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Topic: Legalism (philosophy)

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  Legalism (philosophy) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Legalism, in the Western sense, is an approach to the analysis of legal questions characterized by abstract logical reasoning focusing on the applicable legal text, such as a constitution, legislation, or case law, rather than on the social, economic, or political context.
In this context, "legalism" here can bear the meaning of "political philosophy that upholds the rule of law", and is thus distinguished from the word's Western sense.
Legalism was the central governing idea of the Qin Dynasty, culminating in the unification of China under the 'First Emperor' (Qin Shi Huang).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Legalism_(philosophy)   (2294 words)

Legalism is a political philosophy that does not address higher questions pertaining to the nature and purpose of existence.
Shang Yang was particularly important for the development of legalism since it was he who served as governor of the state of Ch'in and strengthened it to the extent that it was able to unify China in the following century.
The viciousness of the Ch'in dynasty served to discredit Legalism.
philtar.ucsm.ac.uk /encyclopedia/china/legal.html   (568 words)

 Eastern philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
However, Buddhist philosophy as such has its foundations more in the doctrines of anatta, which specifies that all is without substantial metaphysical being, pratitya-samutpada, which delineates the Buddhist concept of causality, and Buddhist phenomenological analysis of dharmas, or phenomenological constituents.
Legalism was the principal philosophic basis of the Qin Dynasty in China.
Eastern philosophies, on the other hand, typically hold that people are an intrinsic and inseparable part of the universe, and that attempts to discuss the universe from an objective viewpoint as though the individual speaking was something separate and detached from the whole are inherently absurd.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Eastern_philosophy   (3285 words)

 Chinese Philosophy - MSN Encarta
The best known of these principles were yin and yang, which represented the interacting dualities of nature, such as female and male, shadow and light, and winter and summer.
Legalism emerged as the dominant philosophy in the state of Qin (Ch’in) during the chaotic years of the 4th and 3rd centuries bc.
Legalism proved an effective instrument in creating a powerful military and economic system in the state of Qin.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761568835_2/Chinese_Philosophy.html   (1292 words)

Legalism is a pessimistic philosophy--while conceding that it would be wonderful to have a sage for ruler, the reality was that there just weren't many sages around.
Legalism disregards the past--conditions were different back then, so what worked back then would not necessarily work in the present time.
The Qin emperor was ruthless in his use of Legalism, punishing even small crimes with decapitation or the loss of a hand or foot.
www.geocities.com /tokyo/springs/6339/Legalism.html   (905 words)

 Chinese philosophy - QuickSeek Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
In around 500 BC, after the Zhou state weakened and China moved in to the Spring and Autumn Period, the classic period of Chinese philosophy began (it is an interesting fact that this date nearly coincides with the emergence of the first Greek philosophers).
Han Fei, one of the theoreticians of Legalism
The belief that the purpose of philosophy is primarily to serve as an ethical and practical guide.
chinesephilosophy.quickseek.com   (813 words)

 Wikinfo | Chinese philosophy
This notion, which remained relevant throughout Chinese history, represents a fundamental distinction from western philosophy, in which the dominant view of time is a linear progression.
In around 500 BC, after the Zhou state weakend and China moved in to the Spring and Autumn Period, the classic period of Chinese philosophy began (it is an interesting fact that this date nearly coincides with the emergence of the first Greek philosophers).
Legalism remained influential until the emperors of the Han Dynasty adopted Daoism and later Confucianism as official doctrine.
www.wikinfo.org /wiki.php?title=Chinese_philosophy   (632 words)

 Legalism in China   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Even though both Confucianism and Legalism called for governmental hierarchy and adherence to tradition, the difference between the two schools is that Confucianism advocated ruling benevolently by example.
The dominant imagery in Legalism's writings is of forcefully straightening or unbending twisted tree limbs so that they grow perfectly straight, or using hot irons to burn the tree limbs so that they will grow in the desired direction.
Legalism advocated techniques such as maintaining an active secret police, encouraging neighbors to inform on each other, and the creation of a general atmosphere of fear.
www2.asd.k12.ak.us /library/legalism.htm   (2762 words)

 Mohism: Facts and details from Encyclopedia Topic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Taoism is a philosophy and religion dating from the fourth century bce....
In chinese history, legalism (; pinyin fji) was one of the four main philosophic schools at the end of the zhou dynasty....
The philosophy of science is the branch of philosophy which studies the philosophical foundations, assumptions, and implications of science, including the natural...
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/m/mo/mohism.htm   (1184 words)

 China: philosophies and religions
Religion is the belief in a superhuman power that is worship as philosophy is the way one lives ones life.
People of this philosophy believe in the "dao" or way is the principle by which all things happen - the natural life force.
Legalism is the final philosophy of China we will discuss.
ma.essortment.com /chinareligions_rwnh.htm   (821 words)

