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Topic: Lead sulfate

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  Lead(II) sulfate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
It is also known as white lead, fast white, milk white, sulphuric acid lead salt or anglistlite.
Lead sulfate is toxic by inhalation, ingestion and skin contact.
It is a cumulative poison, and repeated exposure may lead to anemia, kidney damage, eyesight damage or damage to the central nervous system (especially in children).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Lead_sulfate   (189 words)

 Lead - MSN Encarta
Lead is toxic when taken internally; although ordinary water usually contains salts that form a coating on pipes, inhibiting the formation of soluble lead hydroxide, pipes used for carrying drinking water should not contain lead.
Lead is widely distributed all over the world in the form of its sulfide, the ore galena.
Lead is used in enormous quantities in storage batteries and in sheathing electric cables.
encarta.msn.com /encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=761558727   (667 words)

 lead, chemical element. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Although lead is seldom found uncombined in nature, its compounds are widely distributed throughout the world, principally in the ores galena, cerussite, and anglesite.
Lead is used for covering cables and as a lining for laboratory sinks, tanks, and the “chambers” in the lead-chamber process for the manufacture of sulfuric acid.
Although lead and most of its compounds are only slightly soluble in water, the use of lead pipe to carry drinking water is dangerous, since lead is a cumulative poison that is not excreted from the body (see lead poisoning).
www.bartleby.com /65/le/lead.html   (661 words)

 Process for recycling junk lead-acid batteries - Patent 4118219
To separate the lead carbonate from the barren solution from which it is precipitated, the slurry formed in the precipitation vessel is passed through a filter 23, with the recovered solids then being washed and dried as indicated at 24 and 25.
To convert the lead carbonate to basic lead sulfates, which is the second option illustrated in the drawing, the lead carbonate is sulfated with sulfuric acid in a sulfating cell 30, and then calcined in a furnace 31 at a temperature of about 400.degree.
A portion of the lead oxide generated from the lead carbonate recovered in the above examples was converted to a battery oxide paste by mixing 80 grams of the oxide with 23.5 grams of water and 4.80 cc of sulfuric acid with a specific gravity of 1.40.
www.freepatentsonline.com /4118219.html   (6221 words)

Because hard lead sulfate is a non-conductive material, when it coats the electrode plates, it causes a reduction in the area needed for the electro-chemical reactions.
Lead sulfate that exists when a battery is not fully charged crystallizes to become a hard lead sulfate when left in a battery for a period of time.
Also, when crystallized lead sulfate grows to a large size on the plates, it precipitates from the plates when it is large enough and accumulates at the bottom of the battery case.
www.boatelectric.com /sulfation.htm   (1165 words)

 Lead Acid Storage Battery   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Although the battery and its associated lead mining, refining and recovery businesses are an environmental liability, and the battery's mass is a drawback in its use in vehicles, the continued use of this class of batteries reflects the serious problems in developing alternatives.
Lead sulfate is fairly insoluble so that as soon as Pb(II) ions are formed by either reaction, the ions immediately precipitate as lead sulfate.
In use, some of the lead sulfate (and the bulk solid in the grid) crumbles and falls to the bottom of the battery eventually leading to a loss of charge and shorting.
neon.chem.uidaho.edu /~honors/pbacid.html   (648 words)

 LEAD (Pb)
The principal method of extracting lead from galena is to roast the ore—that is, convert it to the oxide, and reduce the oxide with coke in a blast furnace.
Lead monoxide, or litharge (PbO), a yellow, crystalline powder formed by heating lead in air, is used in making flint glass, as a drier in oils and varnishes, and in the manufacture of insecticides.
Lead taken internally in any of its forms is highly toxic; the effects are usually felt after it has accumulated in the body over a period of time.
www.neymetals.com /lead.htm   (1237 words)

