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Topic: Liquid breathing

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  Liquid breathing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Liquid breathing is a form of respiration in which a normally air-breathing organism breathes an oxygen rich liquid (usually from the perfluorocarbon family), rather than breathing air.
Liquid breathing is sometimes called "fluid breathing", but this is misleading as both liquids and gases are fluids.
Liquid breathing began to be used by the medical community after the development by Alliance Pharmaceuticals of the fluorochemical perfluorooctyl bromide, or perflubron for short.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Liquid_breathing   (2624 words)

 NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Liquid breathing   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Liquid breathing is able to relieve their stress by delivering more oxygen and delivering it better.
In preterm newborns, gas exchange may be enhanced during liquid ventilation because of a reduction in the alveolar surface tension that is associated with the ventilation of the liquid filled lung.
In addition, one of the unforeseen benefits of liquid ventilation is that it tends to encourage pulmonary secretions and exudate to migrate away from the perfluorocarbon filled alveolar structures without washing out surfactant, thus creating a beneficial lavage of the peripheral pulmonary structures allowing pulmonary secretions and exudate to be cleared by suctioning.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Liquid-breathing   (428 words)

 Scuba set - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Both types of scuba provide a means of supplying air or other breathing gas, nearly always from a high pressure diving cylinder, and a harness to strap it to the diver's body.
Liquid breathing - so far, in the real world, liquid breathing for humans is only laboratory experiments, and (one lung at a time) medical treatment.
Breathing sets operating on the above principles are not only used underwater but in other situations where the atmosphere is dangerous (little oxygen, poisonous etc).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/scuba   (3355 words)

 Liquid Breathing   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Liquid breathing is a form of respiration in which a patient breathes an oxygen rich liquid from the perflourocarbon family, rather than breathing air.
The advantages of liquid breathing are that the liquid is not forced into the lungs under high pressure like air, but can flow at low pressure.
The immediate use of liquid breathing is likely to be in the treatment of premature babies and adults with severe lung damage, perhaps resulting from fires.
www.wikiverse.org /liquid-breathing   (435 words)

 Liquid breathing   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Liquid breathing is a form of respiration in which apatient breathes an oxygen rich liquid fromthe perflourocarbon family,rather than breathing air.
Problems that have had to be overcome are removing the exhaled carbondioxide, and damage caused by the breathing medium to the surface of the lungs.
The immediate use of liquid breathing is likely to be in the treatment of premature babies and adults with severe lung damage,perhaps resulting from fires.
www.therfcc.org /liquid-breathing-83097.html   (289 words)

 Liquid breathing (Steve Harris)
Liquid breathing with no gas at all may be helpful for divers who have to work at very high pressures, and need to control partial pressures and total gas utilization.
To my knowledge, total liquid fluorcarbon breathing (of the kind that would have to be used in deep sea dives-- as in the movie Abyss) has only been used in a couple of humans for a couple of hours, all on the edge or repiratory death anyway.
The full liquid people understood very well why their gas transfer wasn't working, but they never came up with the gas mix solution--- possibly because they were thinking of exotic diving conditions, and not medical applications.
www.yarchive.net /med/liquid_breathe.html   (4459 words)

Two areas where liquid breathing would be the most helpful are underwater operations and medical applications.
Liquid breathing also equalizes the pressure on the lungs.
There may be some uses for liquid breathing in space but this doesn't seem to have been researched much.
aboutfacts.net /Science2.htm   (792 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Liquids contemplated for use in the practice of the present invention will typically be suitable for use in a fluid breathing treatment regimen.
It is most desirable that the thin liquid dispersion layers generated in the practice of the present invention not interfere with one another in a manner that would impart disorder to the associated liquid droplets.
In one embodiment of the present invention, vapor loss is reduced by lowering the temperature of the PFC liquid, thereby lowering the vapor pressure of the PFC liquid and the evaporative propensity of the liquid.
www.wipo.int /cgi-pct/guest/getbykey5?KEY=99/62626.000316&ELEMENT_SET=DECL   (11564 words)

