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Topic: LIDAR

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  Frequently Asked Questions on Police Lidar
Jamming lidar is not illegal under FCC rules since they don't regulate this part of the spectrum, but most jurisdictions have a law which makes it illegal to "interfere with the duties of a police officer." I am not a lawyer and the above should not be considered legal advice.
Presumably the lidar gun has a narrow band filter passing about 10 nanometer of the spectrum, reducing this CW jammer by a factor of about 40, meaning that the light is now 5 microWatts.
Exact numbers are not important because the lidar problem is one where the signal power falls as 1/(Range^4), and consequently a factor of 2 error in estimate of signal power leads to a small error in estimate of range.
www.mr2.com /TEXT/FAQonLidar.html   (3068 words)

  LIDAR - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The primary difference between lidar and radar is that with lidar, much shorter wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum are used, typically in the ultraviolet, visible, or near infrared.
In atmospheric physics, lidar is used as a remote detection instrument to measure densities of certain constituents of the middle and upper atmosphere, such as potassium, sodium, or molecular nitrogen and oxygen.
In oceanography, lidars are used for estimation of phytoplankton fluorescence and generally biomass in the surface layers of the ocean.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/LIDAR   (1590 words)

 NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Lidar
In atmospherics, lidar is used as a remote detection instrument to measure densities of certain constituents of the middle and upper atmosphere, such as potassium, sodium, or molecular nitrogen and oxygen.
LIDAR also has been used to tell the speed of the wind by bouncing laser beams off dust particles pushed by the wind, and to measure pollution by how the light is changed when it shines through various molecules.
LIDAR is finding more and more uses as the cost of the devices drops and increasingly powerful computers are able to more easily handle the massive amounts of data produced by the scans.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Lidar   (3572 words)

 LIDAR Mapping Technology at SBG
LIDAR is the technology of using pulses of laser light striking the surfaces of the earth and measuring the time of pulse return.
The LIDAR laser scanner is mounted photogrammetrically in the bottom of an airplane (similar to an aerial camera) along with an Inertial Measuring Unit and Airborne GPS.
This airborne LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) system is composed of a laser sub-system consisting of the source, scanning assembly and timing electronics, a positioning and orientation sub-system consisting of the differential GPS and inertial measuring units, a data storage unit and processing software.
www.sbgmaps.com /lidar.htm   (1235 words)

 LIDAR at Aberystwyth   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
Lidar is short for Light Detection and Ranging, a remote sensing technique that uses laser light in much the same way that sonar uses sound, or radar uses radio waves.
The Rayleigh Lidar technique is used to study the thermal structure of the middle atmosphere through the creation of density and temperature profiles.
In the frame of the Framework 5 project EARLINET (European Aerosol Research LIdar NETwork to establish an aerosol climatology), a combined Raman elastic-backscatter Lidar was used to determine height profiles of the aerosol extinction and backscattering coefficients.
users.aber.ac.uk /ozone/lidar.html   (438 words)

The vertical accuracies (rms error) of the lidar and photogrammetry were 0.26 m and 0.43 m respectively, although both data sets displayed a tendency to generate heights slightly lower than the elevation of the terrain surface.
The major investigations to be conducted include measurements of the vertical profiles of atmospheric aerosols, the height of the planetary boundary layer, the distribution of cirrus clouds, vertical profiles of water vapor in the lower and upper atmosphere, vertical profiles of ozone, and measurements of the vertical profiles of pressure and temperature.
The lidar apparatus used emits three laser pulses of different intensities, and measures the red chlorophyll fluorescence induced by the weaker laser pulse sent before and after the emission of a strong saturating laser light pulse.
lidar.cr.usgs.gov /knowledge.html   (18985 words)

 Light Detection and Ranging   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
LIDAR is an active remote sensing system that can be operated in either a profiling or scanning mode using pulses of light to illuminate the terrain.
LIDAR data collection involves mounting an airborne laser scanning system onboard an aircraft along with a kinematic Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver to locate an x, y, z position and an inertial navigation system to monitor the pitch, roll, and heading of the aircraft.
LIDAR is also playing a role in recent research into automated shoreline definition by using the VDatum tool to derive a mathematical shoreline from the LIDAR point data.
www.ngs.noaa.gov /RESEARCH/RSD/main/lidar/lidar.shtml   (323 words)

 NOAA ETL Oceanographic (Fish) Lidar
ETL is developing an airborne lidar for fisheries surveys (named FLOE for Fish Lidar, Oceanic, Experimental), in cooperation with the National Marine Fisheries Service (specifically, with the Southwest Fisheries Science Center) and Alaska Fisheries Science Center.
By putting a compact Lidar system in a small airplane we can fly over large areas of the ocean and determine how many fish there are in that section of the ocean.
Details and photos of the lidar are given on the instrument page.
www.etl.noaa.gov /technology/instruments/floe   (768 words)