 Mineral Information Institute - LEAD
Lead: Used in lead batteries, gasoline tanks, and solders, seals or bearings, used in electrical and electronic applications, TV tubes, TV glass, construction, communications, and protective coatings, in ballast or weights, ceramics or crystal glass, tubes or containers, type metal, foil or wire, X-ray and gamma radiation shielding, soundproofing material in construction industry, and ammunition.
Lead is also imported into the United States from a number of countries, both as ore concentrates and as metallic lead.
Lead is used in electronics and communications (emergency power batteries, for example), ammunition, television glass, construction, and protective coatings.
www.mii.org /Minerals/photolead.html   (625 words)

 Forming of tetrabasic lead sulfate battery electrodes - Patent 4415410
Positive plates made from tetrabasic lead sulfate paste are conventionally formed, prior to assembly, in a bath of electrolyte having a specific gravity ranging from 1.005 to 1.015, a process requiring between sixty and seventy-two hours at a conventional current of 9 amperes per plate.
Therefore, tetrabasic lead sulfate battery electrodes are conventionally formed in forming tanks of large volume, so that inherent sulfuric acid in the plates cannot cause a high electrolyte specific gravity, with larger heat dissipation area, and where the lead sulfate sludge can be removed.
As a result, tetrabasic lead sulfate battery electrodes can be formed in their final container or jar, eliminating substantial amounts of handling involved with loading and unloading plates, and the inherent risks of exposure to lead dust, sulfuric acid and acid mist.
www.freepatentsonline.com /4415410.html   (2996 words)

 Lead Based Paint
For color, lead pigments such as red lead (a lead oxide with 4 oxygens and bright orange in color), and blue lead (lead sulfate with lead oxide, zinc oxide, and carbon) may be used industrially where corrosion protection and color on metal is needed.
Lead is used in many batteries (the lead-acid vehicle battery the most common example), in ammunition, pipes and various metal products, solder and various electrical equipment, for radiation shielding,and ammunition.
Lead compounds are found in paints, certain types of glass and ceramics, as rodenticides, and as a reagent or container in many chemical manufacturing processes.
www.lockport-ny.com /Allegheny/lead.htm   (1407 words)

 Lead, Tin and Lead Alloys
Lead alloys, such as old pewter, which is an alloy of tin and lead, oxidize to the same compounds as the two parent metals.
However, since lead is susceptible to solvent action by the electrolyte, when it is not cathodically protected, the current must be flowing before putting the specimen in the electrolytic tank and must not be cut off while the specimen is immersed in the tank.
Since lead, tin, and pewter are susceptible to attack by strong alkalies, a sodium carbonate electrolyte is safer for use in electrolysis than a sodium hydroxide electrolyte.
nautarch.tamu.edu /class/anth605/File14.htm   (2207 words)

 Battery Basics
This build-up of lead sulfate is normal during a discharge cycle.
Lead sulfate is a soft material, which can is reconverted back into lead and sulfuric acid, provided the discharged battery is immediately connected to a battery charger.
Lead acid batteries should be charged after each discharge of more the 50% of its rated capacity and during or after prolonged storage of 30 days or more.
www.progressivedyn.com /battery_basics.html   (2298 words)

 It's Elemental - The Element Lead
Most lead is obtained by roasting galena in hot air, although nearly one third of the lead used in the United States is obtained through recycling efforts.
Lead is also used as a covering on some wires and cables to protect them from corrosion, as a material to absorb vibrations and sounds and in the manufacture of ammunition.
Lead monoxide (PbO), also known as litharge, is a yellow solid that is used to make some types of glass, such as lead crystal and flint glass, in the vulcanizing of rubber and as a paint pigment.
education.jlab.org /itselemental/ele082.html   (480 words)

 Whitening Effects of Peroxide Gels on Darkened Lead White Paint
Disturbing from an aesthetic standpoint is the situation where a peroxide treatment results in the partial conversion of lead sulfide to lead sulfate, with a concomitant partial color reversion from fl to gray.
The effect of cellulose ethers in hydrogen peroxide formulations for the conversion of lead sulfide to lead sulfate would appear to be analogous to that of the bleaching formulations commonly used by dentists.
Empirical results of using gels to control some of the factors that affect the conversion of lead sulfide to lead sulfate suggest that the efficiency of peroxide is boosted in the presence of such gels.
aic.stanford.edu /conspec/bpg/annual/v16/bp16-08.html   (4605 words)

