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Topic: Leucine

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In the News (Fri 24 May 19)

  leucine on Encyclopedia.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Leucine was isolated from cheese in an impure form in 1819 and from muscle and wool in the crystalline state in 1820.
The stucture of leucine was established by laboratory synthesis in 1891.
Decompensation of Leucine Nitrogen Kinetics in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/l1/leucine.asp   (643 words)

 Diabetes: Leucine metabolism in IDDM: role of insulin and... @ HighBeam Research   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Plasma leucine specific activity was measured as follows: 2.5 ml of 10% sulfosalicylic acid was added to 2.5 ml of plasma to precipitate plasma proteins, and a 1-ml aliquot of the supernatant was analyzed in duplicate on a Dowex 50 G cation-exchange resin column (Bio-Rad, Richmond, CA).
The percent decrease in plasma leucine (57 [+ or -] 4 vs. 52 [+ or -] 3%) and KIC (50 [+ or -] 4 vs. 45 [+ or -] 4%) was similar in the diabetic and control groups.
Second, although the traced amino acid (leucine) is transported by the insulin-insensitive L-system[27,28], it is not known whether the intracellular compartmental distribution of leucine and KIC are similar in diabetic and control subjects.
www.highbeam.com /library/doc0.asp?DOCID=1G1:8352135&refid=ip_encyclopedia_hf   (7185 words)

 Smart Basics - Smart Basics Glossaries--Leucine: Smart Basics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Leucine is available in good concentrations in meat and dairy products, and to a lesser degree in wheat germ, brown rice, soybeans, almonds, cashews and brazil nuts, chickpeas, lentils and corn.
Leucine, in conjunction with two other amino acids, isoleucine and valine, appear to be quite helpful in treating and in some cases even reversing hepatic encephalopathy, a form of liver damage in alcoholics.
The right handed, or D form of leucine, has been shown to have a similar effect to that of d-phenylalanine in retarding the breakdown of the natural pain killers of the body, the endorphins and enkephalins.
www.ehot.com /smartbasics/leucin_glos.html   (384 words)

 Leucine information page. All about leucine and the role it plays in your diet.
Leucine is an essential amino acid, which cannot be manufactured in the body and is part of the three branched-chain-amino-acids.
Leucine helps with the regulation of blood-sugar levels, the growth and repair of muscle tissue (such as bones, skin and muscles), growth hormone production, wound healing as well as energy regulation.
If you are taking a supplement of leucine, keep it in balance with the other two branched-chain-amino-acids isoleucine and valine in the formula of 2 mg of leucine and valine for each 1 mg of isoleucine.
www.anyvitamins.com /leucine-info.htm   (479 words)

 Leucine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Leucine is one of the 20 most common amino acids and coded for by DNA.
Nutritionally, in humans, leucine is an essential amino acid.
Leucine Formula (Older Version [Note the diferences in the order of the elements in a molecule])
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Leucine   (142 words)

Branched amino-acids (Valine, Isoleucine and Leucine) with tryptophan and phenylalanine (aromatic side chain amino acids) contribute to the structure of protein by the tendency of its side chain composed only of carbon and hydrogen to participate in hydrophobic interactions which determines the tertiary structure of the peptide chain.
Leucine, chemically 2-amino-4-methylvaleric acid, is the isomer of isoleucine.
Norleucine is a nonessential amino acid extracted from the leucine fraction of the decomposition of the proteins of nervous tissue.
www.chemicalland21.com /bioscience/aminoacid/Fmoc-D-LEUCINE.htm   (627 words)

 Leucine Disease   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The most common of the leucine metabolism disorders (though still rare) is isovaleric acidemia, which may begin with an acute episode in infancy or may be of a chronic and intermittent form presenting at 6-12 months of age.
Madison, WI The goal of dietary management in isovaleric acidemia and other leucine catabolism defects is to provide sufficient leucine for growth but to prevent excessive intake, which results in elevated blood levels of leucine and organic acids.
Leucine should be eliminated from the diet by removing all whole protein sources.
www.meadjohnson.com /metabolics/leucinedisease.html   (746 words)

 Diabetes: Orally administered leucine enhances protein sy... @ HighBeam Research   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Immediately after leucine administration, diabetic rats were infused with insulin (0.0, 4.0, or 20 pmol * [min.sup.-1] * [kg.sup.-1]) for 1 h to examine the role of the hormone in the protein synthetic response to leucine.
The impaired translational efficiency observed in the presence of both leucine and insulin administration indicates a role for other regulatory factors that are altered as a result of 3 days of diabetes and that are not corrected by 1 h of hormone replacement.
Leucine administration did not alter the phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 or the association of eIF4E with 4E-BP1 or eIF4G in diabetic rats that were not infused with insulin.
www.highbeam.com /library/doc0.asp?DOCID=1G1:84721228&refid=ip_search   (6831 words)