 Remote Sensing Tutorial Page 8-8   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
A lidar transmits coherent laser light, at various visible or NIR (Near-IR) wavelengths, as a series of pulses (100s per second) to the surface, from which some of the light reflects.
Lidar can serve either as a ranging device to determine altitudes (topography mapping) or as a particle analyzer for air.
Lidar operates normally from aircraft platforms but a spaceborne sensor (LITE, for Light In-space Technology Experiment) was flown on the Shuttle in 1994.
rst.gsfc.nasa.gov /Sect8/Sect8_8.html   (1318 words)

 About LIDAR Data
During the flight, the LIDAR sensor pulses a narrow, high frequency laser beam toward the earth through a port opening in the bottom of the aircraft's fuselage.
The LIDAR sensor records the time difference between the emission of the laser beam and the return of the reflected laser signal to the aircraft.
LIDAR beach mapping data are composed of elevation measurements of the beach surface and are acquired through aerial topographic surveys.
www.csc.noaa.gov /products/sccoasts/html/tutlid.htm   (1106 words)

 NASA - Laser Technology Helps Track Changes in Mount St. Helens
LIDAR shows, in the two weeks before Oct. 4, the new uplift grew to the height of a 35-story building (110 meters or 360 feet) and the area of 29 football fields (130,000 square meters).
Additional changes between the two LIDAR surveys unrelated to the volcanic unrest include shrinking snow fields, several rock falls, movement of three rock glaciers, and growth of the crater glacier, which has been an ongoing subject of USGS research at Mount St. Helens.
LIDAR mapping uses a scanning laser rangefinder mounted in a small aircraft to measure distances from the aircraft to the ground several tens of thousands of times each second.
www.nasa.gov /vision/earth/lookingatearth/mshelenslidar.html   (1087 words)

Lidar systems operate on similar principles as radar (RAdio Detection And Ranging) or sodar (Sound Detection And Ranging), but use a laser beam to scan the atmosphere.
Light scattered back towards the lidar system is collected by a telescope, measured by a photodetector and digitized using a computer/recording system.
The JHU miniature elastic lidar is a small, scanning lidar that uses elastic backscattering to obtain information on the distribution and properties of atmospheric aerosols and the amount of atmospheric attenuation.
www.jhu.edu /~dogee/mbp/research/lidar/main.htm   (726 words)

 LIDAR - Free net encyclopedia
Template:Cleanup-date Template:Wikify-date LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging; or Laser Imaging Detection and Ranging) is a technology that determines distance to an object or surface using laser pulses.
Similarly, airborne LIDAR systems are used to monitor glaciers and have the ability to detect subtle amounts or growth or decline.
MOLA, the Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter, used a lidar instrument in a Mars-orbiting satellite to produce a spectacularly accurate global topographic survey of the red planet.
www.netipedia.com /index.php/LADAR   (1361 words)

 FEMA: LIDAR Specifications for Flood Hazard Mapping
For the purposes of this Appendix, LIDAR is defined as an airborne laser system, flown aboard rotary or fixed-wing aircraft, that is used to acquire x, y, and z coordinates of terrain and terrain features that are both manmade and naturally occurring.
Two important factors in the LIDAR system mission planning are the point density of the randomly spaced LIDAR points and the point spacing of the uniformly spaced DEM points derived from the randomly spaced LIDAR returns.
LIDAR system tolerance for inclement weather conditions (e.g., high winds, wet snow, rain, fog, high humidity, low cloud cover) generally is higher than that of other photogrammetric methods.
www.fema.gov /plan/prevent/fhm/lidar_4b.shtm   (2932 words)

 Mars Polar Lander - Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR)
The LIDAR transmitter uses a Galium-Aluminum-Arsenic laser which emits energy in pulses at a constant rate and wavelength.
The LIDAR is provided by the Space Research Institute (IKI) of the Russian Academy of Science, under the sponsorship of the Russian Space Agency (RSA).
The LIDAR transmitter uses a pulsed GaAlAs laser diode which emits 400 nJ energy in 100 nsec pulses at a rate of 2.5 kHz and at 0.88 µm wavelength.
mars.jpl.nasa.gov /msp98/lander/lidar.html   (272 words)

 NOAA ETL Oceanographic (Fish) Lidar
James H. Churnside, David A. Demer, and Behzad Mahmoudi, A comparison of lidar and echosounder measurements of fish, ICES Journal of Marine Science, 60: 147 154.
Specific objectives were (1) to determine lidar depth-penetration range, (2) to develop ocean color indices as a proxy for depth penetration and Chl a, (3) to compare lidar with acoustic and net-sampling data, (4) to define diurnal variability over large areas, and (5) to evaluate strengths and weaknesses.
In addition to the lidar there was an acoustic survey ship below that was from the State of Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife also mapping the area for herring.
www.etl.noaa.gov /technology/instruments/floe/programs.html   (2098 words)

