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Topic: Language death

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In the News (Tue 18 Jun 19)

  Language death - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The most common process leading to language death is one in which a community of speakers of one language becomes bilingual in another language, and gradually shifts allegiance to the second language until they cease to use their original (or heritage) language.
Language attrition is the loss of a language or a portion of that language by either a speech community or an individual.
Language "death" must not be confused with the process where a language becomes a "dead language" through normal language change.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Language_death   (1495 words)

 Crystal, D. Language Death
Language death is a global phenomenon - and has been for millennia - but a global conscience to actually care and do something about it is regrettably recent, minuscule...
Language Death is born of concern, a concern for humanity, linguistic diversity and a deep-rooted desire to retain the rich linguistic and cultural mosaic the globe continues to enjoy, but which is under siege.
Favourable characteristics include the speakers of the threatened language having prestige (p 130), increased wealth (p 132), legitimate power (p 133) within (the perception of) the dominant community, as well as having a strong presence in education (p 136), literacy in the language (p 138) and access to usage of electronic technology (p 141).
www.caslt.org /research/languagedeath.htm   (727 words)

 Extinct language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Normally this occurs when a language undergoes language death while being directly replaced by a different one, for example, Coptic, which was replaced by Arabic, and many Native American languages, whose languages were replaced by English, French, Spanish, or Portuguese.
Language extinction also occurs when a language undergoes a rapid evolution or assimilation until it eventually gives birth to an offspring, yet, dissimilar language (or family of languages).
There have been other attempts at language revival (such as Manx and Cornish), but the success of these attempts has been subject to debate, as it is not clear they will ever become the common native language of a community of speakers.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Extinct_language   (729 words)

 Convergent and Divergent Accommodation in Language Death
In...[studying the language of semispeakers from a usage] perspective, performances of speakers may be seen not as "broken down" or "eroded" realizations of an ideal competence, but as performances through which speakers are manipulating symbolic materials available from a wide range of codes in constructing a changing society.
Explanations for such changes in language death offered in the past have ranged from their being patterned according to a reverse of the either the acquisitional sequence or the creolization process to, more generally, the elements unraveling from most marked to least marked.
The thrust of research on languages in the process of death has been toward identifying the properties of various languages in the state of decline or toward finding the universal characteristics that govern their decline and associating those with models that have known universal currency.
ioway.nativeweb.org /iowaylibrary/chiweredeath.htm   (6491 words)

 Language Death (David Crystal) - book review
Crystal presents five arguments: from the general value of diversity, from the value of languages as expressions of identity, as repositories of history, as part of the sum of human knowledge, and as interesting subjects in their own right.
Obviously a language dies if all of its speakers die as the result of genocide or natural disasters, or are scattered in such a way as to break up the language community.
Crystal suggests six key themes in language revitalization: increasing the prestige, wealth, and power of language speakers; giving the language a strong presence in the education system; giving the language a written form and encouraging literacy; and access to electronic technology (the latter being more of a "possibility" than a reality in most cases).
dannyreviews.com /h/Language_Death.html   (471 words)

 SIL Bibliography: Language death
Language death in Mesmes: a sociolinguistic and historical-comparative examination of a disappearing language.
The Portuguese language in Trinidad and Tobago: a study of language shift and language death.
Headland, Thomas N. "Thirty endangered languages in the Philippines."
www.ethnologue.com /show_subject.asp?code=LGD   (212 words)

 Language Death   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
In the course of his or her investigations, each member of the research team of the Himalayan Languages Project is both directly and indirectly confronted with the issue of language endangerment and the phenomena associated with language death issues.
Theroretical discussions have been devoted to processes of grammatical change associated with language death, the historical status of morphosyntax, and the factors determining the direction of linguistic assimilation in Nepal (1991a, 1993g).
The importance of the perhaps now extinct Kusunda language is emphasized in the context of the ethnolinguistic composition of the people of Nepal (1997a), and endangered language communities throughout the region are identified in the Project's various language surveys.
www.iias.nl /host/himalaya/projects/ld.html   (558 words)

 Language Death | Antimoon Forum   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
One reason is because half of all languages are spoken by fewer than 2,500 people each, according to the Worldwatch Institute, a private organization that monitors global trends.
I know that language death is not the most pleasant thing, but I have been thinking about it, and it is not that bad.
The same can be true for various other languages; if there is enough literature and enough resources in the language, then there will be something for generations in the future to learn.
www.antimoon.com /forum/2003/2657.htm   (634 words)

