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# Topic: Laws of thermodynamics

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 Laws of thermodynamics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia While this is a fundamental concept of thermodynamics, the need to state it explicitly as a law was not perceived until the first third of the 20th century, long after the first three laws were already widely in use, hence the zero numbering. Thermodynamic equilibrium includes thermal equilibrium (associated with heat exchange and parameterized by temperature), mechanical equilibrium (associated with work exchange and parameterized by generalized forces such as pressure), and chemical equilibrium (associated with matter exchange and parameterized by chemical potential). The laws of thermodynamics are sometimes interpreted to have a wider significance and implication than simply encoding the experimental results upon which the science of thermodynamics is based. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Laws_of_thermodynamics   (1106 words)

 Thermodynamics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Thermodynamics (from the Greek thermos meaning heat and dynamis meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. Classical thermodynamics is the original early 1800s variation of thermodynamics concerned with thermodynamic states, and properties as energy, work, and heat, and with the laws of thermodynamics, all lacking an atomic interpretation. Thermodynamic processes which develop so slowly as to allow each intermediate step to be an equilibrium state are said to be reversible processes. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Thermodynamics   (2169 words)

 Thermodynamics We will present some simple examples of these laws and properties for a variety of physical systems, although we are most interested in thermodynamics in the study of propulsion systems and high speed flows. Thermodynamic equilibrium leads to the large scale definition of temperature, as opposed to the small scale definition related to the kinetic energy of the molecules. This law is sometimes taken as the definition of internal energy, and introduces an additional state variable, enthalpy. www.grc.nasa.gov /WWW/K-12/airplane/thermo.html   (356 words)

 Thermodynamics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13) Thermodynamics is a branch of physics which deals with the energy and work of a system. The basic ideas of thermodynamics are taught in high school physics classes, so the Wright brothers knew and used these concepts, particularly in their engine design. The first law of thermodynamics relates the various forms of energy in a system (kinetic and potential) to the work which a system can perform and to the transfer of heat. wright.nasa.gov /airplane/thermo.html   (380 words)

 RF Cafe - Laws of Thermodynamics Thermodynamics is the field of physics that describes and correlates the physical properties of macroscopic systems of matter and energy by relating such qualities temperature, pressure, and volume. The laws of thermodynamics were discovered in the 19th century through painstaking experimentation. The Third Law of thermodynamics states that absolute zero cannot be attained by any procedure in a finite number of steps. www.rfcafe.com /references/general/thermodynamics.html   (343 words)

 The Laws of Thermodynamics From this we conclude that the first law of thermodynamics is redundant and should, logically, be left unsaid (although it remains true and important). Deciding which laws to emphasize is to some extent a matter of taste, but one ought to consider such factors as simplicity and generality, favoring laws with a large number of predictions and a small number of exceptions. Sometimes on account of conservation laws, and sometimes for other reasons as discussed in section 10.12 it may be possible for a few modes of the system to be strongly coupled to the outside (and weakly coupled to the rest of the system), while the remaining 10 www.av8n.com /physics/thermo-laws.htm   (13410 words)

 thermodynamics. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 The system is thermally insulated from the environment, and the first law of thermodynamics requires that the work done by or on the system be equal to the loss or gain of the system’s internal energy. This statement constitutes the first law of thermodynamics, which is a general form of the law of conservation of energy (see conservation laws). The second law is expressed mathematically in terms of the concept of entropy. www.bartleby.com /65/th/thermody.html   (1106 words)

 Laws of thermodynamics - Uncyclopedia Discovered and written by Sir Isaac Asimov in 1766, the laws of thermodynamics are considered to be the very basis of science as we know it. The runes declared the fifth law of thermodynamics to abolish thermodynamic slavery. Most if not all of the current laws of thermodynamics were passed as a result of intense lobbying by the large oil companies. uncyclopedia.org /wiki/Laws_of_thermodynamics   (749 words)

 second law of thermodynamics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13) Thermodynamics literally means "energy in action." It is a word with roots that indicate that it has to do with both heat and motion. Although the second law of thermodynamics does mean that energy transformations are inefficient in practical terms, and implies that all energy transformations result in lost useful energy, this does not apply to every energy transformation. The third law of thermodynamics is beyond the scope of this document. home.earthlink.net /~mflabar/second_law_of_thermodynamics.htm   (2338 words)