 Silviculture and Forest Models Team - Lidar and Remote Sensing - Olympia Forestry Sciences Laboratory
LIDAR is a remote sensing technology that bounces laser pulses off the vegetation and ground as a data collection aircraft flies across a landscape (figure 1).
The LIDAR system converts the reflected laser pulse data into a cloud of high-resolution three-dimensional coordinates (figure 2) that can then be used to measure both the ground surface and vegetation structure on a landscape (figure 3).
The team is developing LIDAR and IFSAR measurement tools to collect vegetation characteristics such as tree density, tree size, canopy cover, canopy volume, and crown bulk density over landscapes at high spatial resolution (1 m to 3 m).
www.fs.fed.us /pnw/olympia/silv/lidar   (347 words)

 Environment Agency - LIDAR   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) is an airborne mapping technique which uses a laser to measure the distance between the aircraft and the ground.
LIDAR is being used to measure land topography and assess coastal erosion and geomorphology.
The latest archive of LIDAR data files are available and viewable using the downloadable database and associated shape (.shp) file.
www.environment-agency.gov.uk /science/monitoring/131047   (407 words)

 USATODAY.com - LIDAR laser radar finding more uses   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
From an airplane or a satellite, LIDAR can calculate the distance to the ground, and by repeating the process millions of times as it flies over, map the lay of the land.
LIDAR is primarily being used to quickly map an area, said Chris Parker, the founder of Applied Imagery, a Silver Spring company which has developed software to allow desktop computers to more easily handle the data.
LIDAR scans are done mostly from the air, by satellite in some cases, and also by plane or helicopter.
www.usatoday.com /tech/news/techinnovations/2004-11-12-lidar_x.htm   (930 words)

 USGS Pacific Coral Reef Studies, Mapping Hawaii's reefs with Lidar
Lidar (light detection and ranging) is an airborne laser-ranging technique commonly used for acquiring high-resolution topographic data.
Lidar is useful in shallow-water settings from near sea level to a depth of approximately 120 feet (35 m).
Maps created using lidar data reveal topography details of reef structure and morphology that are not available from aerial photographs.
coralreefs.wr.usgs.gov /mapping_lidar.html   (246 words)

 Use of LIDAR in Creating Accurate Terrain Elevation Models for Floodplain Mapping  By David Serr   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
LIDAR systems emit rapid pulses of laser light to precisely measure distances from a sensor mounted in a port opening on the bottom of an aircraft's fuselage to targets on the ground.
LIDAR is usually flown at low altitudes, generally between 700 and 1500 meters.
The unique ability of LIDAR to penetrate vegetation allowing the terrain surface to be mapped directly from the air is a distinct advantage over field surveying or photogrammetry in mapping floodplains which are heavily vegetated, which is normally the case.
www.emporia.edu /earthsci/student/serr1/project.htm   (3953 words)

 Bob's Introduction to Lidar   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
The lidar's transmitter is a laser, while its receiver is an optical telescope.
Operating a lidar from space allows large regions of the atmosphere to be rapidly sampled.
From a given altitude the solid angle (the plane angle from the height of the scatter to the telescope rotated around the height axis to form a cone) is equal to the area of the receiving telescope divided by the square of the altitude.
pcl.physics.uwo.ca /pclhtml/introlidar/introlidarf.html   (2331 words)

 LIDAR Tutorial   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
A DIAL lidar uses two different laser wavelengths which are selected so that one of the wavelengths is absorbed by the molecule of interest whilst the other wavelength is not.
When the light transmitted from the lidar hits a target moving towards or away from the lidar, the wavelength of the light reflected/scattered off the target will be changed slightly.
If the target is moving away from the lidar, the return light will have a longer wavelength (sometimes referred to as a red shift), if moving towards the lidar the return light will be at a shorter wavelength (blue shifted).
www.ghcc.msfc.nasa.gov /sparcle/sparcle_tutorial.html   (347 words)

 Horizons Inc. | Services
The LiDAR system virtually paints the surface of the earth with laser pulses that record the elapsed time until the return of the pulse.
Because of the flexibility offered by Horizons' LIDAR system, raw data can be acquired, processed, and delivered in a matter of days or weeks instead of months.
Other instruments involved in the collection of LiDAR elevation data are Airborne GPS (Global Positioning Systems) to derive the geographic location (latitude, longitude and ellipsoid height) of the instrument and the IMU (Inertial Measuring Unit) to derive the attitude (roll, pitch and yaw) of the instrument.
www.horizonsinc.com /lidar.php   (257 words)

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