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Topic: Literary language


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In the News (Thu 25 Apr 19)

  
  Reference: Dictionary, Encyclopedia, Thesauri, Usage, Quotations, and more. Bartleby.com
The American Language: An Inquiry into the Development of English in the United States, 2nd ed.
This classic defines the distinguishing characteristics of the language of the United States.
Language: An Introduction to the Study of Speech.
www.bartleby.com /reference   (739 words)

  
  Literary language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A literary language is a register of a language that is used in writing, and which often differs in lexicon and syntax from the language used in speech.
Literary Chinese tends to a density of expression that is much greater than spoken Chinese.
Literary Arabic, based on the standard of the Qur'an, continues to function as a lingua franca throughout the Arab world despite the often strongly differing varieties of local Arabic vernaculars.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Literary_language   (697 words)

  
 Greek Language - MSN Encarta
Aeolic was spoken principally in the districts of Aeolis, Thessaly (Thessalia), and Boeotia.
It was the language of the poets Alcaeus and Sappho and of three of the idylls of Theocritus.
Koine was the language of the court and of literature and commerce throughout the Hellenistic empires.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761552508/Greek_Language.html   (1718 words)

  
 Chapter1: Literary Language/Instrumental Language
Literary language and instrumental language are similarly dichotomaic; it is impossible for either to exist in pure form.
The point of this is that the language of literature is not to be defined by examining particular works, let alone the body of literature itself; rather literature is to be defined as a body of texts that regularly employ, indeed strongly favour, literary language.
If we consider the instrumental language used in a text as the structure, the foundation upon which literary language is arrayed, we have a useful model for the arrangement and ultimate processing of the ideal text.
members.aol.com /jamesl4242/FINCHAP1.htm   (6004 words)

  
 Literary theory - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Literary theory is the theory (or the philosophy) of the interpretation of literature and literary criticism.
One of the fundamental questions of literary theory is "What is literature?", though many contemporary theorists and literary scholars believe either that the term "literature" is undefinable or that it can potentially refer to any use of language.
Since then, and as of 2004, the controversy over the use of theory in literary studies has all but died out, and discussions on the topic within literary and cultural studies tend now to be considerably milder and less acrimonious.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Literary_theory   (1560 words)

  
 Stylistics
While all versions of literary stylistics have dedicated themselves to the study and interpretation of literary texts, it was the growing importance of European historical linguistics during the mid-nineteenth century that produced the most easily recognized component of early modern stylistics: a deeply rooted concern with formal linguistic description of literary language.
Literary texts, in Bally's formulation, are particular examples of language use, and the analysis of their style is not a central part of the general stylistics he emphasizes.
Literary stylistic analyses were occurring in England and in the United States at this time, but they often did not contain the formal linguistic orientation that characterizes the modern discipline of stylistics.
www.press.jhu.edu /books/hopkins_guide_to_literary_theory/stylistics.html   (2791 words)

  
 Macedonia for the Macedonians
The modern codification of the Macedonian literary language was as late as 1944, although from the 1860s onwards, attempts were made at creating a general Macedonian literary standard.
A characteristic feature of the Macedonian literary standard is the three-syllable accent (the accent always falls on the third syllable from the end in words of three syllables or more), and the clear pronunciation of unaccented vowels.
As we have already mentioned, starting from the 9th century and the foundation of the well-known Ohrid Literary School, the standard Macedonian language was used in written documents for a long period: until the 11th century in the Glagolitic, and after that in the Cyrillic script.
www.makedonija.info /language.html   (1434 words)

  
 The problem of the Karelian literary language in the 1930's and the 1990's
The decision was motivated by absence of literary traditions, dialectal differences of the Karelian language, affinity of its northern dialects to the Finnish language and wide-spread knowledge of Russian among the southern Karelians.
In the beginning of the 1930's, a project of a Karelian literary language based on the Latin alphabet was approved, publication of a newspaper and textbooks was organized, transition of the elementary school into the native language began.
The new literary language was given a Cyrillic orthography and a grammar in which, according to Bubrikh, "phenomena that could as well as possible suit all the Karelians were selected and connected into a uniform system, regardless of which dialects did these phenomena belong to".
www.geocities.com /Athens/4280/eng_doklad.html   (2247 words)

  
 [Project Rastko] THE HISTORY OF SERBIAN CULTURE - Pavle Ivic: Standard language as an instrument of culture and the ...
This language is used by the Serbs and Croats, as well as by the Slavic Moslems of Bosnia and Herzegovina and of the Sanjak (a region which outlines the modern borders between Serbia and Montenegro).
The mutual literary language of the Serbs, Bulgarians and Russians consolidated their participation in the cultural milieu of Orthodoxy, which was always open to influence from Greek.
The parallel existence of ecclesiastical language and the vernacular was retained, especially the predominance of the ecclesiastical.
www.rastko.org.yu /isk/pivic-standard_language.html   (4708 words)

