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Topic: Languages of the Caucasus

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In the News (Sun 27 May 18)

 Encyclopedia: Languages of the Caucasus   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The term Caucasian languages is loosely used to refer to a large and extremely varied array of languages spoken by more than seven million people in the Caucasus region of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.
Urartian was the language of Urartu, a powerful state centered in the area of Lake Van in Turkey, that existed between 1000 BC or earlier and 585 BC.
The consonant systems of the Nakh languages are relatively simple, coinciding, on the whole, with those of the South Caucasian languages (apart from a number of pharyngeal consonants characteristic of all the Nakh languages and a lateral sound peculiar to Bats).
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Languages-of-the-Caucasus   (488 words)

 Languages of the Caucasus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The languages of the Caucasus are a large and extremely varied array of languages spoken by more than ten million people in the Caucasus region of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.
The fact that Basque, an isolated language spoken in the Pyrenees, also has an ergative case system has led many scholars to propose it as a displaced member of some Caucasian family.
It has been speculated that the South Cucasian languages may be related to the exinct Iberian language, spoken until the 1st century BC in the Iberian peninsula (which is known as "Western Iberia" in the Caucasus, to distinguish it from the Caucasian Iberia).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Languages_of_the_Caucasus   (923 words)

 AllRefer.com - Caucasian languages (Language And Linguistics) - Encyclopedia
The Caucasian languages take their name from the Caucasus Mountains, on the slopes of which their original homeland is believed to have been located.
It is a modern representative of the language of the ancient Colchians, of whom the celebrated mythological figure Medea was one.
In general, the Caucasian languages have inflection and tend to be agglutinative in that different linguistic elements, each of which exists separately and has a fixed meaning, are often joined to form one word.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/C/CaucasLan.html   (461 words)

 Caucasian Languages
The Caucasus is a biological refuge zone in which species found nowhere else are native, and it is known for its ecological and biological diversity.
The indigenous languages of the Caucasus are known for their complex consonant systems (including ejectives and pharyngeals), complex morphology, and ergativity (identical case or other coding on subjects of intransitive verbs and direct objects of transitives; distinct coding on subjects of transitives).
At present and for all known history and known prehistory, languages with large numbers of speakers have both lowland and highland ranges and a generally elongate vertical distribution; these are economically advantageous and/or culturally prestigious languages that have spread uphill.
popgen.well.ox.ac.uk /eurasia/htdocs/nichols/nichols.html   (1343 words)

 Facts about topic: (Languages of the Caucasus)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Hurrian was spoken in various parts of the Fertile Crescent (A geographical area of fertile land in the Middle East stretching in a broad semicircle from the Nile to the Tigris and Euphrates) in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC.
The two extinct languages been grouped into the Hurro-Urartian (additional info and facts about Hurro-Urartian) family, and the name Alarodian (additional info and facts about Alarodian) has been proposed for the union of the Northeast (and perhaps North-central) Caucasian and Hurro-Urartian families.
Many of the Caucasian languages have case systems (additional info and facts about case systems) (noun inflection rules) of a particular kind, known as ergative (additional info and facts about ergative), which sets them apart from most European languages.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/l/la/languages_of_the_caucasus.htm   (1152 words)

 Language Miniatures 94: Languages of the Caucasus   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Ancient Arab geographers called the Caucasus "the mountain of tongues." Largely due to its remoteness and wildness (that's where the Ancient Greek gods chained Prometheus to punish him) the Caucasus is a dense patchwork of languages and cultures, and along with the mountainous interior of New Guinea the most linguistically complex area on the globe.
It is customarily divided into the 'Northern' Caucasus, with the republics part of present-day Russia to the north of this range, and the 'Southern' Caucasus to the south, including the republics Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan that were formerly part of the Soviet Union and recently became independent.
For speakers of other languages in the Caucasus, it is the standard language, and therefore the second language, of all the republics north of the range that were once part of the Soviet Union.
home.bluemarble.net /~langmin/miniatures/caucasus.htm   (879 words)

 Caucasus Foundation
The Kartvelian languages are considered to be closely related and descended from a common language.
Newspapers, radio, and television use the local languages; and children in primary schools are taught in their mother tongue.
The member languages are the Avar language; the Andi subgroup of languages, including Andi, Botlikh, Godoberi, Chamalal, Bagvalal, Tindi, Karata, and Akhvakh; and the Dido subgroup, including Dido (Tsez), Khvarshi, Hinukh, Bezhta, and Hunzib.
www.kafkas.org.tr /english/kultur/diledebiyat.html   (2513 words)