 Technifab Cryogenic Information Library: Laws of Thermodynamics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13) The laws of thermodynamics were determined empirically (by experiment). The second law is a generalization of experiments dealing with entropy--it is that the S of the system plus the S of the surroundings is equal to or greater then 0. The third law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of a pure perfect crystal is 0 at 0 K: S(0K) = 0. www.technifab.com /thermodynamics.htm   (430 words)

 What is a simple defintion of the laws of thermodynamics? Thermodynamics is the study of the inter-relation between heat, work and internal energy of a system. Basically, the First Law of Thermodynamics is a statement of the conservation of energy - the Second Law is a statement about the direction of that conservation - and the Third Law is a statement about reaching Absolute Zero (0° K). However, since their conception, these laws have become some of the most important laws of all science - and are often associated with concepts far beyond what is directly stated in the wording. www.physlink.com /Education/AskExperts/ae280.cfm   (1684 words)

 The Second Law of Thermodynamics in the Context of the Christian Faith The first law of thermodynamics, also known as the law of conservation of energy, states that the total energy of any system remains the same, except to the extent it exchanges energy with its surroundings. If the 2nd law has not been violated as the number of humans grew from two to 6 billion, it is ridiculous to assert that it was violated in the comparatively minuscule change from zero to two. The important point is that, while violations of the 2nd law are highly improbable (this improbability is the essence of the 2nd law in the statistical-mechanical formulation), not every improbable event is a violation of the 2nd law. members.aol.com /steamdoc/writings/thermo.html   (4036 words)

 Laws of Thermodynamics - SEDS Forums First law of thermodynamics: The change in the internal energy of a body (system) when it passes from one state to another equals the sum of the work done on the body and the amount of heat received by it. Second Law of Thermodynamics: The first law possesses the drawback that it does not consider direction (easily stated as the lack of giving positive or negative values) in which a thermodynamic process is to proceed. Thermodynamics might be thought of as the manner in which systems go from higher to less ordered states. forums.seds.org /showthread.php?t=756   (1433 words)

 Laws of Thermodynamics, Kepler, Newton, Einstein Thermodynamic entropy is the quantity of energy no longer available to do physical work: 'delta' S =or> 0. The asymptotic law, states that all processes slow down as they operate closer to the thermodynamic equilibrium making it difficult to reach that equilibrium in practice. The third law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of a pure perfect crystal is 0 at 0 K: 'delta' S(0K) = 0. www.geocities.com /ciencia_farma/nat_laws.htm   (406 words)

 Deutsches Museum - Physics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13) Thermodynamics is the branch of the theory of heat that is concerned with relationships between heat and work. Its fundamental principles are called the "laws of thermodynamics". The physicist Walter Hermann Nernst (1864–1941) formulated the Third Law of Thermodynamics in 1906. www.deutsches-museum.de /ausstell/dauer/physik/e_thermo.htm   (281 words)

 6(e). Laws of Thermodynamics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13) Understanding these laws is important to students of Physical Geography because many of the processes studied involve the flow of energy. Because of the second law of thermodynamics both energy and matter in the Universe are becoming less useful as time goes on. The third law of thermodynamics states that if all the thermal motion of molecules (kinetic energy) could be removed, a state called absolute zero would occur. www.physicalgeography.net /fundamentals/6e.html   (362 words)

 Chemical Thermodynamics The scientific discipline that intersects the areas of chemistry and physics is commonly known as physical chemistry, and it is in that area that a thorough study of thermodynamics takes place. Thermodynamics is the study of energy changes accompanying physcial and chemical changes. You might remember the first law of thermodynamics: energy cannot be created or destroyed. www.shodor.org /UNChem/advanced/thermo   (1674 words)

 The famous laws of thermodynamics But we should keep in mind that these laws are an equivalent formulation of certain properties of matter which have been observed and checked since long times. Today, three laws of thermodynamics are known, and one additional law that frequently is named the "zeroth law". Any thermodynamic system in an equilibrum state posesses a state variable called the internal energy E. Between any two equilibrum states, the change in internal energy is equal to the difference of heat transfer into the system and work done by the system. www.hp-gramatke.net /pmm_physics/english/page0200.htm   (735 words)

