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Topic: Library of Alexandria


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  Library of Alexandria - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The smaller library located at the Serapeum survived, but part of its contents may been taken off to Constantinople to adorn the new capital in the course of the 4th century and more of the collection may have been destroyed, when the Serapeum was razed in the year 390.
The Library's contents were likely distributed over several buildings, with the main library either located directly attached to or close to the oldest building, the Museum, and a daughter library in the younger Serapeum, also a temple dedicated to the god Serapis.
Ellen Brundige: The Decline of the Library and Museum of Alexandria, December 10, 1991
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Library_of_Alexandria   (1647 words)

  
 Alexandrian Scholarship
While it is doubtful the library had a perfectly systematic organization, but rather tended to house new chests and shelves of papyri in the groups in which they were acquired, the Alexandrians from Callimachus onwards tried to keep track of their holdings via a subject catalog.
For Alexandria, whose lifeblood was export of grain and papyrus to the rest of the Mediterranean, developments in astronomy allowed sailors to do away with consultation of oracles, and to risk year-round navigation out of sight of the coast.
Alexandria and its cousins, the Lyceum, Academy, and the younger Pergamon library, were probably the prototypes both for the medieval monastery and universities.
www.perseus.tufts.edu /GreekScience/Students/Ellen/Museum.html   (2813 words)

  
 The Great Library of Alexandria
The library in Pergamon at the Temple of Athena is often said to have contained 200,000 scrolls on very flimsy evidence[26] but a perusal of its extant ruins suggest a figure closer to 30,000 would be more sensible for this major rival of the Alexandrian Library[27].
However, he goes on to say that there was no other library in Alexandria at the time of Caesar’s visit and that later libraries (including, one presumes, the Serapeum library) were set up in an attempt to emulate the wisdom of the ancients[68].
The Royal Library was an important institution in the history of literature but its destruction in the first century BC did not spell the end of ancient scholarship and Alexandria remained the Mediterranean’s intellectual capital for seven centuries afterwards.
www.bede.org.uk /Library2.htm   (8017 words)

  
 Decline of Library of Alexandria
The Decline of the Library and Museum of Alexandria
[8] a second "daughter" library, the Serapeion, was soon established in the temple of Serapis, a popular god invented by the Ptolemies as a synthesis of Zeus, Pluto, Osiris, and the Apis bull.
During his visit to Alexandria in 130, the Emperor restored the city, founded a new library in the Caesareum, discussed philosophy at the Museum, and started a campaign to attract sophists such as Dionysius of Miletus and Polemon of Laodikeia to the Museum.
www.digital-brilliance.com /kab/alex.htm   (4258 words)

  
 Bibliotheca Alexandrina - A History of the Library of Alexandria
The city was supposed to witness the inauguration of its re-built famous library, “Bibliotheca Alexandrina” on 23 April 2002, a date that was postponed due to the ongoing political strains in the Middle East.
Alexandria became the capital of the state, and by the year 200 B.C., it grew into the largest metropolis in the world, and became the world's scientific and intellectual Mecca.
Demetrius remained in charge of the library until Soter’s death in 283 BC when he was banished by Philadelphus in retaliation to the former’s advice to Soter to pass kingship to another son.
www.arabworldbooks.com /bibliothecaAlexandrina.htm   (3078 words)

  
 History Magazine
That library, of course, was the Great Library of Alexandria, a public library open to those with the proper scholarly and literary qualifications, founded about 300bc.
In France, the national library in Paris known as Bibliotheque Nationale de France began in 1367 as the Royal Library of Charles V. Another significant library, famous for its influence on library management, is the Mazarine Library, also in Paris.
The initial collection of the Library of Congress was in ashes after the British burned it during the War of 1812.
www.history-magazine.com /libraries.html   (2443 words)

  
 The Alexandrian Library
The earliest documentation of the library is in the Letter of Aristeas which describes the legend of seventy translators of the Hebrew Bible that had worked in Alexandria during the reign of Philadelphus (Fraser 320).
The library consisted of two buildings, one was the main library and one was the daughter library.
Alexandria was the publishing capital of the world at the time of the library.
www.richeast.org /htwm/Greeks/library/library.html   (1164 words)

  
 Library of Alexandria - Crystalinks
To commemorate the ancient library, the government of Egypt has built a major library and museum complex at Alexandria, called the Bibliotheca Alexandrina.
Furthermore, the Library was a very large stone building and the scrolls were stored away in armaria (and some of them put in capsules), so it is hard to see how a fire in the harbor could have affected a significant part of its contents.
If indeed a Christian mob was responsible for the destruction of the Library, the question remains why Plutarch casually referred to the destruction of "the great library" by Caesar in his Life of Caesar.
www.crystalinks.com /libraryofalexandria.html   (2585 words)

  
 CNN.com - Books - New Alexandria library expected to boost Egypt's role in research, study - October 31, 2000
ALEXANDRIA, Egypt (AP) -- It has been over 2,000 years since scholars at this city's ancient library calculated the circumference of the Earth, isolated the function of the heart and came up with the concept of leap year.
Now a new library is rising above the Mediterranean, with the bold ambition of reviving Alexandria's role as a center of research and study.
His library on the grounds of the Royal Palace thrived for 250 years, superseding Athens as both a library and a center of research.
archives.cnn.com /2000/books/news/10/31/arts.egypt.library.ap   (1342 words)

