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Topic: Lingua franca

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  Lingua franca - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
During the Middle Ages, the lingua franca was Greek in the parts of Europe and Middle East where the Byzantine Empire held hegemony, and Latin was primarily used in the rest of Europe.
Hindi is the official language and lingua franca of India and Urdu is the official language and lingua franca of Pakistan.
Swahili is used throughout large parts of East Africa as a lingua franca, despite being the mother tongue of a relatively small ethnic group on the East African coast and nearby islands in the Indian Ocean.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Lingua_franca   (1866 words)

 Lingua franca - Voyager, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-01)
The origin of the term lingua franca is Latin (literally "Frankish language"), derived from the medieval Arab and Muslim use of "Franks" (ancient Germanic people) as a generic term for Europeans during the period of the Crusades.
During the Roman Empire and for the following millennium the lingua franca was Greek in the east and Latin in the west.
Lingua Franca meaning "Frankish language" was an early language, used in the Mediterranean area from the 14th century or earlier and still in use in the 20th century.
www.voyager.in /Lingua_franca   (908 words)

 Lingua Franca Nova - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Lingua Franca Nova is an auxiliary constructed language created by Dr. C.
Lingua Franca Nova is usually abbreviated to LFN and has also been referred to as Europijin and Creol.
He was inspired to do this by Lingua Franca, a pidgin used in the Mediterranean in centuries past.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Lingua_Franca_Nova   (1701 words)

 AllRefer.com - lingua franca (Language And Linguistics) - Encyclopedia
lingua franca[ling´gwu frang´ku] Pronunciation Key, an auxiliary language, generally of a hybrid and partially developed nature, that is employed over an extensive area by people speaking different and mutually unintelligible tongues in order to communicate with one another.
The original lingua franca was a tongue actually called Lingua Franca (or Sabir) that was employed for commerce in the Mediterranean area during the Middle Ages.
The designation "Lingua Franca" [language of the Franks] came about because the Arabs in the medieval period used to refer to Western Europeans in general as "Franks." Occasionally the term lingua franca is applied to a fully established formal language; thus formerly it was said that French was the lingua franca of diplomacy.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/L/linguafr.html   (299 words)

 Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Lingua franca
A lingua franca or diplomatic language is language widely used beyond its native speakers, primarily for international commerce and extending to other cultural exchanges.
The term lingua franca is Italian (literally "Frankish language"), derived from the Arabic connotation of the "Franks" (ancient Germans) as a generic term for Europeans.
This mixed language (pidgin, creole) was used for communication throughout the Middle East as a diplomatic language, hence the term "lingua franca" has become common for any language used by speakers of different languages to communicate with one another.
www.reference.com /browse/wiki/Lingua_franca   (597 words)

 Britain.tv Wikipedia - Lingua franca
The de facto status of lingua franca is usually "awarded"?title=by the masses to the language of the most influential nation(s) of the time.
Occasionally the term "lingua franca"?title=is applied to a fully established formal language; thus formerly it was said that French was the lingua franca of diplomacy.
The term "lingua franca"?title=was originally used by Arabs to name all Romance languages, and especially Italian (Arabs used the name 'Franks' for all peoples in Western Europe).
www.britain.tv /wikipedia.php?title=Lingua_franca   (1857 words)

 A Glossary of Lingua Franca
Lingua Franca is a pidgin, a trade language used by numerous language communities around the Mediterranean, to communicate with others whose language they did not speak.
Apart from a few curious and tantalizing quotes of this kind, Lingua Franca seemed to be lost forever, since it died before the advent of the tape recorder or of anthropologists anxious to record a moribund form of human speech, however bizarre, and even laughable, it may have seemed.
And -- in my humble opinion -- a startling clue to the lost Lingua Franca language, which, as the Archbishop of Palermo declared in the seventeenth century, was once known in every house in the great cities a short hop away across the blue Mediterranean.
www.uwm.edu /~corre/franca/edition2/lingua.2.html   (5052 words)

 Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for lingua franca   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-01)
lingua franca LINGUA FRANCA [lingua franca], an auxiliary language, generally of a hybrid and partially developed nature, that is employed over an extensive area by people speaking different and mutually unintelligible tongues in order to communicate with one another.
pidgin PIDGIN [pidgin], a lingua franca that is not the mother tongue of anyone using it and that has a simplified grammar and a restricted, often polyglot vocabulary.
Chinook jargon CHINOOK JARGON [Chinook jargon] lingua franca of early traders on the Northwest Coast of the United States and Canada.
www.encyclopedia.com /articles/07500.html   (543 words)