 New Scientist Breaking News - Half of all languages face extinction this century
Half of all human languages will have disappeared by the end of the century, as smaller societies are assimilated into national and global cultures, scientists have warned.
Harrison adds that each language lost leaves a gap in our understanding of the variable cognitive structures of which the human brain is capable.
But just as many minority languages are dying out, the languages that dominate the globe, such as Chinese, English and Spanish, are becoming increasingly varied and complex, says David Lightfoot, a language researcher at Georgetown University.
www.newscientist.com /article.ns?id=dn4685   (460 words)

 AcademicDB - Language death
Language death Approximately 6,900 languages are currently spoken worldwide1, it is thought by some that up to 3,000 of these will no longer exist by the end of the next century (Krauss 1992).
The difference in number of speakers as opposed to the language density of a particular area becomes more apparent when we look at the number of speakers of these languages.
Compare this with 1,504,393,183 speakers, divided between 239 languages which producers a mean number of 6,294,532 per language, in Europe.
www.academicdb.com /language_death_17788   (246 words)

 PowWows.com Gathering - What Causes Language Death?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
More often language death is the culmination of language shift, resulting from a complex of internal and external pressures that induce a speech community to adopt a language spoken by others.
Conceiving language loss as a Darwinian process implies that some languages are fitter than others, that the "developed" will survive and the "primitive" will go the way of the dinosaurs.
The languages at the lower end of the prestige scale retreat from ever increasing areas of their earlier functional domains, displaced by higher prestige languages, until there is nothing left for them to be appropriately used about.
www.powwows.com /gathering/showthread.php?t=16867   (5264 words)

 John Benjamins: Book details for Language Death and Language Maintenance [CILT 240]
Languages are dying at an alarming rate all over the world.
These descriptive case studies not only provide data on the degree of endangerment and the causes of language death, but also provide a general sociolinguistic and typological characterization the language(s) under discussion and the prospects of language maintenance (if any).
Language endangerment in Indonesia: The incipient obsolescence and acute death of Teun, Nila and Serua (Central and Southwest Maluku)
www.benjamins.com /cgi-bin/t_bookview.cgi?bookid=CILT_240   (266 words)

 Language death   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
While thousands of different languages are spoken around the world, 90 percent of them are dying and are expected to vanish in the next few decades.
The status of a language is determined by the social and economic opportunities it offers its speakers, the researchers say in their paper.
When population figures are plugged in, the model produces a family of curves depending on the value assigned to status, and in each case one of the curves agreed with the published data on language decline.
www.news.cornell.edu /Chronicle/03/9.11.03/language_death.html   (591 words)

 Language Death - Cambridge University Press   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
The rapid endangerment and death of many minority languages across the world is a matter of widespread concern, not only among linguists and anthropologists but among all concerned with issues of cultural identity in an increasingly globalized culture.
By some counts, only 600 of the 6,000 or so languages in the world are 'safe' from the threat of extinction.
A leading commentator and popular writer on language issues, David Crystal asks the fundamental question, 'Why is language death so important?', reviews the reasons for the current crisis, and investigates what is being done to reduce its impact.
www.cambridge.org /catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=0521012716   (375 words)

 Language Death
When a language dies, the extinction is due to the supplanting of the old language by a new language with social and political prestige.
In the case of Native American languages, the United States government implemented deliberate policies to eliminate native languages as a means of assimilating the American Indian into "white" society.
Many people feel that indigenous languages are part of the past and must inevitably be replaced; they fear that their use in schools will 'hold back' children.
www.geocities.com /Athens/Aegean/7707/language1.htm   (350 words)

 Sleepyheads on Language Death   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Language attrition is when a first or second generation immigrant forgets their native language, which happens when it ceases to be spoken on a regular basis.
This could be due to a lot of language mixing, where children and parents speak a mixture of their native language and English.
Language attrition not only applies to the loss of a first language, but also a second language.
www.ac.wwu.edu /~watkinc/christine_option.html   (364 words)

 Languge death
Even when a language belongs to an extensive family, the issues of how to identify a "language" and the moment of its very beginning an imposing if not an impossible task (Seebold 1996); to speculate about the origins and prehistories of ancient isolates may be somewhat foolhardy.
The Sumerian language is definitely present in some form or another in the Uruk III tablets and short of a miracle we shall never go back much farther than that as far as direct evidence for language history is concerned.
Since almost all Semitic languages have a basic VSO word order, the SOV structure of Akkadian has almost universally been attributed to the substrate influence of Sumerian, and is cited as evidence for a long period of co-existence of the two languages, if not for a prolonged period of bilingualism in Sumer.
www-personal.umich.edu /~piotrm/DIGLOS~1.htm   (9665 words)

