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Topic: Leibniz


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  Gottfried Leibniz - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Leibniz is credited with the term "function" (1694), which he used to describe a quantity related to a curve, such as a curve's slope or a specific point of said curve.
Leibniz is generally, with Newton, jointly credited for the development of the modern calculus, in particular, for his development of the integral and the product rule.
Leibniz is believed to be the first person to suggest that the concept of feedback was useful for explaining many phenomena in many different fields of study.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Gottfried_Leibniz   (2784 words)

  
 Leibniz
Leibniz very nearly followed their example, and it says much for his sincerity that in later years, when offered the prestigious librarianships of the Vatican (in 1689), of Paris (in 1698), and perhaps also of Vienna, he turned them down only because he was not prepared to go through a formal conversion.
Leibniz's trip to London was cut short by the news of the sudden deaths of both his patrons: of Boineburg in December 1672, and of the Elector in February 1673.
Leibniz's approach was to try and reconcile the logical, rhetorical and geometrical traditions by blend ing their three distinct emphases (on formalism, on linguistic propriety and on mathematicisation) into the single vision of a formal language notated mathematically.
etext.leeds.ac.uk /leibniz/leibniz.htm   (15684 words)

  
 Leibniz's Philosophy of Mind
Leibniz's rejection of materialist conceptions of the mind was coupled with a strong opposition to dualistic views concerning the relationship between mind and body, particularly the substance dualism that figured in the philosophy of Descartes and his followers.
This is why Leibniz says that, at the level of bodies (that is, for Leibniz, at the level of well-founded phenomena), all occurs according to the laws of efficient causes; whereas with respect to perceptions and appetites (or at least with some of these—interpretations differ here) all occurs according to the laws of final causes.
Although Leibniz was not the first to propose such an idea (Aquinas, for example, had a similar view), and although the view in his hands did not have the explosive quality that it did in the hands of Freud, the thesis remains an intriguing and important part of his philosophy of mind.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/leibniz-mind   (5929 words)

  
 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
Gottfried Leibniz laid the modern foundation of the movement from decimal to binary as far back as 1666 (the same year as the Great Fire of London) with his "On the Art of Combination", laying out a method for reducing all logic to exact statements.
Leibniz believed logic, or ‘the laws of thought’ could be moved from a verbal state - which was subject to the ambiguities of language, tone and circumstance - into an absolute mathematical condition.
Leibniz found some sort of confirmation for his theories in the I Ching's depiction of the universe as a progression of contradicting dualities, a series of on-off, yes-no possibilities, such as dark-light and male-female, which formed the complex interaction of life and consciousness.
www.kerryr.net /pioneers/leibniz.htm   (471 words)

  
 Leibniz
Leibniz's mother was Catharina Schmuck, the daughter of a lawyer and Friedrich Leibniz's third wife.
Leibniz began to study motion, and although he had in mind the problem of explaining the results of Wren and Huygens on elastic collisions, he began with abstract ideas of motion.
Leibniz published an anonymous pamphlet Charta volans setting out his side in which a mistake by Newton in his understanding of second and higher derivatives, spotted by Johann Bernoulli, is used as evidence of Leibniz's case.
www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk /~history/Mathematicians/Leibniz.html   (3541 words)

  
 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz -- Metaphysics [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
Leibniz's curiosity and genius ranged widely, but one of the most constant of his concerns was to bring about reconciliation by emphasizing the truths that lay in both of even the most contradictory positions.
Leibniz has many reasons for distinguishing monads from atoms - the easiest to understand is perhaps that while atoms are meant to be the smallest unit of extension out of which all larger extended things are built, monads are unrelated to extension (remember, space is an illusion).
Leibniz argues that it would be a great waste of possible perfection to only allow living beings to have bodies at that particular level of aggregation with which we are phenomenally familiar.
www.utm.edu /research/iep/l/leib-met.htm   (10245 words)

