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Topic: Language isolate

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  Sumerian Language & Writing
The Sumerian language is generally regarded as a language isolate in linguistics because it belongs to no known language family; Akkadian belongs to the Afro-Asiatic languages.
Sumerian, the oldest known written language in human history, was spoken in Mesopotamia (modern Iraq and peripheral regions) throughout the third millennium BC and survived as an esoteric written language until the death of the cuneiform tradition around the time of Christ.
In an ergative language the subject of a sentence with a direct object is in the so-called ergative case, which in Sumerian is marked with the suffix -e.
www.crystalinks.com /sumerlanguage.html   (911 words)

  Language isolate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic") relationship with other living languages; that is, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common to any other language.
Language isolates may be seen as a special case of unclassified languages, being languages which remain unclassified even after extensive efforts.
Neither should isolates be confused with isolating languages, languages in which morphemes generally exist in the form of full-fledged words, as opposed to synthetic languages.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Language_isolate   (1806 words)

 Language isolate
Unlike English, which is clearly related to other Germanic languages, or the various Chinese languages, isolates generally stand apart from their surrounding languages in terms of their phonology, grammar, and syntax.
Isolate languages are often the subject of intensive studies in order to attempt proof of genetic relationships between languages.
The Pirahã language of Brazil is one such language, the last language alive belonging to the Mura family.
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/la/Language_isolate.html   (257 words)

 Language - Printer-friendly - MSN Encarta
A genetic classification of languages divides them into families on the basis of their historical development: A group of languages that descend historically from the same common ancestor form a language family.
The family consists of a number of subfamilies or branches (groups of languages that descended from a common ancestor, which in turn is a member of a larger group of languages that descended from a common ancestor).
Languages of the Algonquian and Iroquoian families constitute the major indigenous languages of northeastern North America, while the Siouan family is one of the main families of central North America.
encarta.msn.com /text_761570647___36/Language.html   (2191 words)

 language - HighBeam Encyclopedia
Just as languages spoken now by peoples of the simplest cultures are as subtle and as intricate as those of the peoples of more complex civilizations, similarly the forms of languages known (or hypothetically reconstructed) from the earliest records show no trace of being more "primitive" than their modern forms.
They may abandon their native language entirely, because they have moved from the place where it is spoken or because of politico-economic and cultural pressure (as among Native Americans and speakers of the Celtic languages in Europe).
Various factors, especially the use of written language, have led to the development of a standard language in most of the major speech communities—a special official dialect of a language that is theoretically maintained unchanged.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/l/language.asp   (1281 words)

 Language - MSN Encarta
In northern Asia there are a number of languages that appear either to form small, independent families or to be language isolates, such as the Chukotko-Kamchatkan language family of the Chukchi and Kamchatka peninsulas in the far east of Russia.
The Austronesian languages, formerly called Malayo-Polynesian, cover the Malay Peninsula and most islands to the southeast of Asia and are spoken as far west as Madagascar and throughout the Pacific islands as far east as Easter Island.
International languages include both existing languages that have become international means of communication and languages artificially constructed to serve this purpose.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761570647_5/Language.html   (1284 words)

 Korean language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The classification of the modern Korean language is uncertain, and due to the lack of any one generally-accepted theory, it is sometimes described conservatively as a language isolate.
The standard language (pyojuneo or pyojunmal) of South Korea is based on the dialect of the area around Seoul, and the standard for North Korea is based on the dialect spoken around P'yŏngyang.
Traditionally, the Korean language has had strong vowel harmony; that is, in pre-modern Korean, as in most Altaic languages, not only did the inflectional and derivational affixes (such as postpositions) change in accordance to the main root vowel, but native words also adhered to vowel harmony.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Korean_language   (2991 words)

 Language Isolate —   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
The Open Language Archives Community (OLAC) is an international partnership of institutions and individuals who are creating a worldwide virtual library of language resources.
The LINGUIST List is dedicated to providing information on language and language analysis, and to providing the discipline of linguistics with the infrastructure necessary to function in the digital world.
Its purpose is to create and distribute a free international encyclopedia in as many languages as possible.
www.rosettaproject.org /archive/Language_Isolate   (184 words)

