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Topic: Law of effect


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In the News (Mon 19 Nov 18)

  
  Law of effect - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The law of effect is a principle of psychology described by Edward Thorndike in 1898.
It holds that responses to stimuli that produce a satisfying or pleasant effect in a particular situation are more likely to occur again in the situation.
The law is important in understand learning, especially as it relates to operant conditioning.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Law_of_effect   (117 words)

  
 LAW OF EFFECT   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Because Thorndike's Law of Effect typically has been adapted to the specific purposes of the countless psychologists who have used it over the years to explain behavior, it is reproduced here in the author's own words (with my footnotes) rather than in the words of one of his many interpreters.
While the law appears to address the subject of behavior in the broadest possible terms, it ignores both observational learning and instrumental learning, assuming only trial-and-error learning, as in the case of the monkey and the bananas.
Finally, the Law of Effect, by using words such as 'satisfying' and 'dissatisfying', and even 'effect', lulls the unsuspecting student into believing that Thorndike answered the question of motivation even though he never addressed motivation.
members.aol.com /JohnPSmith/lawofeffect.html   (1342 words)

  
 Gun law in effect soon
The new law makes Minnesota the 35th state to have a conceal carry law that allows handguns to be carried in public with a permit.
Rivard said law enforcement officers from several counties are working out logistics on how to allow guns to be carried in a government office — which the law does not strictly forbid — but not into a courthouse.
Law enforcement officers issuing permits are not allowed to keep a record of the serial numbers of guns owned by the permit holder.
www.ecm-inc.com /news/postreview/2003/May/21guns.html   (1618 words)

  
 Shirky: Power Laws, Weblogs, and Inequality
Power law distributions, the shape that has spawned a number of catch-phrases like the 80/20 Rule and the Winner-Take-All Society, are finally being understood clearly enough to be useful.
The linguist George Zipf observed that word frequency falls in a power law pattern, with a small number of high frequency words (I, of, the), a moderate number of common words (book, cat cup), and a huge number of low frequency words (peripatetic, hypognathous).
Six Degrees, and The Laws of the Web, we know that power law distributions tend to arise in social systems where many people express their preferences among many options.
www.shirky.com /writings/powerlaw_weblog.html   (2354 words)

  
 The Seattle Times: Nation & World: Stringent gun-control law goes into effect in Brazil
Now, under a new law hailed by supporters as the most sweeping gun-control measure in South America, only Brazilians with valid reasons — police and security guards, for example — are allowed to carry firearms in public.
Proponents of the law, which went into effect this month, see it as a badly needed step toward ridding this country of weapons too easily acquired and too often used to kill.
The new law requires background checks for prospective buyers, raises the legal age for gun ownership from 21 to 25, demands that all guns be registered and imposes prison sentences of up to four years for violators.
seattletimes.nwsource.com /html/nationworld/2001982887_brazilguns19.html   (426 words)

  
 Revised Land Law takes effect   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
He said the law was an important legal foundation to strengthen State management of land, but that strict enforcement of the law would be necessary to create a healthy real estate market.
Another advantage of the law is that from July 1, the natural resources and environment ministry will be able to reclaim land allocated for public projects that have been delayed for more than a year, the minister said.
The law will put an end to the current two-price system, in which there is a market price and a separate price set by the Government for administrative purposes.
vietnamnews.vnagency.com.vn /2004-07/01/Stories/04.htm   (666 words)

  
 Indian Rights Law Takes Effect   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
MEXICO CITY –– A law designed to expand Indian rights – and to pacify southern Chiapas state – takes effect Wednesday, despite widespread protests by Mexican Indians who had fought for a stronger, original version of the bill.
The Zapatistas have accused Fox and federal lawmakers of "closing the door on peace and dialogue." In a sign of growing tensions, the rebels released a statement Monday that claimed the Mexican army had sent troops to one of their most important strongholds.
After the law was criticized by some of his Cabinet secretaries, Fox also suggested it needed work.
www.washingtonpost.com /wp-srv/aponline/20010815/aponline042238_000.htm   (580 words)

  
 TIP: Theories   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
A corollary of the law of effect was that responses that reduce the likelihood of achieving a rewarding state (i.e., punishments, failures) will decrease in strength.
The theory suggests that transfer of learning depends upon the presence of identical elements in the original and new learning situations; i.e., transfer is always specific, never general.
The law of exercise specifies that the connection was established because the S-R pairing occurred many times (the law of effect) and was rewarded (law of effect) as well as forming a single sequence (law of readiness).
tip.psychology.org /thorn.html   (427 words)

  
 New State Dog Law Takes Effect Immediately
The law, which was signed by Gov. Gray Davis Thursday and takes effect immediately, was written in response to the January mauling death of Pacific Heights resident Diane Whipple.
Still, the new law won't affect the criminal case against lawyers Robert Noel and Marjorie Knoller, the couple in charge of the dogs that killed the 33-year-old Lacrosse coach.
As the lead prosecutor in the case, Hammer refused to discuss the Whipple matter, but said Friday that under the old law all one had to prove in a death case was that he didn't own the dog.
www.law.com /regionals/ca/stories/edt0910d.shtml   (606 words)

