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Topic: Legalism (Chinese philosophy)


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In the News (Fri 22 Mar 19)

  
 A History of Muslim Philosophy
A study of classical Chinese philosophy discloses that it possesses at least four highly distinctive features which may be a reflection of the dominance of this peasant mentality: lack of metaphysics, dearth of logical sophistication, preoccupation with ethics, and a regressive theory of history.
The primary reason for this concentration on the Chou philosophies is that they represent the indigenous Chinese schools of philosophy before they were affected by the advent of other philosophical or religious idea, for example.
Speculative philosophy seeks a comprehensive understand­ing of the nature of reality, of God, of man, and of the universe; it strives for a synoptic vision; while, in contrast, practical reason of practical philosophy is concerned with the empirical approach to concrete problems of living and action.
www.muslimphilosophy.com /hmp/5.htm   (4032 words)

  
 Legalism (philosophy) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In Chinese History, legalism (法家; pinyin Fǎjiā) was one of the four main philosophic schools in the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period (Near the end of the Zhou dynasty from about the sixth century B.C. to about the third century B.C.).
In this context, "legalism" here can bear the meaning of "political philosophy that uphold the rule of law" and thus, distinguished from the word's Western sense.
More recently, Mao Zedong, who had some knowledge of ancient Chinese philosophy, compared himself with Qin Shi Huang and publicly approved of some Legalist methods.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Legalism_(philosophy)   (749 words)

  
 Legalism --  Encyclopædia Britannica
Chinese statesman who utilized the ruthless but efficient ideas of the political philosophy of Legalism to weld the warring Chinese states of his time into the first centralized Chinese empire, the Ch'in dynasty (221–206).
The school of Chinese philosophy known as Legalism attained prominence during China's Warring States period (481–221 BC).
Of the various schools of thought that arose in China's classical age, legalism was the first to be accorded official favour.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-9047627?tocId=9047627   (462 words)

  
 earlychina
Legalism philosophy of the state of Ch'in which destroyed the Chou in 256 BC and unified China.
LEGALISM: Third current in classical Chinese thought, by far the most influential in its own age, but later repudiated.
Became an important doctrine for Chinese philosophy and history down to 20th century.
www.loyno.edu /~seduffy/earlychina.html   (2813 words)

  
 Classical Chinese Philosophy Homepage
It's not meant to be a comprehensive guide to all aspects of Chinese philosophy, but it does cover the major schools of thought which have had the greatest impact on Chinese culture: Confucianism, Daoism and Legalism.
The words "Chinese philosophy" often conjure up images of dragons and Buddhas, yins and yangs and other esoteric symbols.
Their efforts culminated in various philosophies, which were mainly blueprints for government which would hopefully bring the land out of chaos and back under a stable, unified rule.
www.geocities.com /Tokyo/Springs/6339/philosophy.html   (290 words)

  
 Legalism and Chinese Philosophy
In contrast to Taoism's intuitive anarchy, and Confucianism's benevolence, Legalism is a Classical Chinese philosophy that emphasizes the need for order above all other human concerns.
The dominant imagery in Legalism's writings is of forcefully straightening or unbending twisted tree limbs so that they grow perfectly straight, or using hot irons to burn the tree limbs so that they will grow in the desired direction.
Even though both Confucianism and Legalism called for governmental hierarchy and adherence to tradition, the difference between the two schools is that Confucianism advocated ruling benevolently by example.
web.cn.edu /kwheeler/chinese_legalism.html   (415 words)

  
 Ancient Dynasties: II
Another good source of information about Chinese philosophy on the web can be found in the Chinese Philosophy page by Su Tzu.
The body of thought that had the most enduring effect on subsequent Chinese life was that of the School of Literati (ru or
When the most practical and useful aspects of Confucianism and Legalism were synthesized in the Han period (206 B.C.-A.D. 220), a system of governance came into existence that was to survive largely intact until the late nineteenth century.
www-chaos.umd.edu /history/ancient2.html   (1201 words)