 Tenser, said the Tensor: Language Death   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
For a language to diverge into two mutually unintelligible variants (which is a pretty good working definition of a "language" as opposed to a "dialect"), you need two populations of speakers of the proto-language who, for one reason or another, stop communicating with each other for long enough that they drift apart.
Also, we should remember that in many cases moribund minority languages are on the brink of extinction as a result of historical oppression, and in these cases it's only reasonable for an (appropriately apologetic) majority to help keep the languages alive.
But apart from cases where languages are dying because people have been (or are being) coerced into not speaking them, I think we'd better resign ourselves to the coming extinction of most of the world's languages.
tenser.typepad.com /tenser_said_the_tensor/2004/03/language_death.html   (1310 words)

 Amazon.ca: Language Death: Books   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
He analyzes statistics that indicate the number of dying languages, explains the physical and cultural pressures contributing to language death, and cites bi- and multilingualism as the key to maintaining linguistic diversity.
But Irish is a threatened language that has less than fifty thousand fluent speakers worldwide, and the forecast is not good for the language unless something drastic is done in Ireland.
"Language death" means that the last speakers of a language die, leaving nobody alive who knows and uses the language.
www.amazon.ca /exec/obidos/ASIN/0521012716   (1341 words)

 Amazon.com: Language Death: Books: David Crystal   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
David Crystal's book LANGUAGE DEATH is meant to bring attention for the general public to the dire loss of indigenous languages around the world--one every two weeks on average.
In the first chapter, "What is language death?", he introduces the problem of the increasing disappearance of most of the world's tongues and how they are classified.
The existance of so many languages, he notes, is actually good for the market, for instead of fouling up capitalism, it creates competitive advantages when company A decides to deal with a minority group in its own language while company B thinks everyone should just learn English and consequently loses business.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0521012716?v=glance   (2217 words)

 Semantic Compositions: Language death -- or growth?
Part of it is the lack of significant historical archives or cultural artifacts; another part of it is that while early languages may have represented an important development in human history, they are at best secondary to being concerned about the people who spoke them.
It's the difference between a language dying in the family manor, surrounded by its children and grandchildren, and a language dying alone, childless and neglected, without so much as an epic poem documented to its name.
Not much better, but if we adopt mutual intelligibility as a criterion for considering a language to be a continuation, rather than a breaking off, of an older language, then there's at least a qualitative difference between the relationships of those languages and Latin and the various stages of English.
semanticcompositions.typepad.com /index/2004/03/language_death_.html   (1068 words)

 Amazon.co.uk: Language Death (Canto S.): Books   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
The author, who claims to care much about this worrying issue despite admittedly never having spent longer periods in any endangered language environment, does a pretty good job systematically examining the causes of language death and what could be done to halt the process.
Language Death is a short book (170 pages) with a message.
It is a relief to read something on this subject which, for once, is more than elegantly expressed hand wringing, and the author's characteristically readable argument which, although impassioned, sticks to language issues and does not meander, should annoy the complacent and excite the progressive.
www.amazon.co.uk /exec/obidos/ASIN/0521012716   (891 words)

 Semantic Compositions: Language death
This sort of thinking strikes SC as weaselly; surely the empirical truth about whether or not different languages are really associated with different mindsets is relevant to the question of whether or not they tell you anything about the thinking of the people who speak them.
On the other hand, SC has stated before that he "cannot and will not get upset about the idea that other people expect you to be able to share meaning with them in an efficient manner", and that means teaching people who can't communicate with the majority to do so.
There is a difference between insisting that people who want to advance economically learn the majority language and pursuing a campaign of actively suppressing minority languages, but the article's author isn't interested in the idea that such positions could be nuanced.
semanticcompositions.typepad.com /index/2004/02/this_weekend_ar.html   (869 words)

 Dalmatian Language Death
I need to find out the exact date of when the last person to speak the Dalmatian language died....I know it was in 1898 by a land mind but I want to know the EXACT date.
Moreover, he had not spoken the language for 20 years at the time he acted as an informant, and he was deaf and toothless as well.
It is possible that, apart from isolated pockets, the language was then replaced by Croatian and, to a lesser extent, by Venetian (a dialect of Italian).
www-personal.umich.edu /~jlawler/ask/dalmatian.html   (272 words)

 Lingua Franca - 23/09/00: Language Death...
Enshrined in a language is the whole of a community's history, and a large
figure of $100,000 a year per language can't be far from the truth.
Languages are like people, in one way, as I said at the beginning.
www.abc.net.au /rn/arts/ling/stories/s184643.htm   (1642 words)

 In the Aftermath of Yugoslavia's Collapse   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Herzegovina-type (Neo-_tokavian/ijekavian) dialect for the new literary language.
language unity in the 1990s and the emergence of several successor languages.
that the administrative language in Montenegro is the language with the ijekavian pronunciation.
www.unc.edu /courses/2001fall/slav/075/aftermath.htm   (6095 words)

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