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Topic: Lexical semantics

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In the News (Sun 23 Jun 19)

  CSLI Publications
Lexical Semantics in LFG by Miriam Butt and Tracy Holloway King, editors.
Flexible Semantics for Reinterpretation Phenomena by Markus Egg.
Focusing on issues that surround the semantics of quantification and reference in natural language, this collection of papers provides both an overview of topics in current research in formal approaches to meaning and a discussion of the origins of that research in Partee's own highly influential writings.
csli-publications.stanford.edu   (2627 words)

  Lexical semantics Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Lexical units are the words so lexical semantics involves the meaning of each individual word.
Lexical semantics is the one area of linguistics to which we can continually add throughout our lives, as we are always learning new words and their meanings whereas we can only learn the rules of our native language during the critical period when we are young.
A question asked is if meaning is established by looking at the neighbourhood in the semantic net a word is part of and by looking at the other words it occurs with in natural sentences or if the meaning is already locally contained in a word.
www.hallencyclopedia.com /topic/Lexical_semantics.html   (371 words)

 4. Choices for Lexical Semantics
A popular idea in lexical semantics has been to make the lexicon "generative." The reasons for this are both theoretical--to extend the idea of generativity from grammar to the lexicon--and practical--looking for ways of saving effort in acquisition of lexicons through the use of automatic devices.
In spite of Pustejovsky's (1995: 1) initial and fully justified rejection of formal semantics as a basis of achieving the GL goals with respect to sentential meaning, all that he found in contemporary linguistic semantics for dealing with sentential meaning was the analyses of quantifiers and other closed-class phenomena.
A semantic lexicon that stresses generalization faces, therefore, the problem of having to deal with rules whose scope becomes progressively smaller, that is, the modified rules become applicable to fewer and fewer lexical units as the fight against overgeneration (carried out by means of blocking and other means) is gradually won.
ilit.umbc.edu /Book/choices.htm   (8096 words)

 Lexical semantics
Lexical semantics is a subfield of computational linguistics and linguistics.
Anna Wierzbicka compiled a list of around 60 basic concepts (called semantic primes) which are said to constitute the core concepts for all languages.
With the natural semantic metalanguage the other concepts may be described in a language and culture specific way.
www.brainyencyclopedia.com /encyclopedia/l/le/lexical_semantics.html   (343 words)

 A22-Project's Hoempage   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Discourse semantics, enriched with the tool of rhetorical relations as presented by Asher (1993), contributes to lexical disambiguation by applying the semantic consequences of the pragmatically preferred rhetorical relations to the selection of the contextually specified sense of the ambiguous word.
The syntactic framework informing the project is LFG (Lexical Functional Grammar) and we are working on building an implementation modeling the two-way interaction between lexical semantics and discourse in cooperation with the NLTT group at PARC.
In Proceedings of Constraints in Discourse - Dortmund
ling.uni-konstanz.de /pages/home/tantos/a22.html   (460 words)

 New Directions in Cognitive Linguistics   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Early research modelled such lexical categories in terms of radial categories, arguing that the surface manifestation of polysemy is a reflection of a psychologically-real phenomenon at the level of lexical representation in the mind.
More recently cognitive lexical semanticists have emphasised that the phenomenon of polysemy can be treated as a midpoint on an ambiguity-vagueness continuum, and have emphasised the role of context, encyclopaedic knowledge and construal as crucial factors in determining the nature and extent of lexical knowledge, particularly in situated word-usage.
While lexical concepts constitute the semantic units conventionally associated with linguistic forms, and form an integral part of a language user’s individual mental grammar, meaning is a property of situated usage-events, rather than words.
www.cogling.org.uk /NDCL/ThemeLexicalSemantics.htm   (2469 words)