 Lead Acid Battery,Lead Acid Accumulators,Lead Acid Battery Manufacturers   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Lead acid batteries were invented in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Planté.
Lead acid Accumulators are the most commonly used rechargeable batteries today which represent the oldest design with one of the worst energy-to-weight ratios, although the power-to-weight ratio can be quite good.
Lead acid batteries for automotive use are not designed for deep discharge and should always be kept at maximum charge, using constant voltage at 13.8 V (for six element car batteries).
www.lead-battery-recycling.com /lead-acid-battery.html   (338 words)

 Reference Data Sheet on Lead
A very small amount of lead absorption can elicit immediate adverse health effects both in adults and children; however, the same amount of lead absorption in infants and children can be especially harmful to them because of their rapidly developing nervous systems.
Lead has no known useful function in the body and may be stored for many years in bones as a constant source of blood lead.
Lead is regulated at the local, state, and federal level as well as being the focus of certain industry standards.
www.meridianeng.com /lead.html   (1274 words)

 Lead-acid Materials
The author with 35 years of experience in the plastics industry explains the evolution of the supply of lead sulfates in the plastics industry which, by 1990, demanded 160 million tons for vinyl production.
Rather than make lead processing an in-house task, the plastics industry went to the chemical industry which honed the production to a highly scientific operation which produces lead sulfates with highly defined chemical and physical characteristics that minimize processing costs for the users, the plastics industries.
This article is a concise history of sulfuric acid from the suggestion that it was known in the 10th century to the firm knowledge of how to prepare it in the late 15th century.
www.batteriesdigest.com /lead_acid_materials.htm   (274 words)

 Lead Acid Batteries
Lead Acid battery cells consist of a lead (Pb) electrode and a lead oxide (PbO
When the battery is charged, the process reverses, with the lead sulfate combining with water to build up lead and lead oxide on the electrodes.
Lead acid batteries should never be fully discharged; this will effectively kill the battery, making it impossible to charge.
support.radioshack.com /support_tutorials/batteries/bt-ldac-main.htm   (343 words)

 white lead msds sheet
Lead and lead compounds may be absorbed through the skin on prolonged exposure; the symptoms of lead poisoning described for ingestion exposure may occur.
Lead is a cumulative poison and exposure even to small amounts can raise the body's content to toxic levels.
Areas in which exposure to lead metal or lead compounds may occur should be identified by signs or appropriate means, and access to the area should be limited to authorized persons.
www.chem.tamu.edu /class/majors/msdsfiles/msdsleadsulfate.htm   (1350 words)

 Pb = Lead - a Toxic Element
At the time lead was eliminated from gasoline, close to 80% of all children had levels of lead that would exceed today’s federal safety limit of 10 micrograms per deciliter of blood.
Lead exposure in young children results primarily from ingestion or inhalation of soil particles, drinking water, paint, and dust particles in and around the home and play areas.
The lower the pH of the water and the lower the concentration of dissolved salts in the water, the greater is the solubility of lead in the water.
www.luminet.net /~wenonah/hydro/pb.htm   (4703 words)

 A Study of the Discoloration Products Found in White Lead Paint   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
In this case, powder photographs were taken of undiscolored white lead (basic lead carbonate) and of discolored orange particles from a white lead area on an artwork.
In further experiments, non-acidic rag papers were coated with a 1% solution of ferrous sulfate and exposed to ammonium hydroxide fumes to precipitate iron oxides into the paper fibers.
Basic lead carbonate exposed to sulfur in the presence of an acid-generating source in the paper or paint produces a pink/orange substance of unknown composition.
aic.stanford.edu /sg/bpg/annual/v04/bp04-04.html   (1710 words)