 DIE NAMEN DER BERGE | Kaukasus | Teimuraz Gvantseladze: The Main Socio-Linguistic Tendencies in the Post-Soviet Caucasus
The Georgian, Azerbaijanian and Armenian languages occupied the second stage of hierarchy among the languages spoken in the Caucasus.
The third stage in the language hierarchy was occupied by the languages spoken in the North Caucasian autonomous republics, languages with newly created written languages: Abaza, Checheno-Ingush, Avarian, Kumuk, Lak, Dargwa, Lezghian, Tabassaranian and Nogayan, whose legal status was not determined by the constitution.
It is true that the study of this language is still compulsory in the state schools and higher educational institutions of all the three states, but the students are not interested in studying it any longer.
www.inst.at /berge/kaukasus/gvantseladze_t.htm   (2409 words)

 Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Alarodian languages
The Alarodian languages are a proposed language family that encompasses two language families of the Caucasus: Northeast or Dagestan (sometimes called Avar or Lezgian which are also the names of its most major members) and North-central or Vaynakh (which includes Chechen and Ingush), as well as the extinct Hurro-Urartian languages.
The connection between the Northeast and North-central families was based on claimed similarities in phonetics and grammar, such as sentence structure and an ergative case system.
There have been proposals to join the Alarodian language family with the Northwest Caucasian languages (which includes Abkhaz, Adyghe, Cherkess, and others) into the hypothetical North Caucasian family; and then with the South Caucasian languages (Georgian, Megrelian, Svan, and Laz) into an Ibero-Caucasian language family.
www.reference.com /browse/wiki/Alarodian_languages   (305 words)

 CV   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Mingrelian, The Indigenous Languages of the Caucasus: Kartvelian, ed.
Ablaut'i da sint'aksi kartvelur enebši [Ablaut and Syntax in the Kartvelian Languages].
Language examiner for languages of republics of the USSR (Georgian), 1991-92.
www.vanderbilt.edu /AnS/Germanic-Slavic/german/Harris/cv.htm   (1272 words)

 InfoHub Forums - Languages of Caucasus
There are sizable diasporic communities in Turkey and elsewhere in the Near East, descendants of emigrants from the Russian conquest of the Caucasus in the 19th century; they retain the languages to varying extents.
The languages you've mentioned are just the small part of the languages of Caucasus.There are some nations,whose number are less then 3000.
Because they may as well understand that a separate language is a separate culture with its traditions, customs, indigenous traits and properties, all of them interdepending and bound with the language...and play the cards.
www.infohub.com /forums/showthread.php?t=853&goto=nextnewest   (1385 words)

 The Paleo-Siberian languages and other language families (from Paleo-Siberian languages) --  Encyclopædia Britannica
Nivkh is not known to be related to any other language, and it is usually included with the Luorawetlan languages and the Yeniseian languages in the catchall areal category...
The Slavic languages are a group of related languages within the Indo-European family.
A language family that covers a broad geographical region and a vast historical period, the Semitic language group is part of an even larger language family known as Afro-Asiatic, or Hamito-Semitic.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-75083   (730 words)

 Ibero-Caucasian languages   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
South Caucasian (Kartvelian (Georgian)) and North Caucasian two distinct unrelated phyla even in Greenberg's Generally the former are spoken south of Caucasus and the latter north of the Caucasus watershed.
Ergativity is relevant all the languages of the Caucasus except Megrelian (Kartvelian (Georgian) language group) in which ergative case has been levelled across all of verbs.
Basque has been linked with the Kartvelian languages due to the fact that Basque the only ergative language remaining in western However the application of the ergative case between the families and this hypothesis is widely accepted.
www.freeglossary.com /Ibero-Caucasian_languages   (835 words)

 Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Languages of the Caucasus
The Caucasian languages fall into four widely accepted language families, with numberous subfamilies.
The languages in these families are (with populations from the 1970 Soviet Census):
The two extinct languages been grouped into the Hurro-Urartian family, and the name Alarodian has been proposed for the union of the Northeast (and perhaps North-central) Caucasian and Hurro-Urartian families.
www.reference.com /browse/wiki/Caucasian_language   (806 words)

 Project on Endangered Languages in South Caucasus: UNESCO-CI
In addition, through the portrayal of the intrinsic cultural wealth of the various languages, thereby engendering inter-ethnic respect and tolerance, conflict resolution and the regional peace-building process can be advanced.
Due to the assimilation of small ethnic groups, their languages are endangered and soon this and their cultural legacy could disappear.
Unfortunately these alone cannot preserve and relate the natural and audio specificity of the language (accents, intonation, pronunciation) or adequately convey to the public their importance as examples of humanities patrimony.
portal.unesco.org /ci/en/ev.php-URL_ID=7857&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html   (562 words)

 legends and languages   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
So, languages were put in a bag and given to an angel to distribute.
While the angel was flying over Caucasus, the bottom of the bag was torn by the top of a mountain and the languages started to fall down.
It's said the reason why there are alot of languages being spoken in Caucasus is due to that event.
www25.brinkster.com /surhaygqnu/legendsandlanguages.htm   (248 words)