 Japanese language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
It is considered an agglutinative language and is distinguished by a complex system of honorifics reflecting the hierarchical nature of Japanese society, with verb forms and particular vocabulary which indicate the relative status of speaker and listener.
The Ryukyuan languages, while closely related to Japanese, are distinct enough to be considered a separate branch of the Japonic family, and are not dialects of Japanese.
The original language of Japan, or at least the original language of a certain population that was ancestral to a significant portion of the historical and present Japanese nation, was the so-called yamato kotoba (大和言葉 or 大和詞, i.e.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Japanese_language   (5113 words)

 Language isolate - Simple English Wikipedia
A language isolate is a language that does not have another language related to it.
Many languages are related to other languages, because they both come from an older language, and are similar to other languages.
Most languages belong to a language family, but some are not related to other languages.
simple.wikipedia.org /wiki/Language_isolate   (134 words)

 Japanese language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Japanese is therefore said to be a mora-timed language.
Most nouns in the Japanese language may be made honorific by the addition of お o- or ご go-; as a prefix.
Unlike languages like Chinese, knowing a standard Japanese suffices most of the time but it may be necessary to be familiar with local dialects on some occasions.
www.encyclopedia-online.info /Japanese_language   (4196 words)

 Kalto language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Kalto or Nahali is a language isolate spoken in west-central India (in Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra) by around 5,000 people.
The language has many loans from Indo-Aryan, Dravidian, and Munda languages, but much of its vocabulary cannot be related to other language families.
Kuiper (1962) conjectured that it is unrelated to any other Indian language but, even if that is so, its vocabulary has over the millennia been heavily influenced, in turn by Munda, Dravidian and latterly, Indo-European Marathi.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Kalto_language   (222 words)

 The Language Page
Language consists of single word, pronounced as SAE "peas," is spelled "cardboard" (using roman script), and means "Give me another beer." In some dialects the meaning is changed to extremely vulgar expletives.
Vocabulary, syntax, morphology and every other conceivable aspect of the language changes nearly constantly, depending on the date and time, gender of the user, age of the user, whether the user is lying or telling the truth, and much, much else.
A classical language, a sanskrit, it is the official language of Livagia used in all official, legal, political and higher academic contexts and in all but the most ephemeral writing.
members.tripod.com /microtonal/language/conlang/ethnologueam.html   (1815 words)

 Korean Language - Search Results - MSN Encarta   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Korean Language, language spoken by at least 62 million inhabitants of North and South Korea, as well as by some 670,000 Koreans resident in Japan...
Chinese Language, language of the Chinese, or Han, people, the majority ethnic group of China, including both the People's Republic of China and...
The linguistic classification of the Korean language is uncertain.
uk.encarta.msn.com /Korean_Language.html   (120 words)

 Japanese Information Center - japanese girls
It is considered an agglutinative language and is distinguished by a system of honorifics reflecting the hierarchical nature of Japanese society, with verbal forms which indicate the relative status of the speaker to the listener.
The Ryukyuan languages are japanese translator spoken in the islands of Okinawa Prefecture.
Their use is often optional, since Japanese is described as a so-called pro-drop language, i.e., one in which the subject of a sentence does not always need to be stated.
www.scipeeps.com /Sci-Official_Languages_H_-_L/Japanese.html   (3297 words)

 Hardest Language to Learn Survey
There are nearly 7000 languages in the world today and I'm sure some of them (most of which we've never heard of) are extremely difficult languages to learn.
Not surprisingly, Chinese was chosen as the most difficult language to learn of the five choices presented by a two to one margin over Finnish, and a more than four to one margin over Russian, Korean and Arabic.
Factors such as the writing system, relation to languages you already know, and what your native language is all have some bearing on whether or not a new language is difficult or easy to learn.
language-learning-advisor.com /hardest-language-to-learn-survey.html   (598 words)

 Welcome to Adobe GoLive 6
The Purepecha language, previously known as Tarascan, is a language isolate that is not even provisionally linked with any other language.
The language has been studied and continues to be studied by both Mexican and foreign linguists.
Pride in the language and culture seems to be on the rise, with governmental encouragement.
www.mexicantextiles.com /library/purepacha/infoSIL.html   (770 words)

 The Language Page
Language of official imperial administration, public education, and, along with C'ali, international political, intellectual and religious discourse.
Language Isolate, heavily re-lexicalised with loans from various Cree and Ojibwe dialects.
Wania is south of Filofonecia in western Gon; the language originated in the nearby continent of Weni.
members.tripod.com /microtonal/language/conlang/ethnologueny.html   (1771 words)