 Philosophy 100: Hegel's Philosophy of History   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
"Hegel's philosophy consummates the philosophy of the eighteenth century and initiates the philosophy of the nineteenth; it is the hinge of two eras.
Legality is heteronomy; it is obedience by compulsion to a law that goes beyond us and that does not come from us.
By remaining in abstract opposition, the idealistic philosophies of Kant and Fichte are thus condemned to be individualistic philosophies.
sweb.uky.edu /~rsand1/phi100/hegel.html   (1513 words)

 Chinese Philosophy vs Western Philosphy - China History Forum, online chinese history forum
Platonic philosophy is a foundation of thought which philosophers throughout the ages have built upon, disputed, and modified to the point that even modern philosophies that have their roots in the thought of Plato often bear little overt similarities to the thought of Plato.
Philosophy in the West has since branched off into many separate categories (scientific philosophy, ethical philosophy, linguistic philosophy, etc.), none of which have much direct effect on the average person living in the West.
An academic or a law-maker may study the ethical philosophy of Sartre and based on that come up with laws that eventually affect all the people living in his country, but the person on the street will probably only be aware of the law and not the philosophy behind it.
www.chinahistoryforum.com /index.php?showtopic=3423   (4388 words)

 [No title]
C Legalism Legalism emerged as the dominant philosophy in the state of Qin (Ch’in) during the chaotic years of the 4th and 3rd centuries BC.
They hoped that this all-encompassing philosophy would give the ruler and the government the knowledge to understand the heavenly and earthly sectors of the triad and the means necessary to regulate the human sector so as to coordinate it with heaven and earth and establish perfect harmony in the universe.
He advocated a philosophy that started with discovery of principle, or knowledge of the good, in one's mind and carried the promptings of the mind into virtuous actions beneficial to society.
individual.utoronto.ca /leosilenieks/philo/chinese.html   (3037 words)

 Chinese Cultural Studies: Han Fei: Selections from The Writings of Han Fei (c. 230 BCE)
A third school of thought that emerged in the chaos of the late Zhou era was Legalism, which rejected both the Way of nature, as embraced by Daoists, and Confucianism's emphasis on the primacy of the moral way of antiquity.
Legalist writers, to the contrary, emphasized law as governmenst formulative force and advocated a radical restructuring of society in ways that were totally rational and up-to-date.
Legalism reached its apogee in the late third century B.C. in the writings of Han Feizi (Master Han Fei) and the policies of Emperor Qin Shi Huangdi.
academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu /core9/phalsall/texts/hanfei.html   (872 words)

 Legalism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
a school of Korean legal thought originating in the Joseon Dynasty era.
Legalism in Christian theology is a pejorative term referring either to the imposition of excessive religious rules of behavior (also known as letterism) or to a system of meriting salvation through doing good works, something the Apostle Paul denied was possible (Ephesians 2:8-9).
Within modern Christian circles, the term has also taken on a more nebulous definition between Christian denominations who observe certain aspects of the Ten Commandments and Law of God differently.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Legalism   (197 words)

 Antonio S. Cua (ed.) - Encyclopedia of Chinese Philosophy - Reviewed by Manyul Im, California State University, Los ...
Given the history of Chinese philosophy’s geographical, cultural, intellectual, and political influence on the world, an encyclopedia focusing on it is both a worthwhile and daunting project.
Legalism is a movement that is as difficult to define as it is to disentangle from a variety of ruling techniques that both Confucian and Daoist texts embrace.
Indeed, attempts to define Legalism very quickly devolve into either arbitrary or controversial assumptions about the identity of these other schools—bringing in their wake larger questions about the aptness of “school” identity for many older texts at all.
ndpr.nd.edu /review.cfm?id=1352   (1706 words)

The emperor's court did not discover these revolts until it was far too late, and the Ch'in and the policies they pursued were discredited for the rest of Chinese history.
But it is not so easy to dismiss Legalism as this short, anomolous, unpleasant period of totalitarianism in Chinese history, for the Legalists established ways of doing government that would profoundly influence later governments.
Most of the Ch'in laws were attempts to move people from useless activities, such as scholarship or philosophy, to useful ones.
www.wsu.edu:8080 /~dee/CHPHIL/LEGALISM.HTM   (691 words)

 Legalism (philosophy) - LearnThis.Info Enclyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
However, this view of the Qin may be biased, as most of our historical records have come from Confucian scholars, who were persecuted under the Qin.
However, both ancient and modern observers of Chinese politics have argued that Legalism has merged with mainstream Confucianism and still has a role to play in government due to its efficiency.
Mao Zedong, who was very well read in Chinese philosophy, highly approved of Legalist methods.
encyclopedia.learnthis.info /l/le/legalism__philosophy_.html   (412 words)

