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Topic: Lateral geniculate nucleus


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  Lateral geniculate nucleus - Information from Reference.com
The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus is a part of the brain,
the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), which is a part of the thalamic sensory...
Statistics of lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) activity determine...
www.reference.com /search?q=Lateral%20geniculate%20nucleus&db=web   (263 words)

  
  Lateral geniculate nucleus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Schematic diagram of the primate lateral geniculate nucleus.
The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus is a part of the brain, which is the primary processor of visual information, received from the retina, in the central nervous system.
The magnocellular, parvocellular, and koniocellular layers of the LGN correspond with the similarly-named types of ganglion cells.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Lateral_geniculate_nucleus   (1077 words)

  
 lateral geniculate nucleus   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-15)
A morphologic analysis of neurons and neuropil in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of aged rats.
Onset of calbindin-D 28K and parvalbumin expression in the lateral geniculate complex and olivary pretectal nucleus during postnatal development of the rat.
Decoupling eye-specific segregation from lamination in the lateral geniculate nucleus.
www.arclab.org /node_pages/109.html   (560 words)

  
 APStracts 2:0007N, 1995.
The lateral geniculate nucleus is the primary thalamic relay for the transfer of retinal signals to the visual cortex.
A major ascending projection to the lateral geniculate nucleus arises from cholinergic cells in the parabrachial region of the brainstem.
In an in vivo preparation, we used extracellular recordings to study the effects of electrical activation of the parabrachial region on the spontaneous activity and visual responses of X and Y cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the cat.
www.uth.tmc.edu /apstracts/1995/jn/April/7n.html   (798 words)

  
 Alan Saul
In nonlagged LGN cells, the retinal input is relayed to cortex largely unaltered, but in lagged cells inhibitory interneurons shift the phase of the input.
The development of timing in LGN cells suggested that a class of large smooth neurons that develops late might be the substrate of the deficit in about 5% of the population of kindergarten-aged children who might be diagnosed with specific learning impairment due to a basic temporal processing defect.
Monkey cortical cells obtain a range of timing from LGN, but the characteristic phase behavior as a function of temporal frequency differs markedly from that seen in cats, and monkey cells tend to be direction selective across a broad range of frequencies, or only at high frequencies.
www.mcg.edu /neuroscience/AlanSaul.html   (1207 words)

  
 Former Postdocs   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-15)
Cucchiaro, J.B., Uhlrich, D.J., and Sherman, S.M. (1991) Electron-microscopic analysis of synaptic input from the perigeniculate nucleus to the A-laminae of the lateral geniculate nucleus in cats.
Cucchiaro, J.B., Uhlrich, D.J., and Sherman, S.M. (1993) Ultrastructure of synapses from the pretectum in the A-laminae of the cat's lateral geniculate nucleus.
Van Horn, S.C., Erisir, A., and Sherman S.M. (2000) Relative distribution of synapses in the A-laminae of the lateral geniculate nucleus of the cat.
www.sunysb.edu /shermanlab/publications/publications.html   (3620 words)

  
 The Structure of the Visual System   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-15)
The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) is the subcortical area that deals with vision; it is a layered structure with cells that respond to form, motion, and color.
The lateral geniculate nucleus consists of six layers with each alternating layer receiving inputs from a different eye: 3 layers for the left eye and 3 layers for the right.
The two most ventral layers are referred to as the magnocellular layers and are composed of large cells which receive their input from large ganglion cells referred to as the M ganglion cells.
ahsmail.uwaterloo.ca /kin356/semantic/lgn.html   (192 words)

  
 [No title]
Shock-induced inhibition in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the rhesus monkey.
Malpeli, J. Activity of cells in area 17 of the cat in the absence of input from layer A of the lateral geniculate nucleus.
Electron-microscopy of cobaltous chloride induced degeneration in the rat lateral geniculate nucleus.
malpeli.beckman.uiuc.edu /publications.html   (927 words)

  
 Montero Publications, Department of Physiology, UW-Madison
Montero, V. (1983) Ultrastructural identification of axon terminals from the thalamic reticular nucleus in the medial geniculate body in the rat: An EM autoradiographic study.
Montero, V. M., Zempel, J. (1986) The proportion and size of GABA-immunoreactive neurons in the magnocellular and parvocellular layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus of the rhesus monkey.
Montero, V. (1989) Ultrastructural identification of synaptic terminals from cortical axons and from collateral axons of geniculo-cortical relay cells in the perigeniculate nucleus of the cat.
www.physiology.wisc.edu /faculty/montero_additional-pubs.html   (972 words)

  
 Visual System - Lateral Geniculate Nucleus   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-15)
The optic tract goes even further back in the brain and eventually reaches the dorso lateral geniculate nucleus (or the LGN) which is about halfway between the front and back of the brain.
The "dorso" part means essentially that it is the upper part of the lateral geniculate nucleus.
Once the optic tract has separated into these three pathways after the LGN, it is referred to as the optic radiations, or alternately, the bundle of Gratiolet (Zeki, 19).
www.macalester.edu /psychology/whathap/UBNRP/visionwebsite04/visualsys_lgn.html   (310 words)