 International JFL Cafe. Japanese language information.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
The best attested of these is the language of Goguryeo, with the less-attested languages of Baekje and Buyeo hypothesized to also be related because of all these cultures' historic close ties of kinship.
Kanto-ben is very close to the standard language, and varies essentially in slang; some consider it to be equivalent to the standard language.
Japanese dialects are mutually intelligible, although extremely geographically separated dialects such as the Tōhoku-ben and Kyūshū-ben may not be; in such cases speakers switch to the standard language with which all Japanese are familiar from school and from the media.
internationaleflcafe.com /japanese-language-information.htm   (3125 words)

Sumerian is a long-extinct language documented throughout the ancient Middle East, in particular in the south of modern Iraq.
Sumerian is a language isolate, that is no languages related to it have so far been convincingly identified, although many of its grammatical features are attested in other living languages outside of the Indo-European family to which English belongs.
Sumerian is thus one of many languages which have a syntactic split determined by the class of the word functioning as the head of the noun phrase.
www-etcsl.orient.ox.ac.uk /edition2/language.php   (4309 words)

 Euskal Herria Journal | Basque Language and Culture   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Basque is the sole surviving non-Indo-European language in Western Europe, it is classified as a language isolate.
Besides Indo-European, there are to be found languages of four other families in Europe; the Uralic family and the Altaic stock are represented, and we have to add two language families in the Caucasian area, namely South Caucasian and North Caucasian.
Estonian, Finnish and Saami (Lapp) are languages belonging to the Finnic branch of Finno-Ugric, Hungarian represents Ugric.
www.ehj-navarre.org /blessons/mowstr.html   (6025 words)

 Ethnologue: Russia, Asia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Russian is used as the second language by all except older people as a contact language, for literature, and urban professional and cultural life.
Dolgan is the contact language on the Tajmyr Peninsula, and is spoken also by Evenki, Nganasan, and long-term Russian residents.
Torgon is the basis of the literary language.
www.christusrex.org /www3/ethno/RusA.html   (3296 words)

 Isolate Languages
If the "language" that existed when emigration from Africa occurred was very simple compared with modern language, then it wouldn't mean much to call it one language versus many, because the modern distinctions between languages might not have existed at that point.
It seems to me that if all humans spoke one language at some time (no matter how different it was from modern languages) and each generation copied the previous generation's language with modifications, then all of our languages have a common memetic ancestor, even if the variations move between populations.
If we began with a common language of a single word, and the evolution to multiple words occurred in separated regions, and you wish to call that "having a common ancestral language", well, that seems a confusing definition to me, but so long as you're clear about what you mean...
c2.com /cgi/wiki?IsolateLanguages   (4140 words)

 Shiwi, Language of the Zuni, Resources, Books and Essays
The Zuni, or Shiwi language, is now generally considered a language isolate.
While this theory was plausible for some of the languages, the problem of verification of this theory was that to find any evidence of any cognates between the California languages and Zuni, one would possibly have to trace the languages' lineage by as much as 3000-5000 years or more.
Of special interest in regard to the Zuni language is his correspondences edited by Jesse Green, and their relevance to the Zuni language as it reflects their world view.
www.amerindianarts.us /articles/zuni_language.shtml   (666 words)

 UCLA Language Materials Project Language Profiles Page
Korean, known in the language itself as Kugo, is the language of the Korean Peninsula in northeast Asia.
Korean is a morphologically rich language in which many grammatical functions are marked by inflection and affixes; but similar to Altaic languages, gender and number are not marked, and the language lacks articles, fusional morphology, relative pronouns, conjunctions and agglutination.
During the colonial occupation, Japanese was the official language of Korea; Korean was suppressed by laws forbidding its use.
www.lmp.ucla.edu /Profile.aspx?LangID=76   (1425 words)

 Umatilla, Walla Walla & Cayuse Language
The Umatilla and Walla Walla dialects of the Sahaptin language were very different from the Cayuse language isolate.
Now that the Cayuse language is extinct, save about 350 documented words, most Cayuse descendants who speak a native language speak lower or upper Nez Perce.
Those who speak Umatilla as a first language are a handful of adults, and the rest elders.
www.trailtribes.org /umatilla/language.htm   (160 words)

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