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Topic: Liberalisation

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In the News (Thu 25 Apr 19)


The Impact of Trade Liberalisation
on Food Security in the South


The impact of liberalisation measures on the rice, maize and sorghum sectors of Nicaragua.
The liberalisation of the cereal sector in Mali.
Liberalisation of the markets for seeds and pesticides has only modest implications for impact in the short run, but in the long run the impact, particularly that of seed, is likely to be perceptibly large.
www.cidse.org /en/tg1/tradelibbgr01.htm   (15518 words)

 The journalism and films of John Pilger   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Critics argue that the 'freedoms' of liberalisation are really just freedoms for the multinationals which stand to benefit from a relaxation of rules regulating their activities.
While this enables them to gain greater access to new markets free from any restrictions on their conduct, it is far from clear that liberalisation of trade and investment offers the world's poorest communities the freedoms they need: from hunger, poverty and insecurity.
Liberalisation has often been compared to putting a flyweight in the ring with Muhammad Ali, and then removing the gloves.
pilger.carlton.com /globalisation/liberalisation   (318 words)

 Al-Ahram Weekly | Home News | Scratch a liberalisation policy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Three themes dominated the discussions: the effects of the process of economic liberalisation in some Arab countries; Islamism as a mode of collective action marking the early years of structural adjustment, and the all too common theme of globalisation.
Some were certain that economic liberalisation is bound to stimulate a real increase in political participation and that more Egyptians will engage in political debate and will exercise their right to join interest groups and parties.
Liberalisation, according to Bush's reading, means that the state will exchange some of its autonomy in decision-making for access to some of the abundant resources held by its citizens.
weekly.ahram.org.eg /1999/454/eg16.htm   (791 words)

 OECD Codes of Liberalisation of Capital Movements and of Current Invisible Operations   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The Code of Liberalisation of Capital Movements and the Code of Liberalisation of Current Invisible Operations constitute legally binding rules, stipulating progressive, non-discriminatory liberalisation of capital movements, the right of establishment and current invisible transactions (mostly services).
It serves as a reference manual to the obligations of members under the Code and to the degree of liberalisation achieved by each member country in regard to capital movements.
It allows a comparison of the degree of liberalisation achieved by each Member country in regard to the international transactions covered by the Code, including services related to business, industry and foreign trade, transport, insurance, banking and finance, cinema and television, and travel and tourism.
www.oecd.org /document/63/0,2340,en_2649_34887_1826559_1_1_1_1,00.html   (669 words)

 Alexander's Gas & Oil Connections - Nigeria expects additional revenue from oil liberalisation
He assured that the liberalisation of the downstream oil sector would usher in sectorial vibrancy, lift all existing barriers to private participation and create new opening in the sector.
Kupolokun explained that already, responses to the liberalisation efforts within and outside the country were tremendous.
Liberalisation, he said, would provide a reasonable option for participants and reduce the current scarcity being experienced the country.
www.gasandoil.com /goc/news/nta13782.htm   (388 words)

 For Liberalisation with a Difference   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Before he or she reaches the concluding chapter of the book the `open-minded' reader will come to the conclusion that everything is bad about liberalisation as it is being implemented in India no matter whether he or she forms some new illusions about some ideal liberalisation.
It is not just a conjuncture of events but a coincidence of class interests, a redefining of the convergence of mutual interests of a sizable section of domestic elite and the forces of international capital which dictated the strategy.
If the liberalisation is not 'efficiently' managed and is not accompanied by a human face, then the faulty theories and inefficiency apart there must also be strong reasons relating to the social character of this whole exercise which appears to be beyond their comprehension.
www.cpiml.org /liberation/year_1996/july/books.htm   (1425 words)