 More on Eastern Philosophy
When one uses the unqualified term "philosophy" in a Western academic context, it typically refers to the Western philosophical tradition beginning with the ancient Greeks.
Eastern philosophies are typically overlooked, but increased connections between "East and West" in recent years have served to bridge the culture gap by a large degree.
Hegel's arch-enemy Arthur Schopenhauer developed a philosophy that was essentially a synthesis of Hinduism and Buddhism with Western thought.
www.artilifes.com /eastern-philosophy.htm   (2366 words)

 Trinity Foundation: Explaining God, man, Bible, salvation, philosophy, theology.
One common misunderstanding of legalism is that one is a legalist only if one tries to obey, or insists that others obey, man-made laws.
The primary example of legalism, one correspondent told me, is the Pharisees, who by their traditions had made void the laws of God.
Legalism is the notion that a sinner can, by his own efforts, or by the power of the Holy Spirit in his life, do some work to obtain or retain his salvation.
www.trinityfoundation.org /journal.php?id=112   (6004 words)

 Legalism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Legalism can be seen as "a way of thinking about social life, a mode of consciousness" which structures our social experience.
An ideological world-view premised on legalism "is as much an obscuring veil as a clarifying lens for approaching social problems.
Legalism has increasingly come under criticism for "its role in maintaining oppressive social conditions and for the exceeding narrowness.
www.wvu.edu /~lawfac/jelkins/pmpl99/fragments/legalism.html   (589 words)

 Three Chinese Philosophies: Confucianism, Daoism and Legalism - Associated Content
Legalism was the philosophy that finally restored order to China.
It is a philosophy that views respecting authority and equitable standards of moral behavior as foundations for order in a society.
Since Confucianism ultimately became the dogma of Chinese philosophy for almost two-thousand years-until the Communist revolution successfully toppled the established societal hierarchy that essentially predetermined the existence of everyone born there-obviously K'ung Fu Tzu was successful in discovering this key.
associatedcontent.com /article/30238/three_chinese_philosophies_conf...   (581 words)

 UO Philosophy:Concentrations:Phenomenology
Many of the key ideas in Asian philosophy, as in western philosophy, can be traced to the so-called Axial period from 800 to 200 BC., where what we now refer to as Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Carvaka, Confucianism, Mohism, Taoism and Legalism came to be developed.
The gap between theory and practice which seems almost constitutive of much of western philosophy is absent in Asian philosophy, where the focus is on liberation from attachment to self in the context not of individualism but communitarianism.
The disputes and controversies within Asian philosophy have an intrinsic interest, and by engaging in these controversies students can deepen their understanding not only of the issues at stake in these controversies but of what is at issue in the traditional problems of western philosophy.
philosophy.uoregon.edu /concen/eastern.html   (175 words)

The thoeretic premise from ruling by law of Legalism was doctrine of “Tao”, “Virtue”, it was in the tradition of Chinese philosophy in general and of Taoist philosophy in particular.
The Historical and social premise of Legalism was viewpoint on historical evolution; the moral premise of Legalism initiated by Xun Zi was doctrine of non-human nature, and then Han Fei-tzu vividly explained and applied it in his doctrine.
Although the legalist thought of Legalism had fixed limits, if we overlook that limits due to historical conditions and the interests of the class, it still had meanings and usefully historical lessons to the career of the building jurisdical State of socialist Vietnam today.
www.vnuhcm.edu.vn /daotao/saudaihoc/Luanvan/vantrinh_en.htm   (577 words)

 Legalist philosophy - China History Forum, online chinese history forum
The philosophical assumptions of legalism are logically paradoxical.
Legalism believes the ultimate nature of man is evil, yet also believes that man can be educated to become good through correct laws.
Also the Legalism bureaucratic system is the first centralise bureaucratic systems in the world, that is in use for 2000 years when it was first introduced by the first emperor of China.
www.chinahistoryforum.com /index.php?showtopic=7164   (3272 words)

 Philosophy or Christ  -  John MacArthur
Philosophy is really the effort of man to determine the ultimate causes in the earth and the universe.
Philosophy is human wisdom--human wisdom that sounds like it is divine...human wisdom that is supposed to be greater than anything you have ever heard.
The thought of Paul is this: To return to philosophy would be to cast away the mature teaching of the Bible for the infantile poverty- stricken opinions of an immature religion drawing its being from this world and not God.
www.biblebb.com /files/MAC/sg2141.htm   (4899 words)

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