 Who Killed Lingua Franca?
November 5, 2001 — The death, two weeks ago, of Lingua Franca, the great magazine about intellectual and literary life in the academy, was not only sad news for the magazine's followers and admirers — it was a shock.
Indications were, in fact, quite the opposite — Lingua Franca seemed to be the foundation for a steadily growing mini–empire of publications related to the academy and the world of letters.
Covering Lingua Franca's tenth birthday, Norah Vincent in a November 22, 2000 Village Voice report called all the expansion — into a conglomerate now called Academic Partners LLC — one measure of Lingua Franca's success.
www.mobylives.com /Lingua_Franca_demise.html   (929 words)

 Lingua Franca
Indeed, it is because byte code serves as a lingua franca that stands between the compiler, and the sundry platforms on which Java is to run, that its write-once/run anywhere promise can be even contemplated.
These days, English has assumed the role of the lingua franca in many parts of the world, and is the language of choice for discourse among scientists and aviators.
Its role as a lingua franca, or second language of choice, is seen most often in francophone Africa, where it is the official national language of several former French colonies, while being the mother tongue of only a handful of inhabitants.
www.laputan.org /lingua/lingua.html   (6452 words)

 Lingua Francas for Design: Sacred Places and Pattern Languages (paper for DIS 2000)
The idea is that a lingua franca is accessible to all stakeholders, particularly those who are traditionally marginalized in the design process: the users.
However, the lingua franca described was hand crafted-it was developed from scratch specifically for the project described, requiring a considerable investment of time, energy and expertise.
I'm not convinced by the need for a lingua franca: it could be argued that the tension between different kinds of expertise, and the integrity of their respective languages, is more likely to produce rich design than a common (and potentially comprised) agreement.
www.pliant.org /personal/Tom_Erickson/LinguaFranca_DIS2000.html   (8810 words)

 BBC News | AFRICAN | Should there be one official African lingua franca?
This, in the long run will make the idea of a lingua franca a breeze when everybody is happy about their lives.
Lingua franca for Africa at this juncture, is neither feasible nor necessary, but if Africa is desperately seeking a working language, it should opt for Swahili, a widely spoken indigenous African language; the latter can adopt Geez (Ethiopic) as its script.
Africa is a huge continent with a very great diversity so a lingua franca would obliterate the huge wealth of culture embedded in the ancient languages.
news.bbc.co.uk /1/low/talking_point/debates/african/553968.stm   (4731 words)

 Lingua Franca Nova
Lingua Franca was a pidgin or trade language that flourished in the Mediterranean from perhaps as early as the 1300's until perhaps as late as the 1800's.
It was a blend of Italian, Provençal (or Occitan, the language of southern France), and Catalan (the language of the east coast of Spain).
Because I selected a similar set of languages, and because I was also interested in developing a simple and consistent grammar, LFN and Lingua Franca often do overlap, especially in vocabulary.
www.lingua-franca-nova.net /lfnappend.html   (2118 words)

 Lingua Franca - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Lingua Franca was a magazine about intellectual and literary life in the academy.
It was where the Sokal Affair was first revealed and its editors later published a book (The Sokal Hoax) of selected papers on the subject.
"When Intellectuals Had a Real Magazine: Viva Lingua Franca!" By Ron Rosenbaum in The New York Observer, (April 2006).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Lingua_Franca   (139 words)

 purevolume™ | The Lingua Franca
Pieces of love and longing and travel, of distance and what home might mean compose the backbone of this musical collection.
LINGUA FRANCA sets a stage where comedy, tragedy, politics, and all the rest act as a pageant for an audience.
The Lingua Franca hasn't posted a blog yet.
www.purevolume.com /thelinguafranca   (129 words)

 Lingua Franca Encyclopedia Article @ ParksAndWildlife.com (Parks and Wildlife)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-01)
During the Middle Ages, the lingua franca was Greek in the parts of Europe where the Byzantine Empire held hegemony, and Latin was primarily used in the rest of Europe.
French was also the language used among the educated in cosmopolitan cities in North Africa such as Cairo, Egypt around the turn of the century until World War II.
Currently, among most Chinese-speaking communities, Standard Mandarin serves the function of providing a common spoken language between speakers of different and mutually unintelligible Chinese spoken languages - not to mention between the Han people and other ethnic groups in China.
www.parksandwildlife.com /encyclopedia/Lingua_franca   (1680 words)

 English as a Lingua Franca
According to Richards et al (1996:214) ‘the term lingua franca originated in the Mediterranean region in the Middle Ages among crusaders and traders of different language backgrounds’.
Holmes (1997:86) writes that ‘the term lingua franca describes a language serving as a regular means of communication between different linguistic groups in a multilingual speech community’.
He normally uses English as a lingua franca in whichever country he is. He said that usually the accent of the person impedes communication and that sometimes he pretends he understands what the other person is saying.
www3.telus.net /linguisticsissues/linguafranca.htm   (3555 words)