 Semantics ~ Stephen's Web ~ by Stephen Downes
Semantics is contrasted with two other aspects of meaningful expression, namely, syntax, the construction of complex signs from simpler signs, and pragmatics, the practical use of signs by agents or communities of interpretation in particular circumstances and contexts.
In linguistics, semantics is the subfield that is devoted to the study of meaning, as borne on the syntactic levels of words, phrases, sentences, and sometimes larger units of discourse, generically referred to as texts.
In psychology, semantic memory is memory for meaning, in other words, the aspect of memory that preserves only the gist, the general significance, of remembered experience, while episodic memory is memory for the ephemeral details, the individual features, or the unique particulars of experience.
www.downes.ca /cgi-bin/page.cgi?topic=43   (2740 words)

 lexical semantics   (Site not responding. Last check: )
{{linguistics}} Lexical semantics is a field in Computer science and Linguistics which deals mainly with word meaning.
It covers various theories of the structure of words, the differences and similarities in lexical semantic structure between different languages, and the relationship of word meaning to sentence meaning and syntax.
Lexical Semantics of the Greek New Testament: A Supplement to the Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament Based on Semantic Domains (Society of B)
www.abacci.com /wikipedia/topic.aspx?cur_title=lexical_semantics   (133 words)

 What is Semantics?
Semantics is the study of the meaning of linguistic expressions.
This may seem like bad news for semantics, but it is actually not that uncommon for the basic concepts of a successful science to remain problematic: a physicist will probably have trouble telling you what time is. The nature of meaning, and the nature of time, are foundational questions that are debated by philosophers.
Logic is a help in lexical semantics, but lexical semantics is full of cases in which meanings depend subtly on context, and seems to involve many exceptional cases.
www.eecs.umich.edu /~rthomaso/documents/general/what-is-semantics.html   (2339 words)

 CS599: Lexical Semantics
Lexical semantics (the semantics of words) is becoming an increasingly important part of Natural Language Processing, as researchers and systems are beginning to address semantics at the large scale.
This course addresses several core issues in the study of the semantics of words, including the definition of lexical semantics from various perspectives, the problem of primitives of meaning, the creation of semantically annotated corpora, ontologies, automated methods for acquiring semantic knowledge on a large scale, and a survey of related perspectives.
Semantic cases, thematic relations hypothesis, semantic fields; lexical semantic decomposition; verb classes and alternations; formalisms and notation; mapping; lexicographical perspectives
www.isi.edu /~pantel/Content/Teaching/2005/cs599.htm   (667 words)

 Lexical Semantics (Was: Translation Theory)
A good friend and sometimes collaborator has been developing a theory of lexical semantics over the past several years in which the lexical semantic structure even for simple ``entity'' nominals such as ``door'' is already a complex object, so that one sense may subsume multiple, predictable ``sub-senses''.
This results in a theory of lexical semantics which allows, at least in potentia, for many more interpretations of a lexical item than a theory of lexical semantics that views senses as being enumerated in the lexicon.
However, this theory also allows far fewer interpretations for a given lexical item in a particular context than a radically indeterminate approach like deconstruction, given that the interpretation chosen must be globally consistent with the rest of the utterance, discourse, and overall pragmatic context.
www.ibiblio.org /bgreek/archives/greek-2/msg00590.html   (718 words)

 Computational Lexical Semantics - Cambridge University Press
Computational Lexical Semantics is one of the first volumes to provide models for the creation of various kinds of computerized lexicons for the automatic treatment of natural language, with applications to machine translation, automatic indexing, and database front-ends, knowledge extraction, among other things.
An introduction to lexical semantics from a linguistic and a psycho-linguistics perspective Patrick Saint-Dizier and Evelyn Viegas; 1.
A non-monotonic approach to lexical semantics Daniel Kayser and Hocine Abir; 14.
www.cambridge.org /asia/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=0521023203   (341 words)

 Amazon.fr : Syntax and Semantics: Lexical Funcational Grammar: Livres en anglais: Mary Dalrymple,Brian Joseph,Carl ...   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Volume 34 of Syntax and Semantics is a thorough and accessible overview and introduction to Lexical Functional Grammar (LFG), a theory of the content and representation of different aspects of linguistic structure and the relations that hold between them.
The book also presents a theory of semantics and the syntax-semantics interface in which the meaning of an utterance is obtained via deduction from semantic premises contributed by its parts.
Lexical Functional Grammar (LFG) is a nontransformational theory of linguistic structure which assumes that language is best described and modeled by parallel structures representing different facets of linguistic organization and information, related to one another by means of functional constraints. Lire la première page
www.amazon.fr /Syntax-Semantics-Lexical-Funcational-Grammar/dp/0126135347   (530 words)

 TOBIAS-lib - Oriented Adverbs : Issues in the Lexical Semantics of Event Adverbs
In event semantics, manner adverbs are analysed as 'predicates of events'.
Hence, a second topic dealt with in detail is the identification and semantic analysis of a number of 'borderline' adverb types which are different from manner adverbs but still raise the question of whether they might be event-related.
It is shown that, lexically, transparent adverbs are predicates of individuals that are related to events only in the course of composition, thus exhibiting close similarities to depictives.
w210.ub.uni-tuebingen.de /dbt/volltexte/2002/546   (574 words)

 Lexical semantics, language design, machine translation, and strategy PBEM games
I'm working on a fascinating project to design a language that is especially suited for use as an interlingua in machine translation.
If you are interested in the lexical semantics of natural language, the formal design of artificial languages, or the use of computers to translate automatically between languages, then check out my comprehensive monograph
If you are mostly interested in the fun aspects of language construction, there are also several other, much shorter essays available.
www.eskimo.com /~ram   (259 words)

 Events as Grammatical Objects: The Converging Perspectives of Lexical Semantics and Syntax
Research in lexical semantics, logical semantics, and syntax has demonstrated a growing recognition that the grammars of natural languages structure and refer to events in particular ways.
Lexical semantics and logical semantics are two enterprises that use different tools and address different questions.
Meanwhile syntacticians have discovered a growing body of phenomena in which the semantics of events can be seen to interact with syntactic structures, and have had to turn to semanticists for representations of the properties associated with events.
csli-publications.stanford.edu /site/1575862069.html   (258 words)

 Morphology and Lexical Semantics - Cambridge University Press
Morphology and Lexical Semantics explores the meanings of morphemes and how they combine to form the meanings of complex words, including derived words (writer, unionize), compounds (dog bed, truck driver), and words formed by conversion.
Rochelle Lieber discusses the lexical semantics of word formation in a systematic way, allowing the reader to explore the nature of affixal polysemy, the reasons why there are multiple affixes with the same function, and the issues of mismatch between form and meaning in word formation.
Distinguishing between a lexical semantic skeleton that is featural and hierarchically organized, and a lexical semantic body that is holistic, it shows how the semantics of word formation has a paradigmatic character.
www.cambridge.org /catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=0521831717   (214 words)

 Mesoamerican Languages Documentation Project
All lexical material and all roots are carefully and repeatedly tested for their grammatical behavior, and the results of this testing used to determine the classes of roots and lexemes, and these are encoded for each item.
Although it is believed that as of the time of their first issue/posting, virtually all native lexical/root morphemes, and essentially all grammatical morphemes are included in the dictionary, it is certain that more lexical material will be uncovered as more texts are collected and analyzed, and as additional semantic fields are looked into.
The representation of the morpheme or lexical item is underlying, or at least with all phonological processes operating at their margins under affixation or cliticization unpacked.
www.albany.edu /anthro/maldp   (2353 words)

 lexical semantics
The lexical form is a key into >a domain (paradigm) of possible meanings.
Until the lexical form appears >in a context, it is an uninstantiated variable, and it receives it's >instantiation from contextual information.
If a word is given with no context it is hardly "semantically empty", but rather the meaning attached to it would be the most common meaning associated with that word.
www.ibiblio.org /bgreek/archives/97-05/msg00172.html   (208 words)

 Article-Unaccusativity- At the Syntax-Lexical Semantics Interface -Linguistic Inquiry Monographs-
Besides providing extensive support for David Perlmutter's hypothesis that unaccusativity is syntactically represented but semantically determined, this monograph contributes significantly to the development of a theory of lexical semantic representation and to the elucidation of the mapping from lexical semantics to syntax.
Unaccusativity begins by isolating the semantic factors that determine whether a verb will be unaccusative or unergative through a careful examination of the behavior of intransitive verbs from a range of semantic classes in diverse syntactic constructions.
It examines the hypothesis that the behavior of lexical items may be explained in terms of a very small number of very simple princip...
www.minihttpserver.net /z_book/A_unaccusativity_at_th-0262620944.htm   (630 words)

In the study of language, the distinction between syntax and semantics is crucial.
These bits of information, that the brain immediately cogitates, are parts of the semantic properties of the word on which the speakers of a language agree.
Additional fields of semantic study: Thematic roles, linguistic and non-linguistic context and Grice's maxims, which I have omitted because of the specific nature of each and large quantity of knowledge available to each.
www.everything2.com /index.pl?node=semantics   (856 words)

 Linguistics - What is lexical semantics?
Traditional lexical semantics (structuralist and earlier, including anthropological linguistics) and early semantics within generative grammar (Fodor/Katz, Jackendoff) took lexical meanings as a starting point for a theory of semantics: the most common paradigms involved "decomposing" lexical meaning in terms of (what were hypothesized) "semantic primitives", allegedly atomic units of meaning.
In America, and in many countries in Europe, model-theoretic semantics has become the dominant approach to semantic theory within linguistics, though structural semantics in various forms is still widely practiced too.
But quite aside from theoretical semantics of either of these two sorts, compositional and word semantics is increasing studied as part of computational linguistics (including the practical goal of making coimputers interact with users via (limited use of) natural languages), as well as psycholinguistics.
tlumaczenia-angielski.info /linguistics/lexical-semantics.htm   (485 words)

 The Lexical Semantics of a Machine Translation Interlingua
In this section, I would like to discuss the semantics of adverbs (especially those that correspond to English adverbs that end in "-ly") and most case tags (such as English prepositions, Japanese post-positions, Hungarian case inflections, etc.), and I will try to show how verbs can be converted to adverbs and case tags.
In the first, which is sometimes called a semantic inverse, an inverse operation may be required in order to properly assign case roles to the arguments of a verb.
Semantic inverse constructions are especially common in the native languages of North America.
www.eskimo.com /~ram/lexical_semantics.html   (17321 words)

 Lexical semantics - Definition, explanation
Lexical Semantics course outline by Michael Gasser of Indiana University
Bringing together researchers interested in the dependencies between formal ontologies and lexical semantics in general, and more specifically in the construction of lexical knowledge bases.
The workshop "Ontologies and Lexical Knowledge Bases" focused on the dependencies between formal ontologies and lexical semantics, and construction of lexical knowledge bases.
www.calsky.com /lexikon/en/txt/l/le/lexical_semantics.php   (483 words)

 lexical semantics: papersportal.com- the term paper, essay paper, book report portal
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www.papersportal.com /term-papers/448921/lexical-semantics.html   (358 words)

 Lexical Semantics
31] stresses the interpretation of lexical items in context and presents numerous diagnostics for determining the lexical relations that are applicable.
Instead he incorporates the notion of semantic trait, which is an aspect of the meaning of a word that contributes to the meaning of others.
Cruse painstakingly details the important types of lexical relations that occur with emphasis on paradigmatic and syntagmatic relations.
www.cs.nmsu.edu /~tomohara/comps_review/node20.html   (242 words)

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