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Topic: Liquid fuels

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In the News (Thu 25 Apr 19)

 Space and its Exploration: How a Liquid Propellant Rocket Works   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
The complexity of the liquid rocket engine has helped to create the cliché of the "rocket scientist" and there is no doubt the builders of the liquid fueled rocket engine were highly intelligent.
Liquid fueled rockets propelled the Russians and Americans deep into the space age with the mighty Energiya SL-17 and Saturn V rockets.
The apparent distinction is the liquid state of the fuel and the oxidizer.
adc.gsfc.nasa.gov /adc/education/space_ex/liquid.html   (1881 words)

 LIQUID FUELS AND FUELS TAX   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
The average wholesale price per gallon of all taxable liquid fuels and fuels, excluding the federal excise tax and all liquid fuels taxes, as determined by the department of revenue for the 12-month period ending on the September 30 immediately prior to january 1 of the year for which the rate is to be set.
Accountable liquid fuels or fuels delivered into this commonwealth from out-of-state by or for the purchaser constitutes an import by the purchaser.
When the unencumbered balance in the county liquid fuels tax fund is greater than the receipts for the 12 months immediately preceding the date of either of the reports, the county commissioners shall notify the political subdivisions to make application within 90 days for participation in the redistribution of the unencumbered balance.
members.aol.com /StatutesP5/75.Cp.90.html   (8340 words)

 Energy Glossary: Technologies / Fuels
This liquid, or bio-oil, is produced through a process called pyrolysis, in which the biomass is broken down into liquid in an oxygen-free, high-temperature environment.
The byproducts of fossil fuel combustion, including carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane, are emissions that increase the “greenhouse” effect that causes global climate change.
The hydrogen and oxygen are then fed to two terminals in the fuel cell to cause a chemical reaction that produces electricity with heat and water as byproducts.
www.mtpc.org /cleanenergy/energy/glossarytechfuels.htm   (1705 words)

 Liquid fuels - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Liquid fuels are those combustible or energy-generating molecules that can be harnessed to create mechanical energy, usually producing kinetic energy; they also must take the shape of their container.
Most liquid fuels, in widespread use, are or derived from fossil fuels; however, there are several types, such as hydrogen fuel (for automotive uses), which are also categorized as a liquid fuel.
A diesel engine is a type of internal combustion engine which ignites fuel by compressing it (which in turn raises the temperature) as opposed to using an outside source, such as a spark plug.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Liquid_fuels   (1250 words)

 HFCIT Hydrogen Production: Renewable Liquid Fuels Reforming
It is anticipated that distributed reforming of biomass-derived liquid fuels could be commercial during the transition to hydrogen and used in the mid- and long-term time frame.
Biomass resources can be converted to ethanol, bio-oils, or other liquid fuels that can be transported at relatively low cost to a refueling station or other point-of-use and reformed to produce hydrogen.
The liquid fuel is reacted with steam at high temperatures in the presence of a catalyst to produce a reformate gas composed mostly of hydrogen and carbon monoxide.
www.eere.energy.gov /hydrogenandfuelcells/production/liquid_fuels.html   (621 words)

 Labeling Alternative Fuels
For an alternative fuel other than electricity, the fuel rating is the commonly-used name of the fuel and a disclosure of the amount of the principal component of the fuel, expressed as a minimum percentage.
Distributors of electric vehicle fuel dispensing systems also must certify the fuel rating of the system with each transfer to anyone who is not a consumer _ by delivery ticket, other paper, or by a permanent marking or a permanent label attached to the system by the manufacturer.
For example, in the case of CNG vehicle fuel, it would be insufficient to certify as a single percentage the minimum percentage of methane, ethane, and propane in the fuel; the minimum percentage of each component of the fuel must be certified _ and posted _ separately.
www.ftc.gov /bcp/conline/pubs/buspubs/altfuels.htm   (9248 words)

