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Topic: Lineage (evolution)

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In the News (Sat 17 Aug 19)

  Lineage (evolution) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Lineages are subsets of the evolutionary tree of life.
Lineages are often determined by the techniques of molecular systematics.
Lineages are typically visualized as subsets of a phylogenetic tree.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Lineage_(evolution)   (504 words)

 Evolution within a lineage and by lineage splitting (from evolution) --  Britannica Student Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Anagenetic evolution has doubled the size of the human cranium over the course of two million years; in the lineage of the horse it has reduced the number of toes from four to one.
The theory of evolution is one of the fundamental keystones of modern biological theory.
The main stages of hominid evolution are represented by the australopithecines, Homo habilis, Homo erectus, and Homo sapiens.
www.britannica.com /ebi/article-49898   (839 words)

 Human Evolution
The direct lineage from the ancestor of both man and the modern apes to modern man is not known.
Evolution had honed the species to fit the environment and was now in balance.
Evolution, through the liberal application of death and hardship, had built a strong body and a sound mind by the time of the appearance of Homo sapiens sapiens.
www.onelife.com /evolve/manev.html   (8442 words)

 Lineage - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
lineage (evolution), a group composed of species, taxa, or individuals that are related by descent from a common ancestor, also called a clade.
Lineage, a line of transmission of Buddhist teachers, particularly in Zen.
Lineage and Lineage II, massively multiplayer online role-playing games developed by NCsoft.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Lineage   (141 words)

 Evidence that human brain evolution was a special event
The accelerated evolution of these genes in the human lineage was apparently driven by strong selection.
This accelerated rate of evolution is consistent with the presence of selective forces in the human lineage that strongly favored larger and more complex brains.
These outlier genes were identified by virtue of the fact that their rate of change is especially accelerated in the human lineage, far more so than the other genes examined in the study.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/2004-12/hhmi-eth122804.php   (1263 words)

If lineages are not constantly evolving, but in fact remain stable for hundreds of thousands, or millions, of years, there are wide implications for many areas of evolutionary biology, from models of community evolution to debates about the role of competition, from population genetics to phylogenetics.
With respect to morphological evolution, the prevalent theme is a complex mosaic pattern with different features evolving at vastly different rates in different species, and morphological evolution is not necessarily related to speciation.
Evolution in the sea may have resulted in a greater level of stability, and patterns of increase may have generally been logistic, while life on land may have diversified exponentially since the first plants and arthropods crept cautiously out of the water.
palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk /Benton/reprints/2003eolss.html   (9725 words)

 29+ Evidences for Macroevolution: the Scientific Case for Common Descent
In evolutionary debates one is apt to hear evolution roughly parceled between the terms "microevolution" and "macroevolution".
Macroevolution is evolution on the "grand scale" resulting in the origin of higher taxa.
Microevolutionary theories are gradualistic explanatory mechanisms that biologists use to account for the origin and evolution of macroevolutionary adaptations and variation.
www.talkorigins.org /faqs/comdesc   (2151 words)

 Evolution of Plants   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Also, just as with the reptilian lineage, the truly great innovation was the development of methods by which sex and development were accomplished in the absence of standing water (pollen, seeds, and then flowers).
The evolution of vascularization and, hence, height, appears to have predated the development of the plant equivalent of the "reptilian" stage.
The evolution of the seed clearly was a critical step in the domination of the land by plants." (p.
www.mansfield.ohio-state.edu /~sabedon/biol3060.htm   (4045 words)

 Antiquity of Man Black Skull
A result of anatomical and behavioral evidence and the protein structure and DNA analysis conducted in the mid-seventies, it was "deduced that man chimpanzee and gorilla diverged from a common ancestor as recently as five of six million years ago" (Reichs 1983: 209).
In hominid evolution, the origin is believed to happen at some point between 7.5 and 4.0 million years ago.
Her theory of climate-related animal evolution, 'turnover pulse', results from the evidence that "it was 2.8 million years ago that cycles of cooling and drying in East Africa intensified, producing a shift towards grassier environments.
www.antiquityofman.com /black_skull.html   (7106 words)

 The Evolutionary Use of the Terms, Primitive, Intermediate & Lineage
The use of the terms "intermediate" and "transitional" both convey the idea of evolution as a fact, yet there is a lot of confusion in their interpretation.
However, the general public still believes that lineages are based on the order of fossils in the geologic column.
Also, by using jargon interchangeably when being questioned by anti-evolutionists, palaeontologists give evolution the appearance that it has all the answers - creating the illusion that evolution is a fact.
www.unmaskingevolution.com /10-intermediates.htm   (1840 words)