  
 University of Illinois Legal Working Paper Series
Like the placebo effect of medicine, laws impact social welfare beyond their objective effects by manipulating the public’s subjective perception of the law’s effectiveness.
The sense of assurance may in itself be a psychic effect, but the change in the perceived risk has an objective, measurable impact that is distinct from both objective and psychic effects of a law.
This largely ignored effect is a law’s “Placebo Effect” — the impact on social welfare of a change in individuals’ subjective assessment of the legal action’s benefits.
law.bepress.com /uiuclwps/papers/art36   (292 words)

  
 law   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
This law states that the responses to a situation that have a satisfying state of affairs will be strengthened and will become a habitual response to that situation.
Some he completely withdrew, like the Law of Exercise, and some he revised, like the Law of Effect.
To test the law of effect, Thorndike invented a number of experiments.
evolution.massey.ac.nz /assign2/MM/law.html   (568 words)

  
 First German Immigration Law Takes Effect | Germany | Deutsche Welle | 01.01.2005
The catalyst for Germany's first immigration law was the realization that the country's graying population and declining birth rate will one day threaten to overwhelm social security systems and disrupt the economy if young people didn't immigrate to the country.
The new law requires ethnic Germans as well as their family members to pass a language test before they will be allowed to move to Germany.
Germany's government and opposition have hammered out a difficult compromise the country's long-awaited immigration law aimed at admitting foreign workers and protecting asylum seekers.
www.dw-world.de /dw/article/0,1564,1442681,00.html   (956 words)

  
 News : Minnesota Anti-Spam Law Takes Effect, Texas Introduces Bill
An anti-spam law took effect in Minnesota yesterday, and anti-spam legislation was introduced in the Texas Senate last week.
Similar to anti-spam laws enacted in other states, Minnesota's bans using third parties' domain names to send e-mail without their permission, or otherwise misrepresenting the source of e-mail sent to state residents.
The law exempts e-mail to people who gave permission to receive commercial e-mail from the sender, e-mail from organizations using it to communicate exclusively with their members, and e-mail to people who have a pre-existing business or personal relationship with the sender.
www.mailutilities.com /news/2163.html   (690 words)

  
 Behaviorism: A Critical Look
Thorndike's analysis of this behavior was that the behavior that produced the desired effect became dominant and therefore, occurred faster in the next experiments.
According to Skinner, the behavior caused by the law of effect was called operant conditioning because the behavior of an organism changed or operated on the environment.
The effect stimuli have on an operant response is different than in Pavlovian conditioning because the stimuli do not cause the response.
www.personalityresearch.org /papers/naik.html   (6027 words)

  
 Federal Lead Based Paint Law in Effect
The laws can be found at 24 CFR Part 35 and 40 CFR Part 745.
As a result, home sellers, real estate brokers, and landlord's may be subject to liability for lead based paint hazards and home sellers and landlord's may even be subject to lead paint removal.
The nature of Legislation is that laws change quickly, and visitors should always insure that legal information is accurate before relying on it.
www.illinois-attorney.com /lp3.htm   (549 words)

  
 Local News | The Pensacola News Journal
The new law provides immunity to those who use deadly force in defense of life and limb, eliminating a previous requirement that a person first attempt to flee a threat before taking a life.
Now, as "stand your ground" becomes state law, anti-gun violence advocates are launching a campaign to inform visitors and others of what it considers a dangerous situation.
As initially proposed, the law also drew opposition from law enforcement groups and prosecutors because the bill made them criminally and civilly liable if they filed charges against people who are later vindicated under the criteria of the new law.
www.pensacolanewsjournal.com /apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20051001/NEWS01/510010319/1006   (750 words)

  
 News Release   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
The law also requires that the individual picking up the person arrested be issued a written warning that advises them of potential criminal and civil liability for permitting or facilitating the arrested person's operation of a motor vehicle while intoxicated.
The law is named in honor of Navy Ensign John R. Elliott, 22, of Egg Harbor Township, who was killed by a drunk driver on July 22, 2000.
The law requires the person to whom the written warning is issued to acknowledge, in writing, receipt of the statement.
www.state.nj.us /lps/p10801b.htm   (467 words)

  
 Federal credit law takes effect - Ocean Pines Independent - delmarvanow.com
The law overlaps a state law in Maryland, where consumers have had no-charge access to credit reports since 1992, and in six other states.
It has taken effect in a wave rolling eastward across the country, with western states' consumers enjoying its benefits since December.
Law enforcement agencies hope more reports in the hands of consumers mean less opportunity for identity thieves -- those who make financial transactions in other people's names -- to get away with crimes.
www.delmarvanow.com /oceanpines/stories/20050907/2198722.html   (834 words)

