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Topic: Light microscopy

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  Microscopy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Microscopy is any technique for producing visible images of structures or details too small to otherwise be seen by the human eye, using a microscope or other magnification tool.
Optical (or light) microscopy involves passing visible light transmitted through or reflected from the subject through a series of lenses, to be detected directly by the eye, imaged on a photographic plate or captured digitally.
If one considers a small fluorescent light source (essentially a bright spot), light coming from this spot spreads out the further out of focus one is. Under ideal conditions this produces a sort of "hourglass" shape of this point source in the third (axial) dimension.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Microscopy   (2473 words)

 Nikon MicroscopyU: Introduction to Polarized Light Microscopy
Polarized light microscopy is perhaps best known for its geological applications--primarily for the study of minerals in rock thin sections, but it can also be used to study many other materials.
Light vibrating parallel with the chains is absorbed while light perpendicular to the chains is transmitted.
Reflected light is useful for the study of opaque materials such as mineral oxides and sulphides, metals and silicon wafers (Figure 3).
www.microscopyu.com /articles/polarized/polarizedintro.html   (3337 words)

 Olympus Microscopy Resource Center: Specialized Microscopy Techniques - Polarized Light Microscopy
Light passing through a crystal of calcite is refracted into two rays, which are separated by a wide margin due to the strong birefringence of the crystal.
Light entering the crystal from the polarizer will be traveling perpendicular to the optical axis of the crystal, regardless of the crystal orientation with respect to the polarizer and analyzer transmission axes.
Visible light is a commonly studied form of electromagnetic radiation, and exhibits oscillating electric and magnetic fields whose amplitudes and directions are represented by vectors that undulate in phase as sinusoidal waves in two mutually perpendicular (orthogonal) planes.
www.olympusmicro.com /primer/techniques/polarized/polarizedhome.html   (2518 words)

 Polarized Light Microscopy - Childrens Hospital Los Angeles CA
In a polarizing light microscope, normal light is first passed through a polarizing filter then through the microscope stage to a similar filter called an "analyzer" with its transmission axis oriented 90 degrees to that of the polarizer.
The light then vibrates in a plane different from its original polarization and a component of that light is able to pass through the "analyzer".
Conventional polarized light microscopy requires the operator to rotate the microscope stage and manually measure the angle of the fibre at many selected points on the microscope slide.
www.childrenshospitalla.org /11955.cfm   (715 words)

 Light microscopy
In dark-field microscopy, light passing the condenser lens is restricted to far off-axis rays (Fig.
Whereas a conventional microscope uses visible light to illuminate the sample and produce a magnified image of the sample, the fluorescence microscope uses light with short wavelength to illuminate the sample.
For conventional light sources, the reduction of the illumination light to a tiny point source reduces of course the illumination intensity dramatically.
www.fz-juelich.de /isg/Light_microscopy   (1086 words)

 Principles of Light Microscopy
The interaction of light with the glass in a lens produce aberrations that result in a loss in image quality because light waves will be bent, or refracted, differently in different portions of a lens, and different colors of light will be refracted to different extents by the glass.
Most of the light that passes through the specimen is scattered and some of it enters the objective lens in such a way that it will not pass through the objective lens ring, but will pass this plane in some other location.
In its interaction with the object, some of this light is absorbed, some of this light is scattered, some of this light is reflected, and some of this light is slowed or retarded (relative to a beam of light that does not pass through the object).
www.life.umd.edu /CBMG/faculty/wolniak/wolniakmicro.html   (4372 words)

 UI Central Microscopy Research Facilities
Samples for light microscopy are prepared in an ever-increasing number of techniques, and can range from sliced biological organisms and tissue cultures to materials science and geological samples.
When a light passes through stained structures intensity is reduced selectively depending on the color and density of the sample as the light is absorbed.
When light is dispersed it is separated into its constituent wavelengths as a result of refraction on entering a transparent medium.
www.uiowa.edu /~cemrf/methodology/light/index.htm   (411 words)

 Botany online: Microscopy
Numerous statements on the refraction of light by lenses or waterfilled spheres and the resulting magnification proof, that the effects of magnification were already known in antiquity.
Diffraction is the partial deflection of a ray of light at the corners of opaque objects.
The closer two openings (or diaphragms) that diffract light are, the larger is the angle of the diffraction's first intensity maxima and the larger has the aperture of the collecting lens to be.
www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de /b-online/e03/03.htm   (1762 words)

 Light microscopy
The light microscope, so called because it employs visible light to detect small objects, is probably the most well-known and well-used research tool in biology.
With a conventional bright field microscope, light from an incandescent source is aimed toward a lens beneath the stage called the condenser, through the specimen, through an objective lens, and to the eye through a second magnifying lens, the ocular or eyepiece.
We see objects in the light path because natural pigmentation or stains absorb light differentially, or because they are thick enough to absorb a significant amount of light despite being colorless.
www.ruf.rice.edu /~bioslabs/methods/microscopy/microscopy.html   (2080 words)