  
 Legalism
But it is not so easy to dismiss Legalism as this short, anomolous, unpleasant period of totalitarianism in Chinese history, for the Legalists established ways of doing government that would profoundly influence later governments.
208 B.C.) and Chao Kao, the Legalism of the Ch'in dynasty (221-207) involved a uniform totalitarianism.
Most of the Ch'in laws were attempts to move people from useless activities, such as scholarship or philosophy, to useful ones.
www.wsu.edu:8080 /~dee/CHPHIL/LEGALISM.HTM   (691 words)

  
 Encyclopedia of Chinese Philosophy :: Ephilosopher :: Philosophy News, Research and Philosophical Discussion
Manyul Im : "Since it is an encyclopedic volume, one expects the entries to cover in some fair, comprehensive way the variety of figures, texts, and concepts in Chinese philosophy.
Buddhism is somewhat under-represented, given its enormous influence in long periods of Chinese history.
There are, on the other hand, a surprising number and variety of entries that center on Legalism in China under various concept, text, and figure headings.
ephilosopher.com /article586.html   (520 words)

  
 Confucius - Famous Ancient Chinese People - Chinese
These values gained prominence in China after being chosen among other doctrines (such as Legalism (philosophy)Legalism or Taoism) during the Han dynasty.
His philosophy emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, and justice and sincerity.
Mencius and Xun Zi are his two great followers, one on each "side" of his philosophy, perhaps simply described as optimism and pessimism.
www.famouschinese.com /people/Confucius   (2519 words)

  
 Philosophy??? - BioWare's Official Jade Empire Site
the shaolin monks made Ch'an Buddhism by mixing Buddhism and Taoism, Chinese emperors would usually mix Legalism and Confucianism, some branches of Buddhism praise Hindu gods, most Chinese people even today incorporate Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism into their beliefs).
Having a binary philosophy is good enough for most situations; any more and our writers will be tearing out their hair in frustration.
I'm actually really interested in the philosophys of Asia, they do make alot of sense, without being that imposing as a "We're the ultimate religion" like alot of western religions.
jade.bioware.com /forums/viewtopic.html?topic=431545&forum=79   (1489 words)

  
 Legalism
Legalism is a pessimistic philosophy--while conceding that it would be wonderful to have a sage for ruler, the reality was that there just weren't many sages around.
So although many parts of Legalism seem to make good sense (such as equality under the law, and government according to merit), memories of the abuse of the law under the Qin has kept Legalism in a bad light throughout Chinese history.
Legalism disregards the past--conditions were different back then, so what worked back then would not necessarily work in the present time.
www.geocities.com /Tokyo/Springs/6339/Legalism.html   (905 words)

  
 The Confucius - Han Fei Tzu Question by Aurpon Bhattacharya
Although Legalism is among the last of the classical Chinese school of thought, and comparatively late in developing its theoretical position, this school had unquestionably the greatest of influence of any upon the political life of its time.
Confucius’ philosophy was developed as a response to and under the influence of several factors while Han Fei Tzu’s was developed under a set of totally different factors.
Legalism in its earliest form was probably the outgrowth of a need for more rational organization of society and its resources so as to strengthen the state against its rivals.
www.boloji.com /spirituality/058.htm   (1571 words)

  
 Antonio S. Cua (ed.) - Encyclopedia of Chinese Philosophy - Reviewed by Manyul Im, California State University, Los Angeles - Philosophical Reviews - University of Notre Dame
Given the history of Chinese philosophy’s geographical, cultural, intellectual, and political influence on the world, an encyclopedia focusing on it is both a worthwhile and daunting project.
Instead, the text is discussed extensively in an entry called “Philosophy of Change.” In fact this is representative of the Encyclopedia; as I have mentioned, it avoids all use of Chinese text titles as entries.
Legalism is a movement that is as difficult to define as it is to disentangle from a variety of ruling techniques that both Confucian and Daoist texts embrace.
ndpr.nd.edu /review.cfm?id=1352   (1706 words)