 Lineage-Specific Gene Expansions in Bacterial and Archaeal Genomes -- Jordan et al., 10.1101/gr.GR-1660R -- Genome ...
Gene duplication is an important mechanistic antecedent to the evolution of new genes and novel biochemical functions.
Hughes, A.L. Adaptive evolution of genes and genomes.
Hughes, M.K. and Hughes, A.L. Evolution of duplicate genes in a tetraploid animal, Xenopus laevis.
www.genome.org /cgi/content/full/GR-1660Rv1   (5184 words)

 Researchers Discover Humans Are Of A 'Privileged' Evolutionary Lineage
For example, the evolution of the larger brain might be due to the same processes that led to the evolution of a larger antler or a longer tusk.
Human evolution is, in fact, a privileged process because it involves a large number of mutations in a large number of genes," Lahn said.
One way to study evolution at the molecular level is to examine changes of when and where proteins are expressed in the body.
www.spacedaily.com /news/human-05a.html   (1426 words)

 Descent of Man
The evolution of genus Homo is thought to have been influenced to a significant extent by the practice of basing a greater portion the diet on the ingestion of meat than that obtained by either the great apes or members of genus Australopithecus.
Thus, if you think of evolution has producing a bush of diverging lineages, a true ancestor is found on a branch that is directly between you and the center of the bush.
Thus, cultural evolution occurs by a series of accidental or purposeful trials, errors, and culling, and may be transmitted between individuals lacking a close blood relation.
www.mansfield.ohio-state.edu /~sabedon/biol1530.htm   (3869 words)

 Phylogenetic relationships among graptolites
Hence lineage (1) is characterized by regular triad budding, whereas lineage (2) exhibits diad budding with no regular succession and variably distributed nodes.
In other words, morphological changes in this lineage were dominated by a significant reduction in polymorphism, a looser integration of the colony, and a broadening of the creeping part of each autotheca from the tubular shape of tuboids to the bulbous camara of most camaroids.
Kozlowski, 1949, in the Tuboidea - Camaroidea lineage [
www.graptolite.net /Graptolites   (1464 words)

 Evolution and Molecular Phylogeny of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated from Human and Animal Listeriosis Cases and Foods ...
Lineage II isolates (representing serotypes 1/2a [n = 43] and 1/2c [n = 4] as well one isolate that was untypeable [see supplemental Table 1]) are in green.
Lineage III isolates (representing serotypes 4b [n = 1], 4a [n = 1] and one isolate that was untypeable [see supplemental Table 1]) are in blue.
While lineage III isolates have previously been reported to predominantly represent serotypes 4a and 4c, recent data indicate that some lineage III isolates may also be serotype 4b (55).
jb.asm.org /cgi/content/full/187/16/5537   (8452 words)

 Evolution 101: Macroevolution
Stasis: Many lineages on the tree of life exhibit stasis, which just means that they don’t change much for a long time, as shown in the figure to the right.
Coelacanths comprise a fish lineage that branched off of the tree near the base of the vertebrate clade.
Every lineage has some chance of becoming extinct, and overwhelmingly, species have ended up in the losing slots on this roulette wheel: over 99% of the species that have ever lived on Earth have gone extinct.
evolution.berkeley.edu /evosite/evo101/VIBPatterns.shtml   (497 words)

 Handprint : Ancestral Lines
Human evolution is a puzzle made up of thousands of fossil pieces, and the Chart of Human Evolution (below) shows the major pieces of that puzzle arranged in a likely solution.
But before technology could have much impact, our evolution was also helped along by the human tendency to migration and the resulting geographic isolation of different hominid groups — documented in Hominid Fossil Sites and Patterns of Homind Dispersal.
Skulls are particularly valuable as evidence for the evolution of The Hominid Brain.
www.handprint.com /LS/ANC/evol.html   (661 words)

 Evolution Of Human Brain Unique   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
It was widely believed that human brain evolution might simply be an example of the typical molecular evolutionary process, the same processes that led to the evolution of a larger antler or a longer tusk in other mammals.
"Human evolution is, in fact, a privileged process because it involves a large number of mutations in a large number of genes.
This "staggering" number of mutations suggests that the human lineage was driven by intense selection process.
www.scienceagogo.com /news/20041129182724data_trunc_sys.shtml   (1617 words)

 HHMI News: Human Brain Evolution Was a 'Special Event'
In addition to uncovering the overall trend that brain-related genes — particularly those involved in brain development — evolved significantly faster in the human lineage, the study also uncovered two dozen “outlier” genes that might have made important contributions to the evolution of the human brain.
Strikingly, most of these outlier genes are involved in controlling either the overall size or the behavioral output of the brain — aspects of the brain that have changed the most during human evolution.
We've done a rough calculation that the evolution of the human brain probably involves hundreds if not thousands of mutations in perhaps hundreds or thousands of genes — and even that is a conservative estimate.”
www.hhmi.org /news/lahn3.html   (1341 words)