 Renewable Liquid Fuels: Current Situation and Prospects   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Ethanol produced from grain and biodiesel produced from vegetable oils and animal fats are the major renewable liquid fuels being produced in the United States.
Both fuels have increased in consumer acceptance as the quantities consumed have increased in recent years, and the recent increases in petroleum prices have stimulated interest in the possibility of producing both fuels as extenders of the gasoline and diesel fuel supplies.
This study, conducted to analyze the effect of a RFS for motor vehicle fuel, assumed all of the biodiesel was produced from soybean oil.
www.choicesmagazine.org /scripts/printVersion.php?ID=2006-1-03   (3160 words)

 Revenue: Liquid Fuels and Fuels Taxes
Under the provisions of Act 3—1997, a permanent trust fund tax of 12 cents per gallon or fractional part is imposed on all liquid fuels and fuels used or sold and delivered by distributors in the Commonwealth beginning October 1, 1997.
Prior to this date, liquid fuels were taxed under the provisions of the Act of May 21, 1931 (P.L. 149), as amended, known as the Liquid Fuels Tax Act and fuels were taxed under the Act of January 14, 1952 (P.L. 1965), as amended, known as the Fuels Use Tax Act.
“Liquid fuels”, which is comprised primarily of gasoline, specifically excludes kerosene, fuel oil, gas oil, diesel fuels and tractor fuel.
www.revenue.state.pa.us /revenue/cwp/view.asp?A=11&Q=48821   (432 words)

 Liquid Fuels 2
Since neat biodiesel has been classified as an "alternative fuel", a bi-fuel vehicle that is authorized by the vehicle manufacturer to be operated on 100% vol.
Vehicles which count toward a purchase requirement are determined by the type of fuel that those vehicles are capable of being fueled with.
Assuming the average price of diesel fuel is 70ยข/gallon and the average price of biodiesel is $3.00 per gallon, the incremental fuel costs to the state of Missouri would be approximately $450,000 (similar to the costs modeled in the Iowa economic study).
www.marciv.com /papers/liquid_fuels_2.htm   (3653 words)

 Technology Review: Coal-Powered Jets   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Researchers have powered a turboshaft jet engine, the type used to drive helicopter rotors, with a coal-based fuel that could eventually replace military and commercial jet fuels, says Harold Schobert, director of the Energy Institute at Pennsylvania State University.
The successful development of the coal-based fuel, which was described this week at the American Chemical Society meeting in Atlanta, could also have uses in diesel engines and fuel cells, Schobert says.
Fischer-Tropsch (FT) Coal-to-Liquid Fuel by Guest (bob) 4/2/2006 12:00 AM Re Schobert's fuel- would require more refinery capacity as well as the limited coke byproducts as he noted.
www.technologyreview.com /BizTech/wtr_16650,296,p1.html   (491 words)

 Liquid fuels - Certification Program Proposal for scouts
Charcoal is good fuel for novice campers as it does not require expensive stoves or maintenance in order to use.
The fuel valve controls the flow of fuel and air from the tank to and through the generator.
Moving the fuel valve from LOW to HIGH moves a needle in and out of an orifice in the generator and regulates the flow of fuel.
www.faqs.org /faqs/scouting/unit-administration/section-6.html   (2014 words)

 UCICL:LIQUID FUELS AND SPRAYS: PLAIN JET CROSS FLOW   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
This research is aimed at gaining a better understanding of the characteristics of sprays generated by injecting liquid fuel jets into a cross flow of air as might be found in the premixing duct of a gas turbine fuel injector.
Collect data on for the jet produced by a “recessed” liquid jet injector using high speed videography for a distillate fuel under elevated pressure and temperature conditions.
A liquid jet is formed by passing fuel through an orifice located in one wall of the test section.
www.ucicl.uci.edu /RESEARCHPROJECTS/LiguidFuelsandSprays/PlainJetCrossFlow/Index.aspx   (389 words)