  
 Chinese Cultural Studies: Han Fei: Selections from The Writings of Han Fei (c. 230 BCE)
Legalism reached its apogee in the late third century B.C. in the writings of Han Feizi (Master Han Fei) and the policies of Emperor Qin Shi Huangdi.
A third school of thought that emerged in the chaos of the late Zhou era was Legalism, which rejected both the Way of nature, as embraced by Daoists, and Confucianism's emphasis on the primacy of the moral way of antiquity.
Why do you think Legalism appealed to some people?
academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu /core9/phalsall/texts/hanfei.html   (872 words)

  
 Classical Chinese Philosophy Homepage
It's not meant to be a comprehensive guide to all aspects of Chinese philosophy, but it does cover the major schools of thought which have had the greatest impact on Chinese culture: Confucianism, Daoism and Legalism.
The words "Chinese philosophy" often conjure up images of dragons and Buddhas, yins and yangs and other esoteric symbols.
The harshest of China's major philosophies, Legalism places the rule of law above all else.
www.geocities.com /Tokyo/Springs/6339/philosophy.html   (290 words)

  
 Legalism and Chinese Philosophy
In contrast to Taoism's intuitive anarchy, and Confucianism's benevolence, Legalism is a Classical Chinese philosophy that emphasizes the need for order above all other human concerns.
The dominant imagery in Legalism's writings is of forcefully straightening or unbending twisted tree limbs so that they grow perfectly straight, or using hot irons to burn the tree limbs so that they will grow in the desired direction.
Even though both Confucianism and Legalism called for governmental hierarchy and adherence to tradition, the difference between the two schools is that Confucianism advocated ruling benevolently by example.
web.cn.edu /kwheeler/chinese_legalism.html   (415 words)

  
 Ge Hong [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
His most important contribution to Chinese philosophy was his attempt to reconcile an immortality-centered Daoism with Confucianism.
With Ge's overriding sense of the importance of morality and his overwhelming urge for permanency in the form of immortality, he reconciled Confucian and Daoism by saying that both were trying to improve the condition of mankind and that practicing Confucian virtues was necessary for attaining immortality.
Lest the modern reader judge Ge harshly for supporting such draconian measures, since the death penalty largely replaced the mutilation punishments, Ge thought the latter was more humane, since at least the criminal would escape with his or her life.
www.iep.utm.edu /g/gehong.htm   (4438 words)

  
 Chinese Philosophy - Legism or Legalism (www.chinaknowledge.de)
Legism or legalism is a state philosophy that was scorned by the Confucians but won over by the foundation of the Chinese empire and deeply influenced the Chinese state that was nominally Confucian.
For this reason legalism was for a long time disregarded as the state philosophy of immoral rulers and reckless ministers like the Qin chancellor Li Si李旯.
The most important representants of legist state philosophy were Guan Zhong管仲 (see Guanzi 管子), Shang Yang商鞅 (see Shangjunshu 商君書) and Han Fei韓非 (see Hanfeizi 韓非子).
www.chinaknowledge.de /Literature/Diverse/legism.html   (372 words)

  
 Chinese Cultural Studies: Philosophy and Religion in China
Two other philosophies that have had an enduring influence on Chinese thought are Taoism and Legalism.
Taoism gave the Chinese an alternative to Confucianism--passivity and escape to nature--while Legalism provided the Chinese state with one of its basic doctrines.
Chinese Cultural Studies: Philosophy and Religion in China
acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu /~phalsall/texts/chinrelg.html   (2886 words)

  
 RevolutionaryLeft.com -> legalism
Legalism is the philosophy that all people are greedy and untrustworthy and that strict punishments must be administered to maintain order.
In historty class, I'm sure you all have come across the study of chinese philosophies (daoism, confuscism, budhism, etc...etc...) during some point in time.
I wonder if Stalin got his ideas from Legalism.
www.revolutionaryleft.com /index.php?showtopic=5750   (289 words)

