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Topic: List of topics in logic


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  Mathematical logic - ExampleProblems.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Mathematical logic is a discipline within mathematics, studying formal systems in relation to the way they encode intuitive concepts of proof and computation as part of the foundations of mathematics.
Attempts to treat the operations of formal logic in a symbolic or algebraic way were made by some of the more philosophical mathematicians, such as Leibniz and Lambert; but their labors remained little known and isolated.
While the traditional development of logic (see list of topics in logic) put heavy emphasis on forms of arguments, the attitude of current mathematical logic might be summed up as the combinatorial study of content.
www.exampleproblems.com /wiki/index.php/Mathematical_logic   (967 words)

  
 List of topics in logic - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This is a list of topics in logic.
There is a list of fallacies on the logical fallacy page.
Modern mathematical logic is at the list of mathematical logic topics page.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/List_of_topics_in_logic   (490 words)

  
 Category:Logic - Definition, explanation
Morespecifically, logic is the study of prescriptive systems of reasoning, that is,systems proposed as guides for how people (as well, perhaps, as other intelligent beings/machines/systems) ought to reason.
Logic says which forms of inference are valid and which are not.
Traditionally, logic is studied as a branch ofphilosophy, but it can also be considered a branch of mathematics and computerscience.
lexikon.calsky.com /en/txt/cat/logic.php   (500 words)

  
 The Seven Truths Of Fuzzy Logic
This wide-spread belief comes in two flavors, the first holds that fuzzy logic violates common sense and the well proven laws of logic, and the second, perhaps inspired by its name, holds that fuzzy systems produce answers that are somehow ad-hoc, fuzzy, or vague.
The feeling persists that fuzzy logic systems somehow, through their handling of imprecise and approximate concepts, produce results that are approximations of the answer we would get if we had access to a model that worked on hard facts and crisp information.
Much of the discomfort with fuzzy logic stems from the implicit assumption that a single ``right'' logical system exists and to the degree that another system deviates from this right and correct logic it is in error.
www.bytecraft.com /fuzzylogictruths.html   (1133 words)

  
 Linear Logic (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
In the sequent calculus presentation of classical logic, the rules for the connectives "and" and "or", as well as the Cut rule and the rule for implication may be presented equivalently in an additive form (the context of the premises are the same) or a multiplicative form (the context of the premises are different).
Logic, or at least proof-theory, is focused on formal proof systems: intuitionistic predicate calculus, classical predicate calculus, arithmetics, higher order calculi, and a wealth of similar consistent and structured sets of process-building rules.
Many models of linear logic proofs have been proposed; we consider that, to date, the simplest and most intuitive construction is those based on the so-called “relational semantics”, where formulas are interpreted as multisets, sequents as tuples of multisets and proofs as relations over the interpretation of sequents.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/logic-linear   (5958 words)

  
 Atheism: Logic & Fallacies
The Concise Oxford English Dictionary defines logic as "the science of reasoning, proof, thinking, or inference." Logic will let you analyze an argument or a piece of reasoning, and work out whether it is likely to be correct or not.
Logic in itself doesn't solve the problem of verifying the basic assertions which support arguments; for that, we need some other tool.
The list isn't intended to be exhaustive; the hope is that if you learn to recognize some of the more common fallacies, you'll be able to avoid being fooled by them.
www.infidels.org /library/modern/mathew/logic.html   (5866 words)

  
 TeachLogic Home
Background: Logic is the calculus of computer science: It plays a fundamental role similar to the role of calculus in the physical sciences and traditional engineering disciplines.
Indeed, logic is usually covered in one or two isolated classes, and ignored in the rest.
Logic in Computer Science: tool-based modeling and reasoning about systems (pdf), by Michael Huth, from proceedings of Frontiers in Education 2000.
www.cs.rice.edu /~tlogic   (541 words)

  
 Teaching Logic as a tool
Logic is the glue that binds together methods of reasoning, in all domains.
For this purpose, we use an equational logic, in which substitution of equals for equals rather than modus ponens is the main inference rule.
Equational logic was developed over the years (beginning in the early 1980's) by researchers in the formal development of programs, who felt a need for an effective style of manipulation, of calculation.
www.cs.cornell.edu /Info/People/gries/logicthetool.html   (2912 words)

  
 Topics in Logic: Extensions and Alternatives to Classical Logic
Modal Logic (the logic of possibility and necessity; add sentential operators for 'it is necessary that' and 'it is possible that', where the latter can be defined as 'it is not necessary that it is not the case that'.
Deontic Logic (logic of obligation: add sentential operators for 'it is obligatory that' and 'it is permissible that', where permissibility can be defined as 'not obligatory that not:' Again the main interest may be philosophical, in ethics.
Paraconsistent Logic (logics that allow contradictions, sentences of the form P and ~P, to be true.
www.trinity.edu /cbrown/topics_in_logic/modifications.html   (596 words)