 [No title]
The Caucasus, a mountainous region between the Black and Caspian seas, is notable for its great linguistic and cultural diversity (as well as its biological diversity).
The languages of the Caucasus, their origins and structural types, patterns of multilingualism, Soviet language policy, post-Soviet language planning.
Topics in the history, structure, and typology of the indigenous languages of the Caucasus, including the Caucasus as a linguistic area.
ls.berkeley.edu /dept/slavic/f01crsdescription.html   (3415 words)

 Caucasian languages
The family of Caucasian languages comprise two unrelated families of languages, spoken in the Caucasus, Eastern Europe, together with representatives of Indo-European and Altaic.
They have a number of common features in phonetics and grammar, for example, ergative case and sentence structure, but their genetic relationship isn't clear.
All of these language families are characterised by an ergative system; also, they tend to be verb-focused, with much information about nouns encoded in the verb.
www.fastload.org /ca/Caucasian_languages.html   (297 words)

 Ossetic language --  Encyclopædia Britannica
eastern Iranian language spoken in the northern Caucasus by the Ossetes.
English is the national language of the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand.
They—and a number of lesser-known languages and dialects—are all derived from medieval Latin dialects spoken in areas of Europe governed by the Roman Empire.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-9057571?tocId=9057571&query=Ossete&ct=   (748 words)

 Wikinfo | Caucasian languages
Ergativity is relevant to all the languages of the Caucasus except for Mingrelian, in which the ergative case has been levelled across all subjects of verbs.
Basque has been linked with the South Caucasian languages, due to the fact that Basque is the only ergative language remaining in western Europe.
The Indo-European languages have been linked with the Northwest Caucasian languages, apparently quite convincingly, in a superfamily called Pontic.
www.wikinfo.org /wiki.php?title=Caucasian_languages   (561 words)

 Kalmyk language - Art History Online Reference and Guide   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The Kalmyk (Kalmuck) language of Kalmyks, it is spoken mainly in Kalmykia, in the Russian Federation.
It belongs to the western subgroup of the Mongolian languages and reflects the characteristic Mongolian vowel harmony, and its script is based on the Mongolian alphabet.
This reflects Kalmyk's origin as the common language of the Oyirads, a union of four western Mongolian tribes that absorbed some Ugric and Turkic tribes during its migration westward.
www.arthistoryclub.com /art_history/Kalmyk_language   (302 words)

 Dept. of Slavic Languages and Literatures, UC Berkeley
The issue of language has also been highly politicized, and much of the ethnic/national conflict between Serbs, Croats, Bosnian Muslims (and even Montenegrins) is connected with the question of whether they all speak the same language or not.
The formation of various registers of the written language is described as a result of the interaction of rhetorical strategies pertinent for different areas of culture and linguistic material drawn from East Slavic and Church Slavonic sources.
The emergence of the modern standard language is treated as the unification of usages belonging to different registers of the preceding epoch.
ls.berkeley.edu /dept/slavic/s04description.html   (5223 words)

 Linguistics and Languages: Collections: SSHL   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Research-level collections in the theory of phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, typology and the emerging field of optimality theory are maintained, as are collections to support the more experimental fields of psycholinguistics, neurolinguistics, first and second language acquisition, discourse analysis, pidgins and creoles, and computational and mathematical linguistics.
Spanish, Russian, Uralic, Japanese, languages of the Caucasus, American Sign Language, modern Greek, Uto-Aztecan, and Ethiopian Semitic languages are among those currently collected most extensively.
To support interdisciplinary research and undergraduate instruction in a wide variety of foreign languages, dictionaries and grammars of all languages and dialects are acquired as funding permits.
sshl.ucsd.edu /collections/ling.html   (135 words)

 InfoHub Forums - German: too hard to learn?
Yes, I know, our language is difficult to learn, but French is really the same - French kiddies are calling their parents "vous", which means they use the same form as for strangers.
Speaking about German or even another language it is not about the difficulty of studying it, more important I think is ones native language, cultural background and the family his/her language comes from.
Of course it will be pretty difficult to learn a language which is from a distinct language family.
www.infohub.com /forums/showthread.php?t=853&goto=nextnewest   (788 words)

 Georgian Introduction
Georgian is predominantly spoken in the republic of Georgia on the Black Sea coast in South Caucasus.
Georgian is the main language of the South Caucasian (or Kartvelian) group, that also includes Svan, Megrelian and Laz (the closely related Megrelian and Laz are by some authors referred to as the two branches of the Zan language (Kiziria 1964)).
Georgian is the literary language of the Georgians proper, the Megrelians and the Svans.
www.ling.lu.se /education/homepages/georgian/DEMO/INTR3/Intro.html   (781 words)

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