  
 Literary Language and Complex Literature
To this end, it proposes a distinction, ultimately elaborated into a continuum, between "literary language" and "instrumental language." The former is identified as that which is functionally polysemous, admitting of more than one meaning; metaphor and ambiguity are two of the more commonly studied varieties.
This study intends to demonstrate that this privileging of instrumental language over literary language is unhealthy for the social ecology.
Its protagonist, Oedipa Maas, is the archetypal instrumental reader whose encounter with a polysemic text radically alters her understanding of her world; because the novel is itself highly polysemic, the reader's experience matches Oedipa's, so that by the end of the text both Oedipa and the reader are in the same bind.
members.aol.com /jamesl4242/INTRONW.htm   (820 words)

  
 Slavonic languages
The myriad differences between the dialects and languages in phonetics, grammar, and above all vocabulary may cause misunderstandings even in the simplest of conversations; and the difficulties are greater in the language of journalism, technical usage, and belles lettres, even in the case of closely connected languages.
The Slovak literary language was formed on the basis of a Central Slovak dialect in the middle of the 19th century.
It was used in some literary texts in the late 18th century and in turn influenced the language of Nikolay Gogol, one of the greatest Russian writers of the 19th century.
www.rkp-montreal.org /en/05slavoniclanguages.html   (5789 words)

  
 [No title]
This language is used by the Serbs and Croats, as well as by the Slavic Moslems of Bosnia and Herzegovina and of the Sanjak (a region which outlines the modern borders between Serbia and Montenegro).
The mutual literary language of the Serbs, Bulgarians and Russians consolidated their participation in the cultural milieu of Orthodoxy, which was always open to influence from Greek.
The parallel existence of ecclesiastical language and the vernacular was retained, especially the predominance of the ecclesiastical.
www.serbianunity.net /culture/history/Hist_Serb_Culture/chc/Standard_Language.html   (4742 words)

  
 Literary Theory [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
It is literary theory that formulates the relationship between author and work; literary theory develops the significance of race, class, and gender for literary study, both from the standpoint of the biography of the author and an analysis of their thematic presence within texts.
Literary theorists trace the history and evolution of the different genres—narrative, dramatic, lyric—in addition to the more recent emergence of the novel and the short story, while also investigating the importance of formal elements of literary structure.
Literary theory and the formal practice of literary interpretation runs a parallel but less well known course with the history of philosophy and is evident in the historical record at least as far back as Plato.
www.iep.utm.edu /l/literary.htm   (4789 words)

  
 Trapped in language: aspects of ambiguity and intertextuality in selected poetry and prose by Sylvia Plath - Critical ...
While literary language is often marked by the deliberate exploitation of linguistic ambiguity, ordinary language use relies strongly on conventionalized elements of speech, whose rules and regularities have been agreed upon by the members of a given culture.
Contemporary literary theory and criticism is cognizant of the ambiguous nature of literary representation.
Through intertextual links, both with different cultural and literary contexts and within the canon of her own work, Plath establishes the kind of lexical ambiguity that, according to Su, "occurs when two or more distinct meanings or readings are tenable in a given context, rendering choice between the alternatives an uncertain one" (55).
findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m2342/is_1_36/ai_89985877   (888 words)

  
 Macedonia FAQ: The Macedonian Language In the Development Of the Slavic Literary Languages
The modern Russian literary language was created, first among all the modern Slavic languages in the eastern sphere, in such a way that it represents, generally speaking, a synthesis between Church Slavonic and the popular language of the higher levels of Russian society in the 18th century.
The Polish literary language, whose origins date to the 13th or 14th century at the earliest, is unique among the Slavic literary languages in that it has developed without interruption from its beginnings until the present.
Those Macedonian cultural and literary men of the past century who were in favor of a common literary language for the Macedonians and Bulgarians imparted to the term a new significance, motivated by their national inclinations.
faq.macedonia.org /language/development.html   (7719 words)

  
 Latin Language - MSN Encarta
It was the language of scholarship and diplomacy until the 18th century and of the Roman Catholic liturgy until the late 20th century.
Latin is a member of the Italic subfamily of the Indo-European languages; among non-Italic Indo-European languages, it is related especially closely to Sanskrit and Greek and to the Germanic and Celtic subfamilies.
The Latin literary language may be divided into four periods, corresponding in general to the periods of Latin literature.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761551959/Latin_Language.html   (363 words)

  
 Literary Translations: literary translation services, language translations, language translators
Foreign Translations, Inc.’s literary translation services provide accurate and well-defined language translations for the translation of any type of literary material.
Our team of highly qualified, experienced and educated literary language translators can produce the highest quality translation of any book (fiction or non-fiction, technical or otherwise) in almost any language and any subject.
As a result of only using foreign language translators with literary and publishing backgrounds, for all of our literary translation needs, Foreign Translations, Inc. is able to provide high-end, quality, literary language translations that are accurate, on time and within budget.
www.foreigntranslations.com /literary-translations.asp   (272 words)

  
 Ethnologue: Russia, Europe
Has literary status based on northern dialect, Kunzakh, which is used in Dagestan and as the lingua franca among speakers of the Avar group of languages.
Avar is used as the literary language; bilingual proficiency undetermined.
Komi is used in the Institute for Language and Literature of the Komi branch of the Adademy of Science.
www.christusrex.org /www3/ethno/RusE.html   (2754 words)