 Polarized Light Microscopy
Examination of samples with light microscopy reveals critical information using a variety of magnifications, and illumination configurations.
Polarized light microscopy (PLM) is a powerful and flexible technique for the examination of small particles such as pigment particles, mineral grains, fibers, environmental particulate, and biological materials.
Light microscopy has been used for many decades to characterize particles down to the micrometer size scale.
www.camaonline.net /index_files/polarizedlightmicroscopy.htm   (159 words)

 Light Microscopy Home   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
The objective of the Light Microscopy Digital Imaging Core is to provide services, facilities and expertise to all City of Hope and Beckman Research Institute investigators who need high quality light microscope images.
Microscopy and imaging technology are both rapidly changing fields and increasingly, they depend on a variety of expensive equipment and skills that are beyond the means of most individual laboratories.
Part of the Light Microscopy Digital Imaging Core is the Video Time Lapse Microscopy facility, which provides four inverted phase microscopes with digital cameras in a warm room environment.  These instruments have the capability of recording attached cell cultures at various resolutions over time providing time-lapse videos of growth, timing, and physical interactions of cells.
www.cityofhope.org /SharedResources/LightMicroscopy   (223 words)

 Microscopy, teaching, journal, courses, polarized light microscopy, asbestos, particle handling, digital imaging, ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
The course is intended to be complementary to the courses in forensic paint examination that emphasize infrared microspectroscopy and binder characterization.
The course emphasizes the techniques used in polarized light microscopy and optical crystallography to characterize and identify a wide variety of adulterants, diluents, excipients, and extraneous material which may make up the bulk of an illicit drug sample.
The use of dyes, fluorescence microscopy and infrared microspectroscopy are introduced and their application in identification and mapping of polymer domains is demonstrated and practiced on specimens prepared by the students.
www.mcri.org /Course_description.html   (6055 words)

 Light Microscopy - Materials Evaluation and Engineering, Inc.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Light microscopy for materials analysis generally refers to reflected light microscopy.
In this method, light is directed vertically through the microscope objective and reflected back through the objective to an eyepiece, view screen or camera.
Light reflected back toward the objective lens is collected and focused on the eyepieces to form the observed image.
www.mee-inc.com /light.html   (670 words)

 CHP - Light Microscopy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Light microscopy uses electromagnetic radiation in the ultraviolet or visible wavelength range to obtain a magnified image of an object.
The simplest light microscope consists of an objective lens and an eyepiece.
High magnification requires very bright illumination of the sample and a condensor lens is usually placed between the light source and the sample stage to focus light onto the sample.
www.chemistry.vt.edu /chem-ed/imaging/lmicrosc.html   (189 words)

 Olympus Microscopy Resource Center: Introduction to Microscopy
Physics of Light and Color - Visible light represents only a small portion of the entire electromagnetic spectrum of radiation that extends from high-frequency gamma rays through X-rays, ultraviolet light, infrared radiation and microwaves to very low frequency long-wavelength radio waves.
The complex phenomenon of visible light is classically discussed in terms of rays and wavefronts.
Bibliography - All of the reference material used in preparing this primer is cited along with other books about electron and scanning probe microscopy, photomicrography, highly specialized microscopy techniques, and older books dealing with the history of microscopy and microscopy in the early twentieth century.
www.olympusmicro.com /primer/index.html   (756 words)

 Nikon MicroscopyU: Introduction to Phase Contrast - Selected Literature References
A number of excellent books, review articles, and original research reports on phase contrast microscopy have been published by leading researchers in the field and were utilized as references to prepare the phase contrast discussions included in the MicroscopyU website.
Basics of a light microscopy imaging system and its application in biology., Davidson, L. and Keller, R., Methods in Cellular Imaging, Periasamy, A. (ed), Oxford University Press, New York, 53-65 (2001).
Microscopy and microscope optical systems., Lanni, F. and Keller, E., Imaging Neurons: A Laboratory Manual, Yuste, R., Lanni, F. and Konnerth, A., (eds), Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, 1.1-1.72 (2000).
www.microscopyu.com /articles/phasecontrast/phasereferences.html   (1149 words)

 Light Microscopy and Photomicrography
When light is generated by the lamp filament of a compound microscope using illumination with transmitted light, the light first passes through collector lenses and filters and then through the condenser, microscope slide, specimen, cover glass (if available), objective, and ocular.
If the light passes through the microscope slide and then is diffracted and/or refracted by the specimen, it is called transmitted light (diascopic illumination).
But if the light comes from the direction of the objective, it is called incident light (episcopic illumination).
www.microscopy-uk.org.uk /mag/artjul03/gocompmic.html   (2094 words)

