mainly concerned with establishing language families and the reconstruction of prehistoric languages, using the comparative method and internal reconstruction.
For the Indo-European languages comparative study is now a highly specialised field and most research is being carried out on the subsequent development of these languages, particularly the development of the modern standard varieties.
The biological origin of language is in principle part of the remit of historical linguistics, but most linguistics regard it as too remote to be reliably established by the comparative method, given the remoteness from historical records.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Historical_linguistics   (631 words)

 Linguistics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Prescriptivists tend to be found among the ranks of language educators and journalists, and not in the actual academic discipline of linguistics.
A number of cognitive scientists argue that the brain has an innate "language module", knowledge of which is thought to come more from studying speech than writing, particularly since language as speech is held to be an evolutionary adaptation, whereas writing is a comparatively recent invention.
Noam Chomsky's formal model of language, transformational-generative grammar, developed under the influence of his teacher Zellig Harris, who was in turn strongly influenced by Leonard Bloomfield, has been the dominant one from the 1960s.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Linguistics   (2212 words)

 Do You Speak American . What Lies Ahead? . Change . Change | PBS
Change is one of the inevitable facts in the life of any language.
The acceptance and rejection of language changes are constrained by the social interpretation of those changes and the relationships that exist among social groups.
In American society, one prominent pattern of language change is the cascade or hierarchical model, in which change starts in heavily populated metropolitan areas that serve as cultural focal points.
www.pbs.org /search/redir/http://www.pbs.org/speak/ahead/change/change   (2209 words)

 Language in India
The development of new concepts in one culture, relative numerical strength of the speakers of the languages that are involved in the interaction between communities, the language of education, and the official language policy adopted are some of the factors that contribute to the linguistic dependency among the communities that co-exist in a region.
If a minority language has a cultivated literary tradition, and the people who use this minority language maintain that cultivated literary tradition along with their own script system, the changes that might take place in the minority languages may not be drastic or widespread.
The tribal languages that face extinction because of the influence of the dominant language need to be given tools that would help them not only preserve themselves but also to prosper and extend their domains of use.
www.languageinindia.com /feb2002/urali3.html   (1249 words)

 A Naming Language
Language change is for the most part slow, since change is on the whole discouraged.
The ramifications for the language modeller are that the language he or she creates should not spring fully armed from the head of Zeus like Athena, but should derive from its own parent language.
Sound changes actually vary by position, with a sound change applying to different places -- the [s] might become [h] at the beginning of a word, [k] in the middle of a word and [z] at the end of a word (though this is an extreme example).
www.langmaker.com /ml0102.htm   (5077 words)

 Linguistics 001 -- Language Change and Historical Reconstruction
Here is a puzzle: language change is functionally disadvantageous, in that it hinders communication, and it is also negatively evaluated by socially dominant groups.
All aspects of language change, and a great deal is know about general mechanisms and historical details of changes at all levels of linguistic analysis.
Everyone accepts that two languages with 85% cognates are certainly related; the only question is whether they are (necessarily) "more closely related" in a historical sense than either is to a language whose cognate percentages with both are (say) 80%.
www.ling.upenn.edu /courses/Fall_2003/ling001/language_change.html   (3766 words)

 Language change   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-08-18)
I want my order confirmation email to be in japanese, also order status change to be in japanese, i have changed the laguage file already, but there is no setting for order status change text..
But the language file still has a few that are still in English.
changing shift_jis for whatever encoding you are using as your document charset.
www.ecommercetemplates.com /support/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=12160   (866 words)

 English Teaching Forum Online – Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs
As an introduction to the English course, and before we begin specific language instruction, we should help the students realize and accept the fact that the English language is indeed dynamic rather than static, depending for its continuing effectiveness on its ability to adapt and modify according to the demands of the times.
A positive relationship appears to exist between the vitality of a language and the extent of its area of change: the more effective it is as a medium of expression for contemporary needs, the greater the area of change.
When change is taking place, however, it is very difficult to measure the extent of that change and hence to know in fact if it has been accepted by the majority of competent mother-tongue English speakers.
exchanges.state.gov /forum/vols/vol40/no1/p20c.htm   (861 words)

 ipedia.com: Historical linguistics Article
Thus, when the method is applied to the Romance languages (which include French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, and Romanian), the reconstructed common ancestor language comes out rather similar to Latin - not the classical Latin of Horace and Cicero, but Vulgar Latin, the colloquial Latin spoken in various dialects in the late Roman Empire.
Thus, the Germanic languages (which include German, Dutch, English, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Faroese, Icelandic, and the extinct Gothic) can be compared to reconstruct Proto-Germanic, a language that was probably contemporaneous with Latin and for which no records are preserved.
Once the various changes in the daughter branches have been worked out, and a fair amount of the core vocabulary and grammar of the protolanguage are understood, then scholars will quite generally agree that a relationship of genetic relatedness has been proven.
www.ipedia.com /historical_linguistics.html   (1027 words)

 Digital Web Magazine - Why the Tech Industry Needs to Change Its Language
The language of technology has long been defined by those who create the function, but are indifferent to the form.
Written language can be a powerful tool for assisting in design, development, communication, and comprehension, not merely a method for documenting specs after something has already been built, or cleverly marketing an already-existing product to a target audience.
Ambiguity in language may be despised by engineers, but it’s a key factor in expanding the way in which we think about these tools.
www.digital-web.com /articles/why_the_tech_industry_needs_to_change_its_language   (1693 words)