 - Overselling of Whale Evolution -
One committed to evolution would tend to be less critical of dates that placed these fossils in a morphological sequence and more critical of dates that disrupted that sequence.
The phylogenetic relationships among major lineages within the Cetacea continue to be “very poorly understood,” which is why recent phylogenies are dominated by dead ends, broken lines, and question marks.
Carroll, Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution (New York: W. Freeman & Co., 1988), 521 (implicit in his statement “early mesonychids were almost certainly close to the ancestry of whales” [emphasis mine]); J. Thewissen, “Phylogenetic Aspects of Cetacean Origins: A Morphological Perspective,” Journal of Mammalian Evolution 2, no. 3 (1995): 174.
www.trueorigin.org /whales.asp   (3394 words)

 Patterns of Gene Duplication and Functional Evolution During the Diversification of the AGAMOUS Subfamily of MADS Box ...
Patterns of Gene Duplication and Functional Evolution During the Diversification of the AGAMOUS Subfamily of MADS Box Genes in Angiosperms -- Kramer et al.
The yellow triangle indicates the C/D gene duplication; the fl circles, gene duplications in the grass C and D lineages; the fl diamond, a gene duplication in the Ranunculales C lineage; and the yellow star, the euAG/PLE gene duplication.
, A. Adaptive Evolution of Genes and Genomes.
www.genetics.org /cgi/content/full/166/2/1011   (6326 words)

 Time & Life are needed for holism to evolve
From the reptiles of the Carboniferous period, two major lineages and a third minor lineage evolved.
Pongids, the lineage of apes such as chimpanzees, gorillas and orangutans appeared 20 to 30 million years ago (Oligocene).
Australopithecus is the genus of the most primitive fossils that are considered a part of the human lineage.
www.ecotao.com /holism/4_histlife.htm   (875 words)

 Molecular Evolution of Two Lineages of L1 (LINE-1) Retrotransposons in the California Mouse, Peromyscus californicus -- ...
Oligonucleotides LIN1-3' and LIN2-3' (position indicated by O in Figure 1B) are specific to Lineage 1 and Lineage 2, respectively, and are used to illustrate the presence or absence of Lineage 1 and Lineage 2 in Figure 2.
with the Lineage 1 oligonucleotides and 34 hybridized with the
Sites 100 and 392 changed from the inferred cricetid ancestral state early in the history of both lineages and are thus indicated as changes in both lineages.
www.genetics.org /cgi/content/full/150/1/345   (5548 words)

 Eric Pianka's Varanid Research
Possible scenarios for evolution of size in this lizard lineage are discussed and many questions worthy of further research are raised.
Two distinct evolutionary lineages have undergone extensive adaptive radiations in Australia: the pygmy monitor subgenus Odatria, and the subgenus Varanus, which includes the larger species of Australian monitors plus several species found nearby outside Australia (indicus, prasinus and teriae appear to have recently reached Australia from New Guinea).
We are collecting DNA sequence data to infer phylogeny for a phylogenetic study of evolution in monitor lizards of the genus Varanus.
uts.cc.utexas.edu /~varanus/varanus.html   (2082 words)

 There are no transitional fossils
This is a misconception of paleontology, and evolution.
When an effort is made to explain the fossil record (whether it be taxonomic differences or changes in response to ecological factors) in terms of Darwinian evolution the concept of uniformitarianism is essential, for it allows us to use the present to explain the past.
Since extinction (by extirpation, not by evolution into something else) is so common, a biota with no mechanism for increasing diversity would soon be wiped out.
www.digisys.net /users/hoppnrmt/transitionfossils.htm   (4183 words)

 Evolution within a lineage and by lineage splitting (from evolution) --  Encyclopædia Britannica   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Evolution within a lineage and by lineage splitting (from evolution) --  Encyclopædia Britannica
Evolution can take place by anagenesis, in which changes occur within a lineage, or by cladogenesis, in which a lineage splits into two or more separate lines.
"evolution" Encyclopædia Britannica from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-49898   (855 words)

 Functional divergence within the APETALA3/PISTILLATA floral homeotic gene lineages -- Lamb and Irish 100 (11): 6558 -- ...
lineage in core eudicots have diverged in function from the
material for the evolution of new gene functions (54).
Evolution of the APETALA3 and PISTILLATA Lineages of MADS-Box-Containing Genes in the Basal Angiosperms
www.pnas.org /cgi/content/full/100/11/6558   (5091 words)

 IngentaConnect Molecular Phylogeny, Taxonomy, and Evolution of Nonmarine Lineage...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
IngentaConnect Molecular Phylogeny, Taxonomy, and Evolution of Nonmarine Lineage...
The two American gecarcinid genera might not represent a sister group to the Grapsidae but rather appear to have evolved within the latter.
Colonization of inland habitats evolved in several lineages of the grapsoids, resulting in various forms of nonmarine life and different degrees of independence from the sea.
www.ingentaconnect.com /content/ap/fy/2000/00000015/00000002/art00754   (293 words)

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