  
 BBC NEWS | Science/Nature | Library of Alexandria discovered
Alexandria was a major seat of learning in ancient times and regarded by some as the birthplace of western science.
It was at the library that Archimedes invented the screw-shaped water pump that is still in use today.
The library was later destroyed, possibly by Julius Caesar who had it burned as part of his campaign to conquer the city.
news.bbc.co.uk /1/hi/sci/tech/3707641.stm   (376 words)

  
 THE LIBRARY AT ALEXANDRIA
Beneficiary of the Ionian Awakening, it had its citadel at the Library of Alexandria, where 2,000 years ago the best minds of antiquity established the foundations for the systematic study of mathematics, physics, biology, astronomy, literature, geography and medicine.
The Library was constructed and supported by the Ptolemys, the Greek kings who inherited the Egyptian portion of the empire of Alexander the Great.
Alexandria was the publishing capital of the planet.
physics.weber.edu /carroll/honors-time/cosmos.htm   (1148 words)

  
 Alexandria - Home Page - Welcome to the Library   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
The purpose of the Alexandria is to be a center for the pursuit of knowledge.
The original city of Alexandria (and its library) was founded in the fishing village of Rhakotis in Egypt by Alexander the Great in 331 B.C. as a regional capital, following his conquest of Egypt.
Several renowned monuments were erected at Alexandria, including the city's lighthouse -- which is among the well-known seven wonders of the world -- a dike connecting the nearby island of Pharos to the mainland, and the palace of Cleopatra, the last pharaoh of Egypt.
www.alexandria.nu   (309 words)

  
 The Mysterious Fate of the Great Library of Alexandria   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
In the case of Alexandria a series of earthquakes and floods in the middle ages mean that the entire palace quarter in the North East of the city is now underwater and largely inaccessible.
The library itself is not mentioned by Florus although it was in the same area of the city as Caesar who was occupying the palace at the time.
There stood in Alexandria the great temple of Serapis called the Serapeum and attached to it was the Great Library of Alexandria where all the wisdom of the ancients was preserved.
www.bede.org.uk /library.htm   (4645 words)

  
 eHistory.com: The Burning of the Library of Alexandria   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
The library was so large it actually had another branch or "daughter" library at the Temple of Serapis.
Orestes was said to be under the influence of Hypatia, a female philosopher and daughter of the "last member of the Library of Alexandria".
The Caliph has been quoted as saying of the Library's holdings, "they will either contradict the Koran, in which case they are heresy, or they will agree with it, so they are superfluous." So, allegedly, all the texts were destroyed by using them as tinder for the bathhouses of the city.
ehistory.osu.edu /world/articles/ArticleView.cfm?AID=9   (1085 words)

  
 CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Alexandrian Library
The Great Library of Alexandria, so called to distinguish it from the smaller or "daughter" library in the Serapeum, was a foundation of the first Ptolemies for the purpose of aiding the maintenance of Greek civilization in the midst of the conservative Egyptians.
As Strabo does not mention the library in his description of the buildings upon the harbour, it is clear that it was not in that part of the city, and its connection with the Museum points to a location in the Brucheion, or northwestern quarter of the city.
Up to the time of Gibbon, the generally accepted version of the destruction of the library was that, on the capture of the city by the Mahommedans in A.D. 642, John Philoponos, having formed a friendship with their general Amrou, asked for the gift of the library.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/01303a.htm   (905 words)

  
 Library14   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
The persistent question that is invariably asked when mention is made of the Alexandria Library, is how the greatest collection of books in the ancient world came to an end.
To cut a long story short, we know that there were two principle centres wherein the books were kept: the Royal Library, located close to the harbour within the precincts of the royal palaces, and the Daughter Library, incorporated in the Sarapeum, south of the city.
As regards the Daughter Library, it continued to function throughout the Roman period under the protection of the Sarapeum.
www.greece.org /alexandria/library/library14.htm   (438 words)

  
 Final Destruction of Alexandria's Famous Library   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
The Library of Alexandria was one of the best-known of the libraries of the ancient world.
The library at Alexandria actually competed with that at Pergamum in amassing the most complete collection of books in the world.
The loss of the library at Alexandria was a particularly grievous blow because the works of so many Roman scholars.
www.mediahistory.umn.edu /indextext/Alexandria.html   (403 words)

  
 CNN.com - Construction of new Alexandria library enters final months - August 9, 2000
ALEXANDRIA, Egypt (Reuters) -- An imposing cylindrical structure standing like a huge shining beacon on the shores of Alexandria's coastline teems with workers toiling round the clock to complete it.
The original library, built under the Greek Ptolemies who ruled Egypt for the last 300 years of the first millennium B.C., also doubled as a university.
Bibliotheca Alexandrina - The revival of the Library of Alexandria
archives.cnn.com /2000/books/news/08/09/egypt.library.reut   (940 words)