 The impact of trade liberalisation on food security and poverty
By contrast, the AoA centres on trade liberalisation measures - it calls, for example, on member countries of the WTO to reduce tariffs on food imports by 24 per cent over a ten year period, (the 48 least developed countries are excluded from this and from other reduction commitments).
More priority for export crops Trade liberalisation means more food imports; often it reduces the priority that governments give to their food crop sector, while increasing the priority they accord to crops for export.
The main Uganda study notes how liberalisation may mean that the local parastatal depot is closed down, and producers have to go out of the village to a local market to sell their produce.
www.agobservatory.org /library.cfm?refID=29799   (4538 words)

Trade liberalisation to benefit the third world must focus on key sectors like agriculture and textiles and clothing, and cover tariff and non-tariff measures according to the UN Conference on Trade and Employment.
The argument has been that trade liberalisation in goods would only benefit the third world, and without some action in services to benefit the industrial world, it cannot be sold to their domestic audiences.
In analysing the impact of the liberalisation changes in the importing countries, UNCTAD suggests that as a result of full MFN tariff liberalisation (by all the 20 major OECD countries) the EEC' s imports would increase by 10.3 percent while its exports would increase by 10.4 percent.
www.sunsonline.org /trade/areas/develope/02150186.htm   (1498 words)

 Liberalisation In China (Admission Of Guilt?) - Gold & Silver Forum   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
At the same time, I am also convinced that momentum in capital account liberalisation should be adapted to the degree of resilience of the domestic financial sector to external shocks and its ability to deal with larger flows of foreign capital.
This interest rate gap combines with the new opportunities offered by liberalisation to lead to surging capital inflows, mostly in the form of short-term bank claims or portfolio inflows, as if the floodgates were lifted.
While there is room for debate about particular policies, the broad lesson is that capital account liberalisation is most likely to succeed if it takes place in a sound macroeconomic environment and if it forms part of a coherent programme of economic reform.
www.goldismoney.info /forums/showthread.php?t=2814   (3847 words)

 Journal of the Academy of Business and Economics: Capital account liberalisation in an emerging economy: private ...
A number of liberalisation programmes supported by the international financial institutions over the years have had as their explicit objective to increase interest rates from levels that in some cases were substantially negative in real terms.
While liberalisation of the domestic financial sectors and an increase in the interest rates have been the outcome of the liberalisation episodes, there is no empirical evidence that it leads to an increase in domestic savings and investment (Reinhart, C.M. and I. Tokathidis, 2001).
Hence, it is often seen that the financial liberalisation episode results in a period of rapid growth in bank lending, boom in asset price and increases in consumption that often lead to decline in private savings rates.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m0OGT/is_1_3/ai_n8690364   (1523 words)

Autonomous liberalisation measures refer to measures undertaken unilaterally by WTO Members to liberalise their services sector, as a consequence of their own national liberalisation processes or World Bank/IMF structural adjustment programmes since 1995.
They stressed that autonomous liberalisation must be recognised independently of the modalities for credits according to article XIX of the GATS (which sets out the negotiating mandate for credits for autonomous liberalisation).
The recently approved modalities, or guidelines for the granting of autonomous liberalisation (JOB(02)/35/Rev3, searchable at http:///docsonline.wto.org) define two important elements: what an autonomous liberalisation measure (ALM) is; and the criteria for assessing the value of an ALM.
www.ictsd.org /weekly/03-03-13/story1.htm   (1158 words)

 Globalisation and Liberalisation
Liberalisation is thus not only good for growth, but a means of reducing inequality through increased demand for labour, the main asset of the poor.
The scope for MERCOSUR to act as a force for liberalisation in the future is underlined by the participation of Chile, which joined as an associate member in 1995 and is now an important source of foreign investment within the group.
Similarly, while developing countries as a group are projected to gain from liberalisation in clothing and textiles, the ACP and least-developed countries are projected to lose from the loss of preference margins.
gd.tuwien.ac.at /soc/undp/oc32a.htm   (16715 words)