  
 CHAPTER I
There were four influential schools of philosophy during the pre-Qin Dynasty: Confucianism, Mohism, Daoism and Legalism.
Based on answers to problems of human life, the ideas concerning human life and social ethics took shape and developed in traditional Chinese philosophy: the different answers generated the different schools.
With regard to the relation between the group and the individual, these four schools could be divided into Confucianism, Mohism and Legalism on the one side, and Daoism on the other.
www.crvp.org /book/Series03/III-7a/chapter_i.htm   (892 words)

  
 The Useless Tree: A Legalist Market Solution for Contemporary China?
And, regarding, market-like thinking in ancient Chinese philosophy, Mencius has a quite sophiticated notion of the division of labor that I have been meaning to blog about for some time....
He has a good point here, and Legalism is certainly known for emphasizing consistent application of the law.
It was just the category of "Legalism" that made me question things.
uselesstree.typepad.com /useless_tree/2005/09/a_legalist_mark.html   (1220 words)

  
 legalism
) (in Chinese philosophy) the principles and practices of a school of political theorists advocating strict legal control over all activities, a system of rewards and punishments uniform for all classes, and an absolute monarchy.
www.infoplease.com /dictionary/legalism   (92 words)

  
 Encyclopedia of Chinese Philosophy
Antonio S. Cua, Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at the Catholic University of America, is coeditor of the Journal of Chinese Philosophy, associate editor of the International Journal of the Philosophy of Religion, and former president of both the Society for Asian and Comparative Philosophy, and the International Society of Chinese Philosophy.
Featuring contributions from the world’s most highly esteemed Asian philosophy scholars, this important new encyclopedia covers the complex and increasingly influential field of Chinese thought, from earliest recorded times to the present day.
The first Encyclopedia of Chinese Philosophy in the English language, this unique volume is highly readable as well as authoritative, making it valuable at a variety of levels.
www.routledge-ny.com /chinesephil   (299 words)

  
 Mohism - China-related Topics MM-MP - China-Related Topics
Founded by Mo Zi (whose actual surname was Di, and whose given name was Mo), Mohism (&;), or Moism, is a Chinese philosophy that evolved at the same time as Confucianism, Taoism and Legalism (philosophy)Legalism (Hundred Schools of Thought).
Mo Di's philosophy was described in the book Mo Zi, compiled by his students from lecture notes.
Some historians, such as Joseph Needham, have seen this group as developing a precursor philosophy of science that never went anywhere.
www.famouschinese.com /virtual/Mohism   (509 words)

  
 TAO OF HEALING: Taoism
Around the same time other great schools of Chinese philosophy, such as Confucianism and Legalism, made their appearance.
Taoism is a system of Chinese philosophy and religious practices.
At this point it is impossible to separate Taoism from Chinese philosophy, medicine, history, culture, etc...
home.att.net /~purple-mist/tao.html   (1146 words)

  
 Ralph Dumain: "The Autodidact Project": "Taoism & the Tao of Bourgeois Philosophy"
The Jesuit Matteo Ricci was the first major conduit of Chinese philosophy to Europe.  His ambition was to use Confucianism as a bridge for the advance of Catholicism into China.  On the other hand, Voltaire portrayed Confucianism as deistic and favorably opposed it to Catholicism.
These worries, it must be added, are not directed towards Daoist ways of life in their traditional setting which, leaving aside the brief association with Legalism, have not displayed any of these fascist or collectivist tendencies, but rather against their possible misuse in their Western re-embodiment.
Leibniz sought a solution for religious discord.   There is an historical dispute over whether Leibniz’s organicist monadology was influenced by Chinese thought.
www.autodidactproject.org /my/tao1.html   (2584 words)

  
 Rule of law
The concept of impartial rule of law is found in the Chinese political philosophy of Legalism (philosophy), but the totalitarian nature of the regime that this produced had a profound effect on Chinese political thought which at least rhetorically emphasized personal moral relations over impersonal legal ones.
Legal equality - All individuals are given the same rights without distinction to their social stature, religion, political opinions, etc. That is, like Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu would have it, law should be like death, which spares no one.
In the Anglo-American legal tradition rule of law has been seen as a guard against despotism and as enforcing limitations on the power of the government.
read-and-go.hopto.org /Law/Rule-of-law.html   (941 words)

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