 Alt. fuels--03/26/93   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
This option would assign an appropriate octane rating to each alternative liquid fuel, and require that rating to be certified throughout the distribution chain and posted at the pump.
According to the Commission, however, octane ratings are not expected to vary greatly within specific classes of alternative liquid fuels, and there is no established method for determining their octane ratings.
Among several questions, the Commission asked whether it should require the posting and certification of octane ratings for alternative fuels and whether this proposal is likely to lead consumers into the erroneous perception that high octane in all fuels, including gasoline, will result in more overall benefits to their vehicles.
www.ftc.gov /opa/predawn/F93/altfuels-4.htm   (841 words)

 Synthetic fuel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Synthetic fuel or synfuel is any liquid fuel obtained from coal, natural gas, or biomass.
An intermediate step in the production of synthetic fuel is often syngas, a stochiometric mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which is sometimes directly used as an industrial fuel.
While at present synthetic fuels are primarily produced because of subsidies, they are a proven technology that offers the potential to solve the energy crisis due to the depletion of oil (Hubbert peak), at least for the next hundred years.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Synthetic_fuel   (694 words)

 Gas-to-Liquid Fuels In Transportation
Gas-to-Liquid fuels are fuels that can be produced from natural gas, coal and biomass using a Fischer-Tropsch chemical reaction process.
This fuel can be used as a blendstock to upgrade conventional petroleum diesel fuels and extend diesel fuel capacity and supplies.
While the cost of producing GTL fuel has been declining as a result of better catalysts, scale up and plant design, the transport and distribution costs to market are slightly higher than for locally produced refinery fuels.
www.energy.ca.gov /afvs/vehicle_fact_sheets/gtl.html   (662 words)

 Alexander's Gas & Oil Connections - Coal-to-liquid fuel offers answer to energy woes
These plants, costing $ 3 bn each, are reported to jointly produce 60 mm tons of liquid fuel (440 mm barrels) a year.
But coal is a highly polluting fuel when burned directly and also emits a lot of global-warming carbon dioxide.
In the longer term, fuel cells burning hydrogen and producing only water as a waste product are promising, but still far from being economically feasible.
www.gasandoil.com /goc/features/fex43159.htm   (987 words)

Insight gained into these processes will enable the design of fuel injectors that enhance fuel-air mixing and lower noxious pollutant emissions in future advanced gas turbine engines targeted for next generation high speed civilian aircraft.
Achieving uniform mixing of fuel and air via airblast spray injection into a crossflow requires knowledge of the interaction of many processes including primary atomization in the injection hole region provided by the airblast, secondary atomization due to the crossflow, mass dispersal due to jet-crossflow mixing, and evaporation.
Figure 3 shows sample PLLIF images obtained for a methanol fuel spray flowing at a rate of 0.180 g/sec at various airblast Air to Liquid Ratios (ALR) injected into a crossflow of air flowing at 38 m/sec.
www.ucicl.uci.edu /RESEARCHPROJECTS/LiguidFuelsandSprays/TwinFluidJetCrossflow/Index.aspx   (470 words)

 The American Enterprise: An Energy Revolution   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Our civilization cannot be sustained without efficient liquid fuels, and there is no foreseeable prospect whatsoever of cost effective, large-scale generation of liquid fuels from wind, solar, hydroelectric, or nuclear sources.
If the hydrogen is then used in a fuel cell in an electric car, only about 55 percent of its energy value will be used; the rest is wasted to heat and so forth.
And methanol is the safest motor fuel, because it is much less flammable than gasoline (a fact that has led to its adoption by car racing leagues).
www.taemag.com /issues/articleID.18976/article_detail.asp   (3313 words)