 Leucine Molecule
Leucine is one of the 20 most common amino acids on Earth, and coded for by
Leucine, like isoleucine and valine, is a hydrophobic amino acid that is found on the interior of proteins and enzymes and has a significant structural role.
Leucine ties glycine for the position of second most common amino acid found in proteins.
www.worldofmolecules.com /life/leucine.htm   (99 words)

 Amino Acid Substitutions within the Leucine Zipper Domain of the Murine Coronavirus Spike Protein Cause Defects in ...
The heptadic leucine and isoleucine residues are boxed, and their corresponding positions are marked above in reference to the starting methionine residue of the S protein.
Leucine- or isoleucine-to-alanine substitutions in those mutants are indicated by the letter A, while the dashed lines represent sequences identical to that of the wild-type S. aa, amino acids.
A leucine zipper structure present in the measles virus fusion protein is not required for its tetramerization but is essential for fusion.
jvi.asm.org /cgi/content/full/73/10/8152   (5565 words)

 Leucine   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Leucine and the other branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), isoleucine, and valine, escape liver metabolism and can directly and significantly influence muscle-protein metabolism.
Dietary leucine serves as a substrate for muscle metabolism during periods of cellular energy depletion, there by sparing critical contractile and enzyme muscle protein from degradation to supply leucine requirements.
Because leucine contributes to gluterine synthesis, taking supplemental leucine before and after intense training and between meals can help normalize glutimine levels in both the serum and muscle, thereby promoting anticatabolic muscle metabolism as well as supporting immune function.
www.betterbodz.com /suppl/leucine.html   (106 words)

 Acute Insulin Responses to Leucine in Children with the Hyperinsulinism/Hyperammonemia Syndrome -- Kelly et al. 86 (8): ...
Acute Insulin Responses to Leucine in Children with the Hyperinsulinism/Hyperammonemia Syndrome -- Kelly et al.
Acute insulin response to stimulation with bolus iv leucine in HI/HA patient 2.
Leucine was administered at 30, 110, and 190 min.
jcem.endojournals.org /cgi/content/full/86/8/3724   (2834 words)

 Leucine requirement and splanchnic uptake of leucine in chronically undernourished adult Indian subjects -- Kurpad et ...
the splanchnic uptake of leucine in chronically undernourished
]leucine orally at a leucine intake of 40 mg•kg
A minimally invasive tracer protocol is effective for assessing the response of leucine kinetics and oxidation to vaccination in chronically energy-deficient adult males and children.
www.ajcn.org /cgi/content/full/77/4/861   (4054 words)

 APStracts 8:0072E, 2001.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Carbon (C) in the 1-position of leucine is released as CO2 with the decarboxylation of a- ketoisocaproate (KIC).
We infused 11 healthy subjects with [1-13C]leucine and [1,2-13C2]leucine for 3.5-4 h to measure leucine kinetics and the oxidation of the tracers from enrichments of 13C in blood and expired CO2.
The fraction of leucine infused that was oxidized (fox) was used to define the degree of recovery of the 13C label(s) for each tracer.
www.uth.tmc.edu /apstracts/2001/endo/May/72e.html   (335 words)

 Leucine biosynthesis - Branched chain amino acid and lysine biosynthesis - HORT640 - Metabolic Plant Physiology - ...
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, selection for resistance to the leucine analog 5',5',5'-trifluoroleucine (TFL), resulted in the identification of two genetically distinct groups of mutants, one comprising all the dominant (TFL1) and the other one all the recessive (tfl2) mutations (Casalone et al, 1997).
These mutations resulted in accumulation of leucine as a consequence of the synthesis of an enzyme insensitive to feedback inhibition by leucine (Casalone et al, 1997).
However, this first enzyme of the leucine biosynthesis pathway is strongly feedback-regulated by leucine in spinach chloroplasts (Hagelstein and Schultz, 1993).
www.hort.purdue.edu /rhodcv/hort640c/branch/br00004.htm   (1140 words)

 Leucine Zipper Prediction   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The uniqueness of this structure in a protein is provided by a Leucine residue being present every seventh residue (although, occaissionally this is mutated to an amino-acid of similar properties).
Therefore, the number of possible Leucine Zippers is quite vast, involved in a variety of functions from active-site binding in molecules like the kinases, to binding DNA to proteins.
Leucine Zippers can be classified according to their functionality.
umber.sbs.man.ac.uk /zip/faq.shtml   (935 words)

 Leucine is a direct-acting nutrient signal that regulates protein synthesis in adipose tissue -- Lynch et al. 283 (3): ...
Leucine is a direct-acting nutrient signal that regulates protein synthesis in adipose tissue -- Lynch et al.
Leucine is a direct-acting nutrient signal that regulates protein synthesis in adipose tissue
The effects of adding leucine directly to adipocytes in vitro have suggested that it should be directly acting in vivo.
ajpendo.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/283/3/E503   (6473 words)