As a result of liberalisation of foreign investment policy, inward foreign investment flows have grown significantly, promoting growth in exports and accelerating the transfer of technology.
A third study examining the economy-wide impact of liberalisation on APEC economies was undertaken by economists from Thailand and Indonesia and Australia, and led by Dr Andy Stoeckel of the Centre for International Economics and Professor Warwick McKibbin of the Australian National University.
This study concluded that liberalisation caused resources to be used in more efficient industries and led to higher levels of investment, thereby increasing the productive capacity of the economy.
www.dfat.gov.au /media/releases/department/d113_97.html   (766 words)

 The Daily Star Web Edition Vol. 4 Num 161   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
However, the authors opine, "overall, it is fair to conclude that deregulation and trade liberalisation have been favourable for supporting a modest increase in real wages of unskilled workers throughout the economy" adding further that agriculture lagged behind in the race not for liberalisaation but for a lack of it.
In a recently held seminar on South Asian Trade Regimes, organised by the BIDS and the World Bank, one paper observed a negative relationship between trade liberalisation and Bank economists on the plea that growth is determined by a volley of variables and trade liberalisation is just one of the factors.
Undoubtedly, a post liberalisation period is better as far as the movements of the indicators are concerned.
www.thedailystar.net /2003/11/05/d31105020326.htm   (1267 words)

 Pradeep S. Mehta - Liberalisation and Poverty: India’s Interface with Trade Liberalisation
Theoretically, liberalisation is expected to lead to efficient allocation of resources and catalyse a chain reaction that would ultimately increase welfare of the society.
The overall impact of trade liberalisation depends very much on a) the level of development and, b) the existing set of complementary policies when the country embarks on the economic liberalisation agenda.
With the formation of the WTO, trade ‘liberalisation’ is going through a phase where tariff levels on an average are going down, but are being replaced by new forms of NTBs or the language of the text is being interpreted without giving due attention to the inbuilt development dimensions.
www.inwent.org /ef-texte/debtrlf/mehta-d.htm   (5285 words)

 Ofcom Website | Ofcom launches spectrum liberalisation initiative
Ofcom expects liberalisation to be extended to more licence classes later this year, with further classes to follow in 2006-08.
Liberalisation will give licensees yet more control by allowing greater freedom to decide how frequencies are used.
Separately, Ofcom is seeking views on proposals to extend liberalisation and trading to spectrum used for mobile and wireless broadband services.
www1.bsc.org.uk /media/news/2005/01/nr_20050126   (437 words)

 Alexander's Gas & Oil Connections - Liberalisation is the answer
All we are saying about liberalisation is simply that democracy is about freedom of participation and liberalisation itself is a subject of democracy.
So, if we liberalise, it means we open up the system and everybody will be able to participate and all the segments or the supply and distribution chain must be opened up for the participants.
For instance, when you liberalise the downstream, then you find out that gas could come in because products will then move to their rightful place in terms of energy equivalent and you can then promote the development of that.
www.gasandoil.com /goc/news/nta12721.htm   (3972 words)

 ID21 - communicating development research   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
General safety-nets are a better response to such problems than reversing liberalisation, or assistance-packages targetted just on the losers from liberalisation.
The outcome of liberalisation in the informal sector was less clear, with some evidence of manufacturing job losses.
The worst instances of poverty arising from liberalisation reflect the collapse of markets and their strongest gains their creation.
www.id21.org /society/S7baw1g1.html   (683 words)

 EU Liberalisation is Regulation
Behind the EU liberalisation lies as before huge state subsidies for large scale energy infra structure programs, building gas pipe lines, or EU subsidized nuclear power contracts to prolong the lives the nuclear power industry.
With EU liberalisation those subsidies will be privatised while the state still has the resonsibility to take on the environmental and social risks.
EU liberalisation can become the main political tool to destroy the strongest stand of the anti-nuclear movement by establishing a transnational nuclear waste regime.
meltingpot.fortunecity.com /poland/729/articles/eu_liberal.html   (1197 words)

 The liberalisation fallout
One of the chief aspects of economic liberalisation in Bangladesh relates to its impact on agriculture.
The process of trade liberalisation covered both industry and agriculture, and especially for agricultural commodities there was a definite move towards the withdrawal of the state in importing activity.
In the critical area of import of food, for example, which was completely a government activity, private grain import was permitted in 1992 and thereafter has grown substantially to the point where private traders are estimated to account for nearly 60 per cent of all food imports.
www.flonnet.com /fl1607/16071090.htm   (2440 words)