 Light Microscopy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Visible light is focused through a specimen by a condenser lens, then is passed through two more lenses placed at both ends of a light-tight tube.
Limitations to what can be seen in bright field microscopy are not so much related to magnification as they are to resolution, illumination, and contrast.
Resolution can be improved using oil immersion lenses, and lighting and contrast can be dramatically improved using modifications such as dark field, phase contrast, and differential interference contrast.
pages.unibas.ch /zmb/LightMicroscopy.html   (1758 words)

 A Web Atlas of Cellular Structures: Light Microscopy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
When a wavelength of light hits a specimen, there are different kinds of interactions that change the initial illuminating light.
With an increase in refractive index, the light wave will be bent towards the normal; when the refractive index becomes lower at the interface, the light wave will be bent away from the normal.
DIC microscopy produces images that have a shadowed relief, which can be useful for optically transparent specimens, such as cultured cells or thick tissue sections.
www.itg.uiuc.edu /technology/atlas/microscopy/light.htm   (459 words)

 Nikon MicroscopyU
Fluorescence Microscopy Digital Image Gallery - The widefield reflected light fluorescence microscope has been a fundamental tool for the examination of fluorescently labeled cells and tissues since the introduction of the dichromatic mirror in the late 1940s.
Innovations in Light Microscopy - Evolution of the optical microscope over the past centuries has been driven by scientists who wish to observe and measure phenomena that were smaller, fainter, and deeper inside tissue than ever before.
Introduction to Polarized Light Microscopy - Although much neglected and undervalued as an investigative tool, polarized light microscopy provides all the benefits of brightfield microscopy and yet offers a wealth of information, which is simply not available with any other optical microscopy technique.
www.microscopyu.com   (1252 words)

 Dennis Kunkel Microscopy, Inc. Scientific Stock Photography
The science image library holds over 1,500 light microscopy images and electron microscopy images (colorized and fl & white) taken by Dennis Kunkel Ph.D. In addition to the images on this site, our archives contain thousands of fl & white electron micrographs for which colorizations may be arranged.
Dennis Kunkel Microscopy, Inc. is a scientific stock photography agency (science stock photography) featuring biology, medical and biomedical science stock photographs / pictures taken with light microscopes (LM) and electron microscopes (transmission electron microscope - TEM; scanning electron microscope - SEM).
Microscopy photographs (science images, electron microscope images) are available for licensed use in editorial and commercial formats including: advertising, magazines, textbooks, television, brochures, documentaries, movies, museum exhibitions, science books, trade books, children's books, posters, products, reports, trade shows, video, CD-ROMs and other commercial projects (science stock photography).
www.denniskunkel.com   (225 words)

 UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center
Microscopy is an essential tool in studying the molecular, sub-cellular, and cellular mechanisms involved in cancer.
The Light Microscopy Core provides Cancer Center members with access to state-of-the-art light microscopy and expert assistance in its utilization.
Cancer Center Members are not charged for light microscopy services or for consultation with the Core staff.
www.unclineberger.org /research/cores/facility.asp?facilityID=13   (217 words)

 Asbestos polarized light microscopy and asbestos and cost
Sometimes when you're seeking websites on polarized light microscopy and asbestos and cost it's a tough task to sort the good suggestions from the bad advice.
Coming up with good polarized light microscopy and asbestos and cost sites isn't always as easy as it could be.
Our work was endless in order to find the best information we could on polarized light microscopy and asbestos and cost and target a couple for you to click to.
www.go-seekit.com /asbestos/polarized-light-microscopy-and-asbestos-and-cost.htm   (207 words)

 Light Microscopy and Photomicrography
Of course, total magnification will depend on the magnification of the optical setup, on the size of the image sensor and on the size of the paper print (or on the size of the image displayed on a computer screen).
A very important aspect of photomicrography is the illumination, which includes the type of light source, collector lenses, condenser, and correction filters.
I have also successfully used Polaroid sheets (polars) to reduce the intensity of the light without shifting its color temperature.
www.microscopy-uk.org.uk /mag/artjun03/gophotomic.html   (2094 words)

 New Course: Practical Light Microscopy
This course offers a detailed overview of the theory and practice of light microscopy as applied to scientific investigation.
The emphasis will be on the correct and appropriate use of the light microscope for biological scientists, however students of other disciplines are welcome.
The course also will cover contemporary digital methods of 2D imaging for fluorescence microscopy, as well as a thorough discussion and practice of the 3D imaging techniques of confocal, deconvolution, and structured light microscopy.
microscopy.berkeley.edu /courses/TLM   (197 words)

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