 [No title]
This M.A. thesis explores the use of English as an international lingua franca, focusing on situations where none of the participants are native speakers of English.
Communication in a lingua franca has often been described as a neutralized form of interaction, since it is claimed that having to interact in a second or foreign language deprives participants of the means needed to express their cultural identity.
English is said to be reduced to its denotative function in lingua franca interactions, and as a consequence the interactions themselves are held to be of a transactional nature only.
www.lingua-franca-net.de /LFprojects.html   (1354 words)

 Lingua Franca - A Selected Bibliography A Selected Bibliography
The Lingua Franca in the Levant: Turkish Nautical Terms of Italian and Greek Origin.
Ekwelie, Sylvanus A. "Swahili as a Lingua Franca: A Study in Language Development".
Lingua Franca Discourse: An Investigation of the Use of English in an International Business Context.
www.sw2.euv-frankfurt-o.de /Doktoranden/ling.franca.html   (3689 words)

 Lingua Franca English v003
LINGUA FRANCA is a language institute in Leiden that provides fast courses Dutch for foreigners at affordable prices.
For these Dutch courses Lingua Franca focuses on highly educated foreigners living in the Randstad area.
LINGUA FRANCA offers courses on every day of the week, so also on Saturday and Sunday.
www.linguafranca.nl   (147 words)

 village voice > news > Press Clips by Cynthia Cotts
University Business LLC, the company that owned the two magazines, filed for bankruptcy in April 2002, and now its court-appointed trustee is trying to recover payments made in the months before the company went out of business—including fees of a few thousand dollars paid to writers, editors, and artists for work done long ago.
Insiders are lamenting this sad end to the glorious saga of Lingua Franca, which tweaked higher education and popularized what is now known as the journalism of ideas.
Lingua Franca founder Jeffrey Kittay has lived comfortably since the death of his father, garment industry tycoon Sol Kittay, in 1982.
www.villagevoice.com /issues/0402/cotts.php   (1134 words)

 ...A Lingua Franca for Design, by Thomas Erickson
The idea to be explored here is that part of the process of interactive systems design should be the development of a lingua franca for a particular design project, a common language which permits stakeholders to participate more completely in the design process.
The continuing popularity and use of Alexander's pattern language by layfolk is, of course, an argument in favor of its status as a lingua franca.
Thus far I've argued that interaction design has an increasing need for lingua francas, I've given an example which illustrates the power and import of a lingua franca and, in this last section, I've introduced pattern languages as a means for generating lingua francas.
www.visi.com /~snowfall/DesignLinguaFranca.html   (7297 words)

 Lingua Franca Nova
Lingua Franca Nova is an International Auxiliary Language based on French, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, and Catalan.
It is designed to seem relatively "natural" to those who are familiar with Romance languages, without being any more difficult for others to learn.
Lingua Franca Nova can be written either with the Latin alphabet or with the Cyrillic alphabet.
www.omniglot.com /writing/lfn.htm   (225 words)

 Lingua Franca - Search Results - ninemsn Encarta
Lingua Franca - Search Results - ninemsn Encarta
Lingua Franca, language used over a wide geographical area as a means of communication—generally to facilitate commerce and trading—by people who...
Swahili Language (or Kiswahili), African language, spoken in Eastern Africa and in parts of Central Africa in countries including Tanzania, Kenya,...
au.encarta.msn.com /Lingua_Franca.html   (139 words)

 [No title]
At one time it was used as a lingua franca (any of various hybrid or other languages that are used over a wide area as common or commercial tongues among peoples of diverse speech) in the Northwest U.S. and on the Pacific coast of Canada and Alaska.
This is the tongue spoken by a few in each of the tribes residing in the middle and lower divisions of Oregon Territory.
Explain: Lingua franca is an agreed upon language used as a medium or communication between people who speak different languages.
www.fs.fed.us /npnht/old/educ_guide/word_docs/lingua_franca.doc   (503 words)

 NYO - Ron Rosenbaum   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-01)
The kind of writing about ideas that once found a home at a now-dead magazine called Lingua Franca and has since—with the assistance of many talented Lingua Franca alumni, both writers and editors—succeeded in changing the face of serious journalism for the better.
It was a monthly magazine (founded in 1990 by Jeffrey Kittay) about the clash of ideas in literature, politics, history and philosophy, controversies that would otherwise be obscured within ivory towers, written for the educated, but not necessarily academic, reader.
Lingua Franca writers and editors managed to do it through the people behind the ideas without dumbing them down, without reducing ideas to merely the personal agendas behind them, and without, on the other hand, ignoring the fact that there could be interesting personal or subtextual reasons why partisans in a controversy choose their positions.
www.observer.com /20060424/20060424_Ron_Rosenbaum_pageone_ronrosenbaum.asp   (497 words)

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