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Topic: Lithic