 Laws of Thermodynamics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13) If the system exchanges energy in the form of heat and work with the universe, the change of total energy within the system is given by the difference between the heat absorbed and work performed by the system. This is used to define the thermodynamic property of entropy which can be associated with the randomness or disorder of a system. Third Law - The entropy of a perfect crystal at O K is zero. www.health.uottawa.ca /biomech/csb/laws/thermos.htm   (253 words)

 Laws of Thermodynamics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13) The laws of thermodynamics are fundamental truths based on the study of energy exchanges between a system and its surroundings. The first law of thermodynamics states that energy can only be converted from one state to another, but cannot be created or destroyed. When looking at the two laws together, it is noted that energy is being constantly degraded; in a thermodynamic process there is always less energy available for doing work, not more. www.cartage.org.lb /en/themes/Sciences/Physics/Thermodynamics/Laws/Laws.htm   (231 words)

 Entropy and the Laws of Thermodynamics The principal energy laws that govern every organization are derived from two famous laws of thermodynamics. The two principal laws of thermodynamics apply only to closed systems, that is, entities with which there can be no exchange of energy, information, or material. The second law of thermodynamics states that the quality of this energy is degraded irreversibly. pespmc1.vub.ac.be /ENTRTHER.html   (921 words)

 Entropy Is Simple...If You Avoid The Briar Patches! The second law of thermodynamics says that energy of all kinds in our material world disperses or spreads out if it is not hindered from doing so. Because entropy is an index of the second law's predictions about energy, the short word entropy is often used interchangeably for the cumbersome phrase, "the second law of thermodynamics". Because it is spontaneous according to the second law, in addition to the new lower-energy chemical compounds formed (mainly carbon dioxide and water), oxidation dissipates a great deal of energy in the form of heat (that is actually very rapidly moving molecules of the carbon dioxide + water + air) and some light. www.entropysimple.com /content.htm   (7966 words)

 Re: The Laws of Thermodynamics This is evident from the term "thermodynamics": as fluid dynamics examines the movements of fluids, thermodynamics examines the movements of heat (or in a broader sense, energy). Since the First Law states that the energy of the system is the same after as before the expansion, then there must be a new value, S (entropy), which increased with the loss of heat (Q). The formal statement of the Second Law is: it is impossible to move heat, by a cyclical process, from something at lower temperature to something at higher temperature unless work is added to the system. www.madsci.org /posts/archives/dec96/835000890.Ph.r.html   (610 words)

 Thermodynamics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13) The first law of thermodynamics is a law of energy conservation and it is based on experimental observations. The second law of thermodynamics is ometimes called the law of entropy as it introduces the important property called entropy. thermodynamic process of a typical jet engine can be modelled using an ideal Brayton cycle, which consists of an isentropic compression, an isobaric combustion (heat addition) and an isentropic expansion processes. www.eng.fsu.edu /~shih/eml3016/thermodynamics/thermodynamics.htm   (452 words)

 Laws of thermodynamics physics toolbox   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13) The zeroth law states that if bodies A and B are separately in thermal equilibrium with body C, then A and B are in thermal equilibrium with each other. This law implies that there a is quantity by which a body's degree of `hotness' can be measured, ie. The first law of thermodynamics is basically a re-statement of the conservation of energy and can be expressed most succinctly as: www.jcphysics.com /toolbox_indiv.php?sub_id=22   (504 words)

 SparkNotes: SAT Physics: The Laws of Thermodynamics The significant consequence of the Zeroth Law is that, when a hotter object and a colder object are placed in contact with one another, heat will flow from the hotter object to the colder object until they are in thermal equilibrium. The First Law tells us that the internal energy of a system increases if heat is added to the system or if work is done on the system and decreases if the system gives off heat or does work. One consequence of this law, which we will explore a bit more in the section on heat engines, is that no machine can work at 100% efficiency: all machines generate some heat, and some of that heat is always lost to the machine’s surroundings. www.sparknotes.com /testprep/books/sat2/physics/chapter12section3.rhtml   (1522 words)

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