  
 Amazon.com: Books: Philosophical Texts (Oxford Philosophical Texts)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Leibniz is indeed one of the most important and influential of philosophers and also one of the least examined, perhaps even among students of philosophy.
Leibniz' view is amenable to Pythagoras and in many ways to both quantum theory (in the "quarks and gluons" model, the "solidity" of matter is merely a phenomena of the gluon force, and voids in space-time are not exactly voids) and to so-called string theories.
Leibniz also hinted bluntly of Einstein's Relativity, repeatedly stating that there is no such thing as a physical state of absolute rest, motion, or time, as they are all "relativities." Newton, for all his genius, got that wrong (as regards time, that is).
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0198751532?v=glance   (1268 words)

  
 CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: System of Leibniz
Leibniz, it should be added, met with little success in his other plan of conciliation, namely, his scheme for the union of Protestants among themselves.
Leibniz represents the possible monads as present for all eternity in the mind of God -- in them was the impulse towards actualization -- and the more perfect the possible monad the more strongly did it possess this impulse.
Leibniz, true to his eclectic temperament, admits the validity of all the various arguments for the existence of God.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/09134b.htm   (4256 words)

  
 Leibniz on the Problem of Evil
Since Leibniz lived in between these two eras, eras in which evil was taken to present quite different problems for the monotheistic philosopher, we are immediately led to wonder which sort of problem he sought to address.
Leibniz's reasoning to his conclusion does not, however, follow this straightforward path since, among other things, it is not clearly cogent as it stands.
Leibniz argued repeatedly that it was surely too parochial to think that the standard by which the goodness of worlds is to be judged is earthly human happiness.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/leibniz-evil   (6501 words)

  
 Leibniz: Harmony
In a more lofty tone, Leibniz declared that a benevolent god would choose to create whatever possible world contained the smallest amount of evil; hence (in a phrase that would later be mocked by Voltaire) this is "the best of all possible worlds," according to Leibniz.
But Leibniz held that some monads—namely, the souls of animals and human beings—also have conscious apperception in the sense that they are capable of employing sensory ideas as representations of physical things outside themselves.
What Leibniz did claim is that we have the free will required for moral responsibility even though all of our future actions are already contained in us (along with the future of the entire actual world).
www.philosophypages.com /hy/4j.htm   (2112 words)

  
 No. 1375: Newton vs. Leibniz
Leibniz wrote his calculus around 1673, and he used the notation we still use today -- derivatives expressed as dy/dx, and so on.
Voltaire, born when both Newton and Leibniz were on in years, wouldn't stand still for that.
Leibniz died poor and dishonored, while Newton was given a state funeral.
www.uh.edu /engines/epi1375.htm   (532 words)

  
 Leibniz
Although his own rationalism was founded upon an advanced understanding of logic, which Leibniz largely kept to himself, he did publish many less technical expositions of his results for the general public.
There Leibniz emphasized the role of a benevolent deity in creating this, the best of all possible worlds, where everything exists in a perfect, pre-established harmony with everything else.
According to Leibniz, human knowledge involves the discovery within our own minds of all that is a part of our world, and although we cannot make it otherwise, we ought to be grateful for our own inclusion in it.
www.philosophypages.com /ph/leib.htm   (433 words)

  
 Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm --¬† Encyclop√¶dia Britannica
The German philosopher and mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716), the next great figure in the Rationalist tradition, gave scant attention to ethics, perhaps because of his belief that the world is governed by a perfect God, and hence must be the best of all possible worlds.
He created in the 1680s a symbolic logic (see) that is remarkably similar to George Boole's system of 1847—and Boole is widely regarded as the initiator of mathematical or symbolic logic.
Originally published in 1759, the novel is a savage denunciation of the philosophy of optimism espoused by the German philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-9047669   (823 words)