  
 Attention modulates responses in the human lateral geniculate nucleus - Nature Neuroscience
LGN activity was enhanced when subjects attended to the stimulus, and it was suppressed when they ignored it.
The size of the LGN attentional effects obtained in experiments 1 and 4 was similar, suggesting that the attentional demands of the letter-counting task at fixation and the luminance detection task at the peripheral checkerboard location were comparable.
This raises the possibility that attentional modulation in the LGN may be due to factors other than corticothalamic feedback from striate cortex; modulatory influences may also come from sources such as the brainstem, the superior colliculus (SC) and the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN).
www.nature.com /neuro/journal/v5/n11/full/nn957.html   (5589 words)

  
 Lecture 27
This shows that, much like the primate lateral geniculate nucleus, that of the cat has several laminae, each innervated by one or the other eye, but the number and naming is different between species.
In fact, the deleterious effects of this deprivation are limited to the binocular segment, since the deprived monocular segment in the lateral geniculate nucleus and visual cortex develop fairly normally.
Also, the effects in the deprived geniculate laminae are essentially limited to Y cells, which fail to develop normally, and the X cells are relatively unaffected there.
naples.cc.sunysb.edu /CAS/neuro.nsf/pages/lecture2   (862 words)

  
 Atlas of a Rhesus Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN)
This atlas was created by Ed Erwin, Frank Baker, William Busen, and Joseph Malpeli for the study described in Erwin et al., 1999, Relationship between laminar topology and retinotopy in the rhesus lateral geniculate nucleus: results from a functional atlas, Journal of Comparative Neurology, 407: 92-102, 1999.
Three-dimensional rendering of such large files requires fairly powerful computing resources, but one can still obtain insightful views of the nucleus if the linear resolution of the arrays is reduced by a factor of 2 or 3, thus reducing the size of the data set by a factor of 8 or 27.
The Horsley-Clarke position of the origin of this coordinate system is 8.5 mm lateral, -1.5 mm dorsal, and 3.5 mm anterior, with increasing array indices corresponding to increasing distance in the lateral, dorsal and anterior directions.
malpeli.beckman.uiuc.edu /atlas   (840 words)

  
 Dynamic properties of corticogeniculate excitatory transmission in the rat dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in vitro ...
Monosynaptic excitation of principal cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus by corticofugal fibers.
Augmentation of corticogeniculate EPSCs in principal cells of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the rat investigated in vitro.
Synaptic excitation of principal cells in the cat's lateral geniculate nucleus during focal epileptic seizures in the visual cortex.
jp.physoc.org /cgi/content/full/556/1/135   (5074 words)

  
 Untitled Document
Humphrey, A.L. and Weller, R.E. Structural correlates of functionally distinct X-cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the cat.
Saul, A.B. and Humphrey, A.L. Spatial and temporal response properties of lagged and non-lagged cells in the cat lateral geniculate nucleus.
Humphrey, A.L. and Saul A.B. The temporal transformation of retinal signals in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the cat: implications for cortical function.
www.neurobio.pitt.edu /faculty_lab/humphrey_pi.htm   (495 words)

  
 Morphogenesis of the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus
In primates the LGN consists of several layers of neurons separated by intervening layers of axons and dendrites.
The transition between the 6- and 4-layer regions occurs at the position of the optic disk (the blind spot caused by the exit of the optic nerve from the eye).
A three-dimensional model of the morphogenesis of the rhesus lateral geniculate nucleus.
www.ks.uiuc.edu /Research/Neural/morphogenesis.html   (1065 words)

  
 Neuroscience Online (ii,15,1)
In the case of the visual system, the thalamic nucleus is the lateral geniculate nucleus and the cortex is the striate cortex of the occipital lobe.
Like the retina, the lateral geniculate nucleus is a laminated structure, in this case, with six principal layers of cells (Figure 15.3B).
The LGN neurons are monocular (i.e., respond to stimulation of one eye only) and have concentric (center-surround) receptive fields.
neuroscience.uth.tmc.edu /s2/ii15-1.html   (929 words)

  
 [No title]
contralateral retinal input from the lateral geniculate nucleus to striate cortex in the owl
lateral geniculate neurons in a prosimian primate (Galago crassicaudatus).
Ding*, Y. and V.A. Casagrande (1995) The morphology of LGN axons that terminate in the Co blobs and primate VI.
www.psy.vanderbilt.edu /faculty/casagrande/CasagrandeLab(oldwebpages)/pubs.html   (4583 words)