 Leucine essential branched chain amino acid
Supplements and protein powders that contain leucine are used extensively by bodybuilders and other athletes to promote muscle recovery.
Dosage: The daily dosage of leucine is about 16 mg per kilogram of body weight per day - which would translate to about 1120 mg for a 70 kg male.
Leucine is found in protein foods, as well as brown rice, beans, nuts and whole wheat.
www.nutrabio.com /Ingredients/ingredient_luecine.htm   (557 words)

 Flex: Leucine: amino muscle builder - Advanced Nutrition
In addition, this same review noted that leucine taken alone after a workout is sufficient to "switch on" protein synthesis.
Yet, although leucine alone is a potent activator of muscle growth, you still need the other essential amino acids to make those muscle proteins.
To make a long story short, when calories are reduced, leucine in muscle is used to produce the amino acid alanine, which is used to produce glucose in the liver.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m0KFY/is_5_21/ai_103376715   (449 words)

 Distinguishing Features of Leucine and {alpha}-Ketoisocaproate Sensing in Pancreatic {beta}-Cells -- Gao et al. 144 ...
Glutamate dehydrogenase is the sensor of leucine, whereas transamination
Leucine effects on GDH activity in the presence of nucleotides.
GDH serves as a leucine sensor in pancreatic ß-cells, translating the intracellular leucine concentration into insulin secretion by controlling the activity of GDH and thus glutaminolysis.
endo.endojournals.org /cgi/content/full/144/5/1949   (4562 words)

 Leucine May Be Key to High-Protein Weight Loss Diet
So the experts continue to try to determine the ideal combination of calories that should come from protein, carbohydrates, and fats for Americans hungry for weight-loss answers.
"In studying exercise and how muscle develops, we found that leucine has a particularly unique effect in that it spares muscle proteins during weight loss, so you only lose the fat and not the muscle," Layman, at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, tells WebMD.
Leucine, which isn't produced by the human body, is found in protein-rich animal foods such as beef, chicken, fish, dairy, and eggs.
my.webmd.com /content/article/60/67178.htm   (371 words)

 Leucine aminopeptidase - urine   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
This is a test that measures the amount of leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) in urine.
This test may be appropriate in some cases as a screening test or to avoid the risks of having blood drawn.
LAP is a proteolytic enzyme that breaks chemical bonds in proteins at specific sites next to leucine amino acids.
www.shands.org /health/information/003617.htm   (447 words)

 Whole-Body Leucine Kinetics and the Acute Phase Response during Acute Infection in Marasmic Malawian Children -- MANARY ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Whole-Body Leucine Kinetics and the Acute Phase Response during Acute Infection in Marasmic Malawian Children -- MANARY et al.
Mean rates of nonoxidative leucine disposal, leucine derived from whole-body proteolysis, and leucine oxidation (± SEM) in three groups of Malawian children, marasmic children with and without acute infection, and well-nourished children with acute infection.
leucine derived from whole-body proteolysis, and leucine oxidation.
www.pedresearch.org /cgi/content/full/55/6/940   (3275 words)

 Acetone Formation in the Vibrio Family: a New Pathway for Bacterial Leucine Catabolism -- Nemecek-Marshall et al. 181 ...
Metabolic pathway for leucine catabolism in Pseudomonas species (right, solid arrows; redrawn from reference 36) and possible pathways for leucine-dependent acetone formation in Vibrio species (left and right, dashed arrows).
The isopropyl moiety of leucine is shown fully deuterated to help trace the origin of acetone in each pathway as discussed in the text.
Clarification of the vibrio leucine degradation pathway is in progress.
jb.asm.org /cgi/content/full/181/24/7493   (3888 words)

 Intravenously Infused 13C-Leucine Is Retained in Fasting Healthy Adult Men -- Kurpad et al. 132 (7): 1906 -- Journal of ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
leucine concentration was regressed as a linear function of
FIGURE 1 The 12-h leucine oxidation rates (mg/kg · 12 h) at three levels of tracer leucine infusion in healthy fasting Indian men (n = 10).
13% of the leucine flux was associated with oxidation and this
www.nutrition.org /cgi/content/full/132/7/1906   (2387 words)

 Pfam 18.0 : LRR_1   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Leucine Rich Repeats are short sequence motifs present in a number of proteins with diverse functions and cellular locations.
Leucine Rich Repeats are often flanked by cysteine rich domains.
Leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) are 20-29-residue sequence motifs present in tandem arrays a number of proteins with diverse functions, such as hormone receptor interactions, enzyme inhibition, cell adhesion and cellular trafficking.
pfam.wustl.edu /cgi-bin/getdesc?acc=PF00560   (438 words)

 Acetone Formation in the Vibrio Family: a New Pathway for Bacterial Leucine Catabolism -- Nemecek-Marshall et al. 181 ...
Acetone Formation in the Vibrio Family: a New Pathway for Bacterial Leucine Catabolism -- Nemecek-Marshall et al.
that an oxygen-dependent reaction is required for leucine catabolism.
of a new catabolic pathway for leucine in vibrios that is distinct
jb.asm.org /cgi/content/abstract/181/24/7493   (241 words)

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