 Some Technical Details on Lead Acid Batteries   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
During the recharge phase of the reaction, the cycle is reversed: the lead sulfate and water are electro-chemically converted to lead, lead oxide and sulfuric acid by an external electrical charging source.
The longer the lead sulfate bond stays at a level the more likely it is to form a closer acquaintance and enter the next deeper level.
When you charge a lead acid battery, one of the things you attempt to accomplish is the repair or reformation of the corrosion layer of the positive plate.
www.shaka.com /~kalepa/technotes.htm   (1210 words)

 Science Fair Project - School Project - Getting the Lead Out
Lead is an odorless, tasteless, soft, gray metal.
Similarly, when lead is exposed to water with dissolved oxygen, lead hydroxide, sulfate and carbonate are formed.
Lead salts are found in air, food, household dust and soil.
www.leadinspector.com /science_project.html   (627 words)

 Lead Metal, Chemicals, and Glass   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Footnote 1 Lead Check Swabs which indicated a negative result were checked with the positive test strip; all reacted positive to the strip.
Lead chromate is extremely difficult to detect by these techniques.
The chromate appears to interfere with the lead analysis.
www.osha.gov /SLTC/leadtest/leadmetals.html   (271 words)

HLP continues to focus and grow it's lead business while it diversifies into the manufacturing of non-lead chemicals that are complimentary to its existing markets.
From the larger, forward looking corporations, to the more conservative family owned businesses, Hammond Lead Products is committed to offer a range of products and services that are technically innovative, cost practical and result in bringing an added value to the customers product.
Hammond Lead Products, a division of Hammond Group Inc., is the world's largest producer of lead chemicals, offering a broad range of products to serve the battery, ceramics and glass industries across the globe.
www.hammondleadproducts.com   (152 words)

 CALEDONITE (Copper Lead Carbonate Sulfate Hydroxide)
There are however more sulfates than carbonates in its formula and it would therefore seem to make the most sense to place it in the Sulfate Class as opposed to the Carbonate Class.
The sulfate ion is also more complex and a stronger electronegative anion than the carbonate anion and mineralogists sometimes classify minerals in terms of their highest complexity and/or electronegativity.
It has a nice high luster, due to its lead content and a beautiful blue to green color due to its copper content.
mineral.galleries.com /minerals/sulfates/caledoni/caledoni.htm   (419 words)

 ANGLESITE (Lead Sulfate)
The typically high luster associated with lead minerals makes them sparkle like gemstones and Anglesite is no exception to the rule.
Anglesite is named for its type locality of Anglesey, an island at the northern tip of the United Kingdom.
It is a secondary mineral, typically formed in the oxidation zone of galena (lead sulfide) ores.
mineral.galleries.com /minerals/sulfates/anglesit/anglesit.htm   (302 words)

 EPA Potential Sources of Drinking Water Contamination Index   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Arsenic, Barium, Benzene, Cadmium, Chlorobenzene, 1,2-Dichlorobenzene or O-Dichlorobenzene, 1,2-Dichloroethane or Ethylene Dichloride, cis 1,2-Dichloroethylene, trans 1,2-Dichloroethylene, Dichloromethane or Methylene Chloride, Hexachlorobenzene, Lead, Mercury, Methoxychlor, 1,1,1-Trichloroethane or Methyl Chloroform, Radionuclides, Selenium, Tetrachloroethylene or Perchlorethylene (Perc),, Toluene, Trichloroethylene (TCE)
Lead, Selenium, Sulfate, Tetrachloroethylene or Perchlorethylene (Perc), 1,1,1-Trichloroethane or Methyl Chloroform, Turbidity
Arsenic, Barium, Benzene, Cadmium, 1,4-Dichlorobenzene or P-Dichlorobenzene, cis 1,2-Dichloroethylene, trans 1,2-Dichloroethylene, Dichloromethane or Methylene Chloride, Lead, Tetrachloroethylene or Perchlorethylene (Perc), Trichloroethylene (TCE).
www.epa.gov /OGWDW/swp/sources1.html   (1442 words)

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