 LSA: About Linguistics
Although most historical linguists believe that human language probably arose just once, in a single place at a particular time, most of them also believe that language change is too rapid and too sweeping to permit the verification of family relationships older than about ten thousand years.
Language change inevitably leads to variation, and variation within a speech community often leads to social valuation of particular features as 'good' or 'bad'.
The point of this example is not to urge rehabilitation of ain't'—legislating language change is generally a losing proposition—but to illustrate the linguistically arbitrary nature of social valuation of the results of language change.
www.lsadc.org /info/ling-fields-change.cfm   (1140 words)

 Ancient Scripts: Why Do Languages Change?
Their reasoning is that the old Indo-European languages like Sanskrit, Greek and Latin all have complex declension and conjugation schemes, where as the modern Indo-European languages have far fewer cases for declension and conjugation.
This "loss" of declension and conjugation cases was a result of speakers of the language getting increasingly careless about their speech (read "lazy"), so the modern speakers are "decadent" as they have allowed the once complex language to decay into such a "simple" language.
The Neogrammarians stated that changes are automatic and mechanical, and therefore cannot be observed or controlled by the speakers of the language.
www.ancientscripts.com /hl_why.html   (1024 words)

 Language Evolution
One surprising aspect of language change is the influence of fashion and even of individual idiosyncracies.
By examining the oldest examples of modern and classical languages such as Greek, Latin, and Sanskrit, linguists have been able to reconstruct an educated guess as to what the language of these ancient people was like.
Turkish and Mongolian), Dravidian (the languages of southern India), Korean, Japanese, the languages of eastern Siberia, and Eskimo-Aleut!
www.ship.edu /~cgboeree/langevol.html   (1568 words)

 Essay on Language Change
However, it is assumed that the forces which produce language change today are the same as those forces which produced change in the past, and hence it is possible to infer the types of changes which occurred in the past.
In this change there appear the requisite linguistic variant and systemic regulation in that there is a choice between two construction and the realisation of a choice between a genitive and its alternative prepositional construction tends to be regulated by social status and usage.
It appears that language is a dynamic system, constantly in a state of flux, always affected by outside factors, inexhaustible in terms of its future possibilities.
members.tripod.com /~duPrie/essays/language_change.htm   (2320 words)

 Language Change
the complete loss of a language variety as a consequence of shift to another language by the last speech community to use the language variety; Manx, a Celtic language, "died" in 1974 when the last native speaker of that language died.
These changes probably occurred through a gradual process of lexical diffusion from one group to another, as the new sounds became associated with an expression of solidarity in the speech community.
Thus, while there is a phonetic basis (an internal source) for the changes, there is also a social basis (an external source) that allows the changes to become permanently incorporated into the language.
www.ac.wwu.edu /~sngynan/slx8.html   (754 words)

 Language Variation & Change
This module surveys language change from a contemporary variationist sociolinguistic standpoint, focusing on the micro perspective of 2-3 generations.
We compare language change in communities which have seen high levels of dialect mixing with the types of changes which occur in much more isolated communities.
We consider such issues, therefore, as second dialect acquisition, the nature of language change in the dialects of New Towns, isolated rural communities and newly settled areas, as well as the development of post-colonial Englishes in North America and Australasia.
privatewww.essex.ac.uk /~patrickp/Courses/LG457.Fall00.html   (1417 words)

 Story of Human Language
You will learn that everything about a language is eternally and inherently changeable, from its word order and grammar to the very sound and meaning of basic words.
For example, the ancestor language of English is Proto-Germanic and the ancestor of that is Proto-Indo-European.
Language is indeed a powerful tool—"the armory of the human mind" in the words of poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge.
www.teach12.com /ttc/assets/coursedescriptions/1600.asp   (1391 words)

 Language Evolution
One surprising aspect of language change is the influence of fashion and even of individual idiosyncracies.
By examining the oldest examples of modern and classical languages such as Greek, Latin, and Sanskrit, linguists have been able to reconstruct an educated guess as to what the language of these ancient people was like.
At some point, long ago, the vocabulary and the grammar apparently levelled off: All languages today, no matter how "primitive" the people, appear to be equal in their abilities to express the nuances and complexities of human life.
webspace.ship.edu /cgboer/langevol.html   (1568 words)

 Reasons for Language Change   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-08-18)
There seems to be a tendency for language to split up, and it is worthwhile examining the reasons for this.
If we accept that languages and dialects ‘reflect’ in some way the perspectives (‘thoughts’) of the speakers, then we must accept that if their perspectives change, the language or dialect has to change concomitantly.
Crystal: Language planning is a term used in sociolinguistics to refer to a systematic attempt to solve the communication problems of a community by studying the various languages or dialects it uses and developing a realistic policy concerning their selection and use; often referred to as language engineering.
courses.nus.edu.sg /course/elltankw/history/Change.htm   (3267 words)

 Chinese Personal Names and Language Change
In fact, many communists did change their names after joining the revolutionary army, to demonstrate that their old life was over, and a new one was beginning.
But if people choose to change both syllables, they should be encouraged and properly rewarded for their decisions, because it helps expedite language change by bringing in more sounds.
But after the language is changed by another way, the new sounds will be used in personal names anyway, as are the current sounds in personal names.
www.pinyinology.com /names/names4.html   (1868 words)

 Cambridge Journals Online - Language Variation and Change
Language Variation and Change is the only journal dedicated exclusively to the study of linguistic variation and the capacity to deal with systematic and inherent variation in synchronic and diachronic linguistics.
Sociolinguistics involves analysing the interaction of language, culture and society; the more specific study of variation is concerned with the impact of this interaction on the structures and processes of traditional linguistics.
Language Variation and Change concentrates on the details of linguistic structure in actual speech production and processing (or writing), including contemporary or historical sources.
journals.cambridge.org /journal_LanguageVariationandChange   (142 words)

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