  
 L
Evidently an entirely parallel way of viewing language is to be attributed to Jacques Derrida with his metaphor of language as "graft": new speech acts are "grafted onto" old ones and of course serve in turn as the stock onto which further new speech acts are grafted...
Language, culture, and society are grounded in interaction: they stand in a reflexive relationship with the self, the other, and the self-other relationship, and it is out of these mutually constitutive relationships that discourse is created'.
Literary criticism, presumably always specially sensitive to the functions of language, and newly sensitive to its relationship to power on the site of institutionalized disciplines, can turn its tools to the critical examination of how, in relation to the state and its largest institutions, power operates in discourse and how discourse disciplines a population....
www.sil.org /~radneyr/humanities/L.htm   (14256 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: )
This language is used by the Serbs and Croats, as well as by the Slavic Moslems of Bosnia and Herzegovina and of the Sanjak (a region which outlines the modern borders between Serbia and Montenegro).
The mutual literary language of the Serbs, Bulgarians and Russians consolidated their participation in the cultural milieu of Orthodoxy, which was always open to influence from Greek.
The parallel existence of ecclesiastical language and the vernacular was retained, especially the predominance of the ecclesiastical.
www.suc.org /culture/history/Hist_Serb_Culture/chc/Standard_Language.html   (4685 words)

  
 Literary Language and Complex Literature
To this end, it proposes a distinction, ultimately elaborated into a continuum, between "literary language" and "instrumental language." The former is identified as that which is functionally polysemous, admitting of more than one meaning; metaphor and ambiguity are two of the more commonly studied varieties.
The sciences have their basis in a highly structured, monosemic approach to language and reality; this bias has contributed to the marginalization of polysemy, as has the general pragmatics of contemporary culture.
Its protagonist, Oedipa Maas, is the archetypal instrumental reader whose encounter with a polysemic text radically alters her understanding of her world; because the novel is itself highly polysemic, the reader's experience matches Oedipa's, so that by the end of the text both Oedipa and the reader are in the same bind.
www.sp.uconn.edu /~jbl00001/INTRONW.htm   (820 words)

  
 Egyptian Old Language
As in other Afro-Asiatic languages, words in Egyptian tend to be formed from roots typically consisting of three consonants; the basic meaning of the root is altered by different vowel patterns.
On the basis of the prevailing literary language, Egyptian has been divided into five periods.
It is still the liturgical language of the Coptic church.
library.thinkquest.org /C007680/oldlanguage.html   (428 words)

  
 NATIONAL PROFILES OF LANGUAGES IN ýEDUCATION: ISRAEL : LANGUAGE POLICY   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The national language of the Jews is modern Hebrew, but only 60% of the Jewish population were born in Israel, so that for about half of the Jewish population Hebrew is not the mother tongue.
French, recognized as important because of cultural, political and economic ties and as the community language of a sizable body of immigrants, is taught optionally (or as a required subject in place of Arabic) from 5th to 12th grade.
Languages in which there exist programs are Yiddish (also used as language of instruction and taught in the independent ultra-orthodox schools), Ladino, Spanish and German; the policy seeks to add others like Japanese.
www.biu.ac.il /hu/lprc/lprcprof.htm   (2173 words)

  
 Literary Terms
There is a good handbook/guide to other literary devices at this Lewis Carroll site and an excellent glossary of poetic devices at the University of Toronto.
Literary Forms (fiction) - many novels are written in more than one form, and there are many more forms than we will study in English 6.
Figurative Language - In general, this is a way of using words to make imaginative connections in the reader's "inner eye." These connections can be called images.
www.leasttern.com /LitTerms/literary_terms.htm   (2931 words)

  
 Estonica : Society : Literary language
The pronunciation of the Estonian literary language is relatively simple, i.e.
Another reason for the decline of the South Estonian language was the burning down of Tartu, the centre of Southern Estonia, and the deportation of people to Russia, in 1708, during the course of the Northern War waged between the Russians and Swedes.
The final decade of the 20th century is seeing a revival of the South Estonian literary language, this time based on the Võro dialect.
www.estonica.org /eng/lugu.html?kateg=38&menyy_id=61&alam=44&leht=4   (658 words)

  
 Arabic language   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Arabic has been a literary language since at least the 6th century, and is the liturgical language of Islam.
Literary Arabic, al-luġatu-l-ʿarabīyatu-l-fuṣḥā (Literally: the most eloquent Arabic language—اللغة العربية الفصحى) refers both to the language of present-day media across North Africa and the Middle East (from Morocco to Iraq) and to the language of the Qur'an.
While Arabic is strongly associated with Islam (and is the language of salah), it is also spoken by Arab Christians, Oriental Jews, and indeed Iraqi Mandaeans; and, of course, the vast majority of the world's Muslims do not actually speak it; they only know some fixed phrases of Arabic, as used in Islamic prayer.
www.worldhistory.com /wiki/A/Arabic-language.htm   (1217 words)

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