  
 The Leibniz Society Review
The Leibniz Review is an annual, refereed journal sponsored by the Leibniz Society of North America.
In addition, the regular news on international Leibniz scholarship, together with the publication of new texts make it essential reading for every serious scholar in the history of early modern philosophy.
Unsolicited reviews (written in English) of works (in any language) on the philosophy of Leibniz, and of critical editions of Leibniz's works, are occasionally considered.
philosophy2.ucsd.edu /~rutherford/Leibniz/leibrev.htm   (849 words)

  
 Reference Pieces on Space
Leibniz says, first, that God does not need a "sense organ" to perceive objects and, second, that space cannot be an absolute reality, or it would possess a greater reality than substances themselves.
One proposal, by Ernst Mach (1838-1916), was to postulate that inertia is the result of an interaction with all the rest of the mass of the universe.
Kant splits the difference between Newton and Leibniz by holding that space is empirically real, agreeing with Newton, but that it does not exist among things-in-themselves, agreeing with Leibniz.
www.friesian.com /space.htm   (3534 words)

  
 Open Directory - Society: Philosophy: Philosophers: L: Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Leibniz: Discussion and Explanation - A discussion and critique of the major Leibnizian points of argument, meant as an introduction to the philosopher and an aid to students.
Leibniz: Harmony - Compilation, that describes the uses of logic and harmony.
Leibniz on the Problem of Evil - An entry by Michael J. Murray, from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
dmoz.org /Society/Philosophy/Philosophers/L/Leibniz,_Gottfried_Wilhelm   (387 words)

  
 [No title]
The biographies won't tell you that Leibniz was a messy writer -- a scribbler, since he was a deep thinker and, lacking the luxury of hitting 'delete' or 'backspace', would fuss at his work to get it right.
If you are new to Leibniz but not to philosophy, you might try dropping in on a course lecture on Leibniz, which you can do quietly and unobtrusively enough via some lecture notes on Leibniz for a course of Professor G. Mattey's, at UC Davis.
If you're interested in Leibniz, or indeed in the history of early modern philosophy generally, you're encouraged to become a member of the society.
web.ics.purdue.edu /~jacover/Leibniz.htm   (717 words)

  
 Leibniz
1646 July 1, born in Leipzig to Friedrich Leibniz a Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of Leipzig.
Boyneburg dies the same year and Leibniz stays in Paris four years and is heavily influenced by his first extensive exposure to modern philosophy, meeting
He also composes "Discourse on Metaphysics." 1687 Travels to Italy to do research for his history of the house of Brunswick and shows an important connection between the house of Brunswick and the house of Este, one of the most important families of the Italian Renaissance.
oregonstate.edu /instruct/phl302/philosophers/leibniz.html   (561 words)

  
 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz (1646 - 1716)
From `A Short Account of the History of Mathematics' (4th edition, 1908) by W. Rouse Ball.
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz (or Leibniz) was born at Leipzig on June 21 (O.S.), 1646, and died in Hanover on November 14, 1716.
Refused the degree of doctor of laws at Leipzig by those who were jealous of his youth and learning, he moved to Nuremberg.
www.maths.tcd.ie /pub/HistMath/People/Leibniz/RouseBall/RB_Leibnitz.html   (2618 words)

  
 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Leibniz had a lifelong interest in and pursuit of the idea that the principles of reasoning could be reduced to a formal symbolic system, an algebra or calculus of thought, in which controversy would be settled by calculations.
Nicholas Rescher, Leibniz, Totowa, N.J.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1979
Chris Swoyer, ‘Leibniz on Intension and Extension’, Nous 29/1 (1995): 96-114
mally.stanford.edu /leibniz.html   (333 words)

  
 EpistemeLinks.com: Website results for philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
EpistemeLinks.com: Website results for philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
Description: English translations of various previously-untranslated papers, with focus on his theological and metaphysical writings.
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www.epistemelinks.com /Main/Philosophers.aspx?PhilCode=Leib   (243 words)

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