 Where do you get your energy from? Latest on alternative liquid fuels | EnergyBulletin.net | Peak Oil News ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
The cars have sensors that monitor the fuel and adjust the engine to cope with whatever mix of ethanol and petrol is in the tanks.
Just 0.3% of the UK’s fuel consumption comes from such fuels, putting the country far behind the 2% recommended for this year in Europe’s biofuels directive and making the 5.57% targeted for 2010 look completely out of reach.
Even with increased fuel prices after Hurricane Katrina, petrol in America still costs half as much as in Britain, so fuel consumption is less of a concern to those who favour big, heavy 4x4s and pick-up trucks.
www.energybulletin.net.cob-web.org:8888 /9472.html   (2249 words)

 VEHICLE CODE (Title 75)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
A person, other than a common or contract carrier, to import or cause to be imported liquid fuels into this Commonwealth unless the person possesses a valid liquid fuels permit.
A common or contract carrier to knowingly transport liquid fuels into this Commonwealth on behalf of any person who does not possess a valid liquid fuels permit.
Any liquid fuels seized under this section may be immediately used for any public purpose or sold to any person at the discretion of the Secretary of Revenue.
members.aol.com /StatutesP2/75.Cp.94.html   (1553 words)

 Ultraclean Liquid Fuels - RTI International
Removing sulfur from gasoline and diesel fuels is a key element in achieving cleaner, healthier air.
RTI researchers are developing a process to remove sulfur from gasoline and diesel fuels, building on many years of experience in removing sulfur from synthetic gases derived from coal.
Our ultraclean fuel process may offer several benefits compared to existing processes, including lower capital and operating costs and a higher yield of desulfurized fuel.
www.rti.org /sudaan/page.cfm?nav=553   (400 words)

 PNNL: Bio-based Product Research - Biomass to Clean Fuels   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been involved in process development for clean fuels from biomass for over a quarter of a century, since shortly after the first Arab oil embargo of the 1970s.
Liquid Fuels from Biomass by Pyrolytic Methods - Process optimization in high-pressure biomass liquefaction at the bench scale led to development of a leading expertise in bio-oil chemical analysis.
Syngas to Liquid Fuels - Catalytic systems are being evaluated for the conversion of biomass-derived synthesis gas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) to liquid fuel components for use as transportation fuels to augment petroleum use.
www.pnl.gov /biobased/bcf.stm   (574 words)

 Ultra Clean Fuels Technology - Article 17
These EECPs are designed to produce some combination of electricity, heat, fuels, and chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks.
It is quite possible that an increase in the demand for electric power and low-sulfur fuels, coupled with government incentives to recycle waste products, will drive industry to look at a wide variety of synthesis gas feedstocks for F-T products.
This article is reprinted from the March 2001 issue of Hart's Gas-To-Liquids News, a monthly newsletter focused on the technology and business of producing clean liquid fuels from natural gas and other feedstocks.
www.ultracleanfuels.com /html/a17.htm   (1430 words)

 About IASH — The International Association for the Stability, Handling and Use of Liquid Fuels   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
The International Association for Stability, Handling and Use of Liquid Fuels, IASH®, was founded in 1986.
The purposes of the Association are to promote research and experimentation on the scientific and operational factors that affect the stability and handling of liquid fuels during their manufacture and blending, transportation, storage, and use; and to provide a forum for the exchange of related ideas and information.
Liquid fuels include crude oil and its refined products; fuels derived or processed from oil shale, tar sands, coal, and natural gas; and reformulated fuels such as those containing oxygenated components.
www.iash.net /about_iash   (123 words)

 NREL: Nonpetroleum Based Fuels - Gas-to-Liquid Fuels
GTL fuels are created when gaseous fuels such as natural gas or biogas are converted to liquid fuels that can be refined into gasoline and diesel.
GTL diesel fuels have been shown to reduce regulated exhaust emissions from a variety of diesel engines and vehicles.
The unique properties of GTL diesel fuel can be used to optimize a diesel engine for additional emission reductions.
www.nrel.gov /vehiclesandfuels/npbf/gas_liquid.html   (275 words)

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