  
 Japanese Recycling Law Takes Effect
Under the new law, consumers must initiate the transfer of their used appliances to the take-back sites and pay additional collection and recycling fees to retailers.
Before the new law took effect, Tamamushi continues, nearly half of all collected appliances were dumped into landfills without being crushed, while the other half were shredded.
Despite the government's commitment to enforce the new law, some are concerned that consumers and retailers will continue to dump these appliances illegally to avoid paying extra fees, especially in light of Japan's current sluggish economy.
wasteage.com /mag/waste_japanese_recycling_law/index.html   (736 words)

  
 pa071902
A determination under this subdivision shall be based on clear and convincing evidence of repeated violations of this act, crimes, personal protection orders or injunctions, or police reports or other clear and convincing evidence of the actions of, or statements of, the applicant that bear directly on the applicant's ability to carry a concealed pistol.
If the individual displays his or her license or documentation to an authorized employee of the law enforcement entity that employs the peace officer within the 45-day period, the authorized employee of that law enforcement entity shall return the pistol to the individual unless the individual is prohibited by law from possessing a firearm.
The concealed weapon licensing board may require a letter from the law enforcement agency stating that the retired police officer or law enforcement officer retired in good standing.
www.michiganlegislature.org /documents/2001-2002/publicact/htm/2002-PA-0719.htm   (6167 words)

  
 Boston.com / News / Local / R.I. / Canadian drug import law takes effect   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
The company is one of a handful of Canadian businesses to express interest in selling prescriptions to Rhode Islanders under the law, which was passed last year and went into effect Wednesday.
Rhode Island is believed to be the first state in the nation to allow residents to import cheaper drugs from Canada, despite federal regulations banning drug importation.
Proponents of the new law met at the Statehouse to mark the first day it was in effect.
www.boston.com /news/local/rhode_island/articles/2005/01/19/canadian_drug_import_law_goes_into_effect   (608 words)

  
 College Support Law Taking Effect
Another thing that is interesting to consider, recall how often the divorce industry advocates claim that children are not really disadvantaged emotionally and psychologically by divorce and single parenthood, yet, when the issue is child support, they claim that divorce severely disadvantages children.
The law also requires the court to consider individual circumstances such as parents' income, the level of need for support, the child's aptitude for higher education and the availability of scholarships and other financial aid.
Critics of educational support laws contend those laws deprive divorced parents of the discretion that married parents have over decisions on college.
www.ancpr.org /oldmaillistarchive/2002-August/000149.html   (922 words)

  
 The Seattle Times: Nation & World: Ship law takes effect in Japan, pressuring North Korean trade
TOKYO — Most North Korean ships will be barred from Japanese ports under a law that took effect yesterday, a move that will slash trade as Tokyo ratchets up pressure on the impoverished communist country over a decades-old kidnapping dispute.
The law requires all foreign ships over 100 tons to be insured against oil spills, losses and other damage to enter Japan.
The law, passed in June, comes amid growing public calls for economic sanctions against North Korea's government in the long-running dispute between Tokyo and Pyongyang over the North's abductions of Japanese citizens in the 1970s and 1980s.
seattletimes.nwsource.com /html/nationworld/2002194142_nkorea02.html   (549 words)

  
 El Defensor Chieftain: Law takes effect requiring booster seat for kids ages 5-6
AOLMSTED There is a new state law in effect of which parents of small children need to be aware.
In the last Legislature, the state passed a law, which went into effect Friday, that requires children between the ages of 5 and 6 to be in a booster seat when riding in a car.
This new law builds on the one that requires children under the age of 1 to be placed in a car seat, facing the backrest.
www.dchieftain.com /news/51970-06-18-05.html   (396 words)

  
 ABC News: Civil Union Law Takes Effect in Conn.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Connecticut is the first state to pass a civil union law without court pressure.
The law affords all the legal rights of marriage such as spousal health care benefits to same-sex couples, but defines marriage as between a man and a woman.
"Oct. 1 is a tragic day because it's the first day a law goes into effect that states a legislative belief that children don't need both a mom and a dad," said Peter Wolfgang, the director of public policy for the institute.
abcnews.go.com /US/wireStory?id=1177037&CMP=OTC-RSSFeeds0312   (406 words)

  
 1010 WINS - ALL NEWS. ALL THE TIME.: NJ Cell Phone Law Takes Effect July 1st   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
He compared the cell phone measure to a state law requiring use of seat belts, which was changed from a secondary offense to a primary offense, and now allows police to stop motorists for not wearing one.
When Gov. James E. McGreevey signed the measure into law, he dismissed criticism of it being a secondary offense, or one that requires another driving violation to be enforced.
That message of safety is being relayed to local police officers by top state law enforcement officials, according to Mitchell Sklar, executive director of the New Jersey State Association of Chiefs of Police.
1010wins.com /topstories/winstopstories_story_178120756.html   (696 words)

  
 Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology: Thorndike, Edward (1874-1949)
The other law, called the law of exercise, stated that associations that are practiced are stamped in, while others are extinguished.
Upon his return to New York, Thorndike turned his attention to a new research area-termed "transfer of training"-which was concerned with the effect of performance in one discipline on performance in others.
The belief in such a connection had sustained the traditional system of instruction in formal disciplines, such as the classics, through the rationale that achievement in a given field equipped students for success in other areas.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_g2699/is_0003/ai_2699000342   (580 words)

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