  
 Logical Argument, Proof and Proof Theory Information Portal @ Proves.org   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
The process of demonstration of deductive (see also Nixon diamond) and Logical reasoning reasoning shapes the argument, and presumes some kind of communication, which could be part of a written text, a speech or a conversation.
Logic says which forms of 0-9 are valid and which are not.
Logical extreme - Brief introductions to combinatory logic, the incompleteness theorems and independence results, by Andrew D Burbanks.
www.proves.org   (1783 words)

  
 The Math Forum - Math Library - Logic/Foundations
Arché: Centre for the Philosophy of Logic, Language, Mathematics and Mind - Crispin Wright, Director; University of St. Andrews, U.K. Arché is a new research centre within the School of Philosophical and Anthropological Studies, St Andrews.
Aristotle and the Paradoxes of Logic - Gilbert Voeten
The Association for Symbolic Logic (ASL) is an international organization supporting the presentation, publication, and critical discussion of scholarly work in the field of logic.
mathforum.org /library/topics/logic   (2213 words)

  
 Intuitionistic Logic
Intuitionistic logic encompasses the principles of logical reasoning which were used by L. Brouwer in developing his intuitionistic mathematics, beginning in [1907].
Philosophically, intuitionism differs from logicism by treating logic as a part of mathematics rather than as the foundation of mathematics; from finitism by allowing (constructive) reasoning about infinite collections; and from platonism by viewing mathematical objects as mental constructs with no independent ideal existence.
A derivation of a formula E from a collection F of assumptions is any sequence of formulas, each of which belongs to F or is an axiom or an immediate consequence, by a rule of inference, of preceding formulas of the sequence, such that E is the last formula of the sequence.
www.seop.leeds.ac.uk /archives/sum2003/entries/logic-intuitionistic   (2215 words)

  
 [No title]
Topics include: solution of non-linear equations and systems of equations; interpolation; numerical differentiation, integration, solutions of differential equations; approximation using orthogonal polynomials and trigonometric polynomials.
Topics will include Hamming distance, encoding and decoding, vector spaces over finite fields (much over just the field with two elements), linear codes, equivalent codes, generator matrices, perfect codes, cyclic codes, and interactions between codes and combinatorial designs.
The list of topics includes: very ancient as well as indigenous mathematics; the contributions of ancient Greece including Euclid and Archimedes; and the birth of calculus.
ww2.lafayette.edu /~math/program/sptopics_list.html   (1674 words)

  
 Smith College: Logic
The goal of the logic minor is to provide students with the tools, techniques, and concepts necessary to appreciate logic and to apply it to other fields.
Formal logic and its application to the evaluation of everyday arguments, the abstract properties of logical systems, the implications of inconsistency.
This course examines logical and semantic paradoxes and their philosophical significance, as well as the choice between accepting incompleteness and inconsistency in logic and knowledge.
www.smith.edu /logic/courses.php   (400 words)

  
 MainFrame: The Lambda-calculus, Combinatory Logic, and Type Systems
At this time reducing logic to the simplest possible primitive basis was still thought to be worthwhile (it is not so greatly valued today).
Recently Randall Holmes has developed logical systems based on combinatory logic and the lambda calculus using methods derived from Quine's formulations of set theory.
The connection between the lambda calculus and pure combinatory logic was exploited to yield efficient techniques for the evaluation of functional programs by the reduction of graphs of combinators.
www.rbjones.com /rbjpub/logic/cl/cl017.htm   (1273 words)

  
 Aristotle's Logic (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
The second column lists the medieval mnemonic name associated with the inference (these are still widely used, and each is actually a mnemonic for Aristotle's proof of the mood in question).
Modern modal logic treats necessity and possibility as interdefinable: "necessarily P" is equivalent to "not possibly not P", and "possibly P" to "not necessarily not P".
Aristotle describes what these lists are lists of in different ways: they tell us "how being is divided", or "how many ways being is said", or "the figures of predication" (ta schêmata tês katêgorias).
plato.stanford.edu /entries/aristotle-logic   (11045 words)

  
 More on Mathematical Logic
Although the layperson may think that mathematical logic is the logic of mathematics, the truth is rather that it more closely resembles the mathematics of logic.
Mathematical logic was the name given by Peano to what is also known as symbolic logic.
The main areas of mathematical logic include model theory, proof theory and recursion theory.
www.artilifes.com /mathematical-logic.htm   (806 words)

  
 Links for "Logical Systems"
Logic Section of the Los Alamos Mathematical Archive of Eprints
Preprints in Mathematical Logic and Foundations of Mathematics.
Berkeley Group in Logic and the Methodology of Science.
www.earlham.edu /~peters/courses/logsys/lslinks.htm   (712 words)