 Liquid breathing (Steve Harris)
It avoids the problems of total flurocarbon breathing, which involve problems with CO2 diffusion in the liquid, and the viscosity of the liquid.
I've seen this under fluoro with a non-radio-opaque fluorocarbon (not one used clinically), and hypothesize that this is not all due to normal CO2 removal in the remaining gas filled lung.
I suspect that the improvement in CO2 "diffusion" gradient is not due to shorter liquid columns, or none, but rather due to gas-bubble induced liquid *convection* in small airways, which moves a lot of gas by liquid convection movement of disolved gas, in mostly liquid-filled airways.
yarchive.net /med/liquid_breathe.html   (4459 words)

 Breathing-Air and Cooling Apparatus for Protective Suit
The source of both breathing air and cooling is a supply of liquid air inside part of the volume of an insulated tank.
One flow path into the breathing loop is through a suit-pressure regulator that acts in conjunction with an over-pressure-relief regulator and a back-pressure-relief regulator to maintain the desired pressure (to simulate suit pressure in a vacuum) in the suit.
Within the breathing loop, the exhaled carbon dioxide is removed from the circulating air by use of a CO scrubber.
www.nasatech.com /Briefs/Nov01/MSC22442.html   (689 words)

 Partial Liquid Breathing Improves Lung Function, Chances of Survival in Sick Preemies
BUFFALO, N.Y. -- A five-center trial of partial liquid ventilation to treat life-threatening respiratory distress syndrome in extremely premature infants has shown that the procedure is safe and effective, and improves lung function in some children who failed to respond to conventional treatment, increasing their chances of survival.
The liquid allows the lungs to inflate with less pressure than air, and permits oxygen and carbon dioxide to pass through the air sacs and into the blood stream more easily and efficiently.
"The successful introduction of liquid into the lung and the ability of infants to breathe with liquid allows us to ventilate the lung at lower pressure, which causes less damage," Leach said.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/1996-09/UaB-PLBI-130996.php   (407 words)

 Howstuffworks "How does saturation diving work?"
One idea that is being researched to prevent the need for saturation diving and decompression at great depths is liquid breathing, which was also shown in "The Abyss." Instead of breathing gas, the diver breaths a non-compressible, liquid perfluorocarbon compound that contains oxygen.
Because no gas phase is in contact with the blood, and nitrogen is not used, the danger of forming nitrogen bubbles does not exist.
Liquid breathing is still under research, and has been focused on helping to save pre-mature infants and patients with acute lung injuries.
computer.howstuffworks.com /question640.htm   (413 words)

 Liquid breathing
According to Henry's law, the amount of gas dissolved in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial gas pressure at equilibrium on the gas-liquid interface.
Thus it would seem reasonable to expect that a gas exchanger could be build modelled after the gills of a fish, enabling a diver with liquid filled lungs to obtain the necessary oxygen from the sea water.
It is clear that the development of liquid breathing and the construction of artificial gills, if feasible, could be of great importance.
www.crabbsac.org.uk /articles/A001.htm   (1028 words)

 The Alien Jigsaw: MILAB Part II
She felt that the liquid was heavier than water, was warm and smelled of a minty odor.
Lisa has traumatic recollections that her kidnappers tried to force her and other victims to breathe in the liquid.[15] In two of the before mentioned cases, the abductee was forced to breathe the liquid like Lisa.
In addition, I suspect that liquid breathing experiments on adults would be extremely useful for military and Naval intelligence purposes, such as submarine escape and undersea oxygen support facilities.
www.alienjigsaw.com /Part_IV/milab2.html   (5724 words)

 Development of Liquid Ventilation Techniques   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The first reported "liquid breathing" experiments in the 1960's heralded the promise of an alternative method for supporting distressed lungs.
These liquids are clear, colorless, odorless, nonconducting, and nonflammable; they are approximately twice as dense as water, and are capable of dissolving large amounts of physiologically important gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide).
A breakthrough occurred in 1991, when it was discovered that liquid ventilation could be performed effectively in normal pigs without the use of a liquid ventilator.
www.allp.com /LiquiVent/lv_tech.htm   (524 words)

 Breathing Liquid: Interesting Thing of the Day
Although this fictional liquid was compatible with human lungs, the psychological shock of breathing a liquid was pretty intense.
For all these amazing benefits, liquid breathing still involves one major difficulty: it’s much harder for human lungs to move liquid in and out than it is to breathe air.
Liquid breathing (archives of a discussion list) by Steve Harris, M.D. The Abyss was directed by James Cameron, who knows a thing or two about diving.
itotd.com /articles/559/breathing-liquid   (1150 words)