  
 Guardian Unlimited | The Guardian | Old trouble at Alexandria's new library
The original great library's collection of some 700,000 papyrus scrolls, including works by Euripides, Aeschylus and Sophocles represented the first time knowledge was collected and codified by scribes.
Although historians still argue over the cause of the original library's disappearance - it was burned during an attack by Julius Caesar, and it was targeted by the emperor Aurelian, fourth century Christians and seventh century Arabs - they agree that its cardinal sin was to contain too much knowledge that offended too many people.
Mr Serageldin dismissed criticism that the library is intellectually impoverished.
www.guardian.co.uk /international/story/0,3604,812547,00.html   (766 words)

  
 Internet Archive: Bibliotheca Alexandrina
On the occasion of the international day of the book, the Library of Alexandria and the Internet Archive (IA) of California, USA have announced a major new partnership to launch the new forms of library work compatible with the digital century.
The biggest advantage of this digital library will be focused on providing digital access through the inter-library loan program, which will be done on a larger scale without the delay, costs and risks associated with shipping physical materials.
To be a library for the digital age, the BA has established a strong Information Technology Department (I.T.) and has adopted the digitization of information whenever possible.
www.archive.org /about/bibalex_p_r.php   (1535 words)

  
 BBC NEWS | World | Middle East | Famous Egyptian library reopens
The formal opening of the Library of Alexandria in Egypt, rebuilt on the site of the original destroyed by fire in the 4th Century AD, has taken place.
The founding declaration of this new Library of Alexandria speaks of encouraging a spirit of critical inquiry.
The library director, Dr Ismail Serageddin, says that the banning goes against the spirit of learning in which the library was rebuilt.
news.bbc.co.uk /1/hi/world/middle_east/2334707.stm   (383 words)

  
 Gem of ancient learning rebuilt | csmonitor.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
ALEXANDRIA, EGYPT - The $230 million Library of Alexandria opened for a trial period Monday, aiming to restore this city to its former status as a center of learning and scholarship in the Middle East.
For the new building, Egypt has retrieved a large collection of manuscripts that used to be in old Alexandrian libraries and an important collection of scientific manuscripts from the 10th to 18th centuries.
What happened to the Great Library is not certain, but most historians back the account of Seneca, the Roman philosopher of the 1st century AD, who wrote that the bulk of its scrolls were burned when Julius Caesar attacked the city in 48 BC.
www.csmonitor.com /2001/1004/p14s1-legn.html   (405 words)

  
 Alexandria Library, Alexandria, Virginia
Our web site, created in 1994 and updated in August 2005, was designed to provide patrons with information on their library services and to give them year round, 24 hour-a-day remote access to our on-line catalog, their own records, and several of the databases to which we subscribe.
Alexandria Library Patron Survey   The survey will take 3 to 4 minutes to complete.
Encuesta de los Clientes de la Biblioteca de Alexandria   Se puede completar este questionario en 3 o 4 minutos.
www.alexandria.lib.va.us   (121 words)

  
 Egypt Opens New Library of Alexandria   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Today, in an event that speaks of renewal even as the threat of war looms in the Middle East, Alexandria is trying to recapture the spirit of perhaps its richest legacy—the Great Library of Alexandria—by opening the new Bibliotheca Alexandrina.
The ancient library dominated the ancient world of learning from approximately the third century B.C. to the fourth century A.D. The new one sits on the Eastern Harbor on or near the site of the original.
During the 1980s, Egypt and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization resolved to build the Bibliotheca Alexandrina with the same universal goals as the ancient one: a focal point for research, the advancement of knowledge and the open exchange of ideas.
news.nationalgeographic.com /news/2002/10/1016_021016_alexandria.html   (548 words)

  
 LSUA Library | Louisiana State University at Alexandria
P: Library Hours (Jun 5 - Jul 27)
The LSUA Library Online Catalog will not be available between 4:00 a.m.
Books that are already overdue may not be renewed.
library.lsua.edu   (46 words)

  
 Just So We're Clear...: Burning the Alexandria Library
That quotation, while phrased differently elsewhere, is surely a reference to the command of the Caliph 'Umar concerning the great library at Alexandria after the Muslim conquest of that city in the seventh century.
Battles relates the story of a Coptic priest, John the Grammarian, who in 641 asked the Muslim conqueror Amr what was to be done with the famous library.
Not the creation, but the demolition of the myth was the achievement of European scholarship, which from the 18th century to the present day has rejected the story as false and absurd, and thus exonerated the Caliph 'Umar and the early Muslims from this libel.
elyclarifies.blogspot.com /2006/01/burning-alexandria-library.html   (1241 words)

  
 ALEXANDRIA on the Web
In ancient Egypt the city and Library of Alexandria was the meeting place where philosophical, spiritual, and cosmological teachings flowed together to create vital new syntheses and a flourishing cultural environment.
Today, Alexandria is still an important city in Egypt.
Alexandria at Binghamton: "The World Soul and the Soul of the World: Philosophy, Cosmos, and Culture".
cosmopolis.com   (138 words)

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