  
 Mailing List: RFLIST
Save discussion for such topics as hats, underwear, war crimes, religion, etc for your private email, instead of uselessly cluttering the inboxes of List members who subscribed for ON topic discussions.
Some lists have members under the delusion that everyone subscribed to read their often ill conceived attempts at humor and quick repartee.
People booted off are generally not given warnings, the logic being that if subscribers don't take the time to read and follow the list guidelines, the list administrator's time is better spent elsewhere.
cameraquest.com /rflist.htm   (528 words)

  
 ScholarsBox/EssaySeries/TopicsList - Raymond Yee's Wiki   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
In the course of writing the essay series, I will be making excursions into related topics, to explain a concept or to make a supporting argument.
Of course, what may be ancillary to the Scholar's Box essays, might be of interest to a general audience because of the possibly more general focus of the ancillary materials.
The goal will be to prioritize the topics and select specific questions for future essays.
raymondyee.net /wiki/ScholarsBox_2fEssaySeries_2fTopicsList   (901 words)

  
 Computer Architecture Topics List
The following list of computer architecture topics is intended to be an exhaustive list of possible topics for the undergraduate architecture sequence.
Topics ("knowledge units") from the 9 subject areas of the Computing Curricula 1991 that I believe could be included in an "architecture curriculum":
Suggested Laboratories: (closed) Design simple logic circuits and implement them with SSI, e.g., parity generation and checking and code conversions, Other design exercises should include the use of multiplexers to perform complex logic on a single chip, and the use of adders and 2’s complement addition and subtraction.
www.cs.utexas.edu /users/chris/arch/www/topics.html   (1795 words)

  
 OpenSubsystems :: Open Core :: Tutorial :: Developing the business logic
The same business logic should apply regardless if the application is presented to the user in a browser, as a desktop application or using a PDA.
That said, the business logic provides services to the user interface tier and therefore the designer must consider how these services will be used to make the implementation of different kinds of clients easier.
For example, the page displaying list of all entries in chronicle will need both, the list of Entry objects and the Blog object since it will be nice to show to the user what is the name of the chronicle the entries belong to.
www.opensubsystems.org /core/tutorial_businesslogic.html   (1530 words)

  
 Biology4Kids.com: Scientific Studies: Logic
Logic has you thinking with reason and arguments (statements).
Scientists use logic because it shows the relationships between the parts of an idea and the whole idea.
The scientific method is a rational, logical thought process that is used to figure out facts and truths.
www.biology4kids.com /files/studies_logic.html   (418 words)

  
 Mathematical Background
In predicate logic, however, the fine structure of the proposition is analyzed in detail.
The formation rules of first-order logic are an example of a recursive definition.
For predicate logic, the rules of inference include all the rules of propositional logic with additional rules about substituting values for quantified variables.
www.jfsowa.com /logic/math.htm   (14436 words)

  
 The B-List: How Django processes a request
Simon Willison once wrote such a document, but it was a fairly high-level view and a fair number of things have changed since then, so I’m going to take a stab at it myself, and hopefully the result will be comprehensible.
Otherwise, the resolver returns three items: the view function specified by the matched item, a list of matched groups within the regular expression (to be used as positional arguments for the view) and any (optional) extra keyword arguments the URL configuration specified.
list, and calls each method in that list, passing the view function and associated arguments.
www.b-list.org /weblog/2006/06/13/how-django-processes-request   (2572 words)

  
 The world's top mathematical logic websites   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Mathematical logic is a discipline within mathematics, studying formal systems in relation to the way they encode intuitive concepts of proof and computation.
A superb exposition of this topic, comprehensible to any mathematician, is to be found in Boolos (not to be confused with George Boole) and Jeffrey's book Computability and Logic.
Computability logic A new direction in mathematical logic, turning it from a theory of truth into a theory of computability.
www.websbiggest.com /wiki-article-tab.cfm/mathematical_logic   (614 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Rather the ContentFilteredTopic is passed a Topic which is already associated with the type.
The list of topics and the logic used to combine filter and re-arrange the information from each Topic are specified using the subscription_expression and expression_parameters arguments.
This is done using the register_type operation on a derived class of the DataType interface as described in Section 2.1.2.3.6.
www.omg.org /issues/issue6818.txt   (226 words)

  
 lists.apple.com Mailing Lists
Below is a listing of all the public mailing lists on lists.apple.com.
Click on a list name to get more information about the list, or to subscribe, unsubscribe, and change the preferences on your subscription.
A list for Mac OS X developers who wish to discuss implementation of speech recognition and speech synthesis technologies.
lists.apple.com /mailman/listinfo   (677 words)

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