 Bizarre Facts in Biology
The mice in Dr. Kylstra's lab were able to breathe the liquid and receive adequate amounts of oxygen.
Sometimes this air has been modified to reduce the amount of nitrogen which has been shown to be the source of a wide variety of diving injuries and sicknesses.
While it may be many years before SCUBA tanks are routinely filled with a liquid breathing medium, the medical applications of this technology are becoming realized.
wps.prenhall.com /esm_audesirk_bloe_7/0,8753,1141954-,00.html   (472 words)

 Abyss, The : Breathing Liquid?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The liquid in a womb is not where a person recieves their oxygen, they get it from an umbilical cord.
This liquid is not 'breathed' but keeps the lungs inflated (premature babies are unable to produce surfactant, a substance that prevents the lungs from collapsing)
F.Y.I. A babys lungs are not filled with liquid at all, while it is true that a baby recieves oxygen and nutrients from the umbilical cord the babys mouth remains shut until it is born.
www.slipups.com /items/24023.html   (310 words)

 Anaesthesia UK : Artificial blood
Assuming that the alveoli of the lungs should be capable of drawing oxygen out of the fluid and replacing it with carbon dioxide, Clark suggested that these fluorocarbons should support respiration of animals.
This photograph demonstrates a living mouse breathing in the liquid, while a goldfish inhabits the water floating on top.
Clark discovered that the length of time the mice could survive in the fluid was directly related to the fluorocarbon's temperature: the colder the fluid, the lower the respiration rate which in turn prevented carbon dioxide buildup.
www.frca.co.uk /article.aspx?articleid=100112   (477 words)

 Liquid Ventilation: Current Status -- Shaffer et al. 20 (12): 134 -- Pediatrics in Review
As liquid enters the side port of the endotracheal tube, the ventilator carries PFC to the distal areas of the lung.
As PFC liquid accumulates in the lungs, atelectatic regions of the lungs are expanded from A to B. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged between alveolar PFC liquid and blood passing through the pulmonary capillaries.
liquid (3 mL/kg) to high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV)
pedsinreview.aappublications.org /cgi/content/full/20/12/e134   (4343 words)

 Liquid Breathing
Thirty years ago the idea of Liquid Breathing was merely a dream, but recently scientists in America have proved that in fact an oxygen rich fluid, from a family of chemicals called perflourocarbons can support life.
The liquid fills the many tiny collapsed air sacs of the patient's lungs, providing the basis for the vital exchange of oxygen into the blood.
Due to it's density (it is twice as dense as water) and it's capacity to carry 25 items as much oxygen than water, it can oxygenate the blood long enough to give damaged lungs the necessary time to heal.
health.ninemsn.com.au /article.aspx?id=2825   (267 words)

 Liquid Breathing   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The general type of liquid used by the US Navy and other Navies in the world generally have a perfluorocarbon type composition.
(marketed name for liquid breathing liquid) can carry as much as 25 times as much oxygen than blood and it has enormous potential for patients with lung and breathing disorders.
Thus breathing would be easier and lower concentrations would only be needed.
www.chm.bris.ac.uk /webprojects2002/shorrock/3-%20%20Liquid_breathing.htm   (373 words)

 LiquiVent Therapy
This technique involves the complete filling of the lungs with PFC and the use of a special "liquid ventilator" device to remove and filter the PFC from the lung.
The PLV technique allowed for PFC therapy to be administered to patients who are being supported by conventional mechanical gas ventilators, which are in use in all hospitals.
LiquiVent (perflubron) is a medical grade liquid perfluorochemical that is colorless, odorless, immiscible with body fluids, chemically stable, and virtually inert from a biochemical perspective.
www.allp.com /LiquiVent/LV_SUMM.HTM   (1813 words)

 Breathing liquid oxygen   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Your question is interesting though because it would be desirable to breath liquid instead of gas under certain conditions.
Special liquids are being designed to carry dissolved gaseous oxygen to the lung and to remove carbon dioxide.
Even fish are breathing dissolved oxygen, the water is much too warm for liquid oxygen.
www.newton.dep.anl.gov /askasci/bio99/bio99079.htm   (146 words)

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