  
 Information in the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-15)
In response to a dynamic visual stimulus, an LGN neuron produces a highly precise temporal pattern of firing.
The advantage of this analysis is that it does not rest on our ability to decode the cell's response, or even to know what it is about a stimulus that the cell encodes.
I have found that LGN firing patterns are highly reproducible and temporally precise, resulting in raw information rates in excess of 100 bits/sec and over 5 bits/spike.
www-biology.ucsd.edu /labs/reinagel/lgnreprod.html   (216 words)

  
 Lateral Geniculate Nucleus: Anatomic and Functional Identification by Use of MR Imaging -- Fujita et al. 22 (9): 1719 ...
Lateral Geniculate Nucleus: Anatomic and Functional Identification by Use of MR Imaging -- Fujita et al.
the optic radiation, and the lateral recess of the ambient cistern.
Because of the proximity of the LGN to the
www.ajnr.org /cgi/content/full/22/9/1719   (4386 words)

  
 Neurogenetics at UT Health Science Center
The total population of neurons in the LGN was estimated in both frozen and celloidin embedded material by means of direct three-dimensional counting using oil immersion objectives and DIC optics (Williams and Rakic, 1988b).
Neurons in the LGN were distinguished from glial cells and endothelial cells on the basis of size and nuclear staining as described in detail in Williams and Rakic (1988a).
Weber AJ, Kalil RE (1983) The percentage of interneurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the cat and observations on several variables that affect the sensitivity of horseradish peroxidase as a retrograde marker.
www.nervenet.org /papers/wildcat.html   (13534 words)

  
 Visual responses in the lateral geniculate nucleus of dichromatic and trichromatic marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) -- ...
Visual responses in the lateral geniculate nucleus of dichromatic and trichromatic marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) -- Yeh et al.
Chromatic and spatial properties of parvocellular cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)
Spatial properties of koniocellular cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the marmoset Callithrix jacchus
www.jneurosci.org /cgi/content/short/15/12/7892   (724 words)

  
 Technology Review: Brain Implants to Restore Vision
And unlike locations in the visual cortex, the LGN is one of the first "stops" in the visual system, meaning that the neural signals encoding visual information have not yet been extensively processed and spread throughout the brain.
To determine if activity in the LGN can mimic visual stimuli, the researchers implanted electrodes in the LGNs of two monkeys that had been trained to move their eyes rapidly toward points of light when they appeared on a screen.
When a part of the LGN corresponding to a specific part of the visual field was electrically stimulated, the monkeys would shift their gaze to that point on the screen.
www.technologyreview.com /Biotech/18574   (651 words)

  
 Publications of Dr. Martha E. Bickford
Li., J., Wang, S., Bickford, M.E. (2003) A comparison of the ultrastructure of cortical and retinal inputs in the rat dorsal lateral geniculate and lateral posterior nuclei.
Dankowski, A., and Bickford, M.E. (2003) Inhibitory circuitry involving Y cells and Y retinal terminals in the C laminae of the cat dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus.
M.E. and Guido, W. staining in the lateral geniculate nucleus of normal and visually deprived cats.
www.louisville.edu /~mebick01/mpub.html   (768 words)

  
 Thalamofugal Pathways - Vison, Motion, Brain
The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) receives input from the retina, and projects to the primary visual cortex (V1).
The LGN is organized into six layers, which are numbered 1-6.
Layers 1 and 2 of the LGN contain magnocellular neurons, and layers 3-6 contain parvocellular neurons.
web.psych.ualberta.ca /~iwinship/vision/thalamo_path.html   (586 words)

  
 Spatiotemporal Receptive Field Organization in the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus of Cats and Kittens -- Cai et al. 78 (2): ...
The second major goal of this study is to examine the postnatal development of spatiotemporal RF organization in the LGN.
The major focus of this study is to describe the spatiotemporal dynamics of RF structure for LGN cells from cats and kittens.
LGN cells in the cat can be divided into lagged and nonlagged types based on the temporal response pattern exhibited in response
jn.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/78/2/1045   (8592 words)

  
 The projection of individual axons from the parabrachial region of the brain stem to the dorsal lateral geniculate ...
The projection of individual axons from the parabrachial region of the brain stem to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in the cat -- Uhlrich et al.
The projection of individual axons from the parabrachial region of the brain stem to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in the cat
between the parabrachial region and the lateral geniculate nucleus.
www.jneurosci.org /cgi/content/short/8/12/4565   (388 words)

  
 Information in the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-15)
Individual LGN cells can operate in either of two regimes: tonic mode (left in figure) and burst mode (right).
More recently it has been suggested that the LGN cell also transfers information about visual stimuli via bursts, but it performs a nonlinear amplification of the visual signal, sacrificing signal discrimination for signal detectability.
LGN cells fire in both modes in awake animals during visual stimulation, though bursts are relatively infrequent when animals are alert.
www-biology.ucsd.edu /labs/reinagel/lgn.html   (360 words)

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