 Former UK trade minister says trade liberalization hurts the poor and the developing countries   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
However, the major developed countries have put forward proposals to drastically reduce further the developing countries’ tariffs on industrial products, claiming that this will benefit the poor countries.  Many developing countries are stating in the WTO negotiations that these proposals will result in more of their local industries having to close, thus preventing industrial development.
It is more often the case that developing countries which have successfully expanded their economies are those that have been prepared to put in place measures to protect industries while they gain strength and give communities the time to diversify into new areas.
The IMF and World Bank should recognise that questions of trade liberalisation are the responsibility of the WTO where they can be considered in the overall context of achieving poverty reduction and that it is therefore inappropriate to include trade liberalisation as part of a loan agreement.
www.twnside.org.sg /title/twninfo18.htm   (1950 words)

 BBC NEWS | Business | Zambia's legacy of liberalisation
It is an indication of how deep the influence of liberalisation has reached in Zambia, a country that has undergone an eastern-European style transformation to free market ideals.
All but a handful of these firms have now been privatised and, in the wave of liberalisation, many import tariffs which used to protect Zambian industry from outside competition have also been swept away.
Most of them had yielded nothing and the farmers were relying on little more than dirty holes in the ground from which brackish liquid occasionally seeped for drinking water and to irrigate their crops.
news.bbc.co.uk /1/hi/business/4630063.stm   (968 words)

 The straitjacket of 'liberalisation'
This insulation, alas, has ended with the onset of "liberalisation"; and 1998-99 is proof of this.
The current crisis of the Indian economy represents the denouement of the policy of "liberalisation" introduced in the 1990s, which sought to downplay the role of the state as an investor and producer, and to link the fate of the Indian economy with that of the world economy, ostensibly to import high growth.
When it is apparent that the initial phase of "liberalisation" has brought the economy to its current crisis - which, incidentally, would have been far more acute but for the remittances of the unsung expatriate workers - he and his officials are talking of unleashing a "second generation of reforms".
www.hinduonnet.com /fline/fl1606/16060320.htm   (1496 words)

 afrol News: Troubled liberalisation of Senegalese groundnut sector
External pushes to liberalise rapidly probably caused some of the errors, which the government now meets with more care.
Senegal has stuck to a policy of state intervention in the sector for longer time than its neighbours, which embarked on privatisation, liberalisation and cut subsidies already early in the 1990s.
Being heavily involved in the poverty reduction programmes of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), Senegal has however been pushed into liberalisation of a sector that in any way was lagging behind the development in society at large.
www.afrol.com /News2002/sen012_grnut_liberalis.htm   (741 words)

A trade liberalisation effort, focussing on key products of export interest to the Third World, would make a significant contribution to alleviating the debt problem of Third World, according to the UN Conference on Trade and Development.
The liberalisation on a preferential basis, UNCTAD suggests, would have "only a minor impact" on the major importing countries, in terms of their economies as a whole.
Also, benefits of the liberalisation efforts must be extended to all Third World countries, in order to ensure that the competitive position of any one of them is not adversely affected by the liberalisation.
www.sunsonline.org /trade/process/during/8485/3world/02230085.htm   (1148 words)

 Achieving effective traade liberalisation in APEC   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
As policy makers grapple with these programs, it is becoming increasingly clear that the liberalisation process has been rushed and that the proper groundwork is yet to be laid for an effective process of trade liberalisation.
It was unrealistic of APEC Leaders to direct preparation of detailed plans for liberalisation in twelve months, as they did at Osaka.
Until there is a wider consensus over the strategic issues which liberalisation creates and more ground has been prepared on designing workable mechanisms to cut trade barriers, the results of liberalisation from APEC will be slight.
www.apec.org.au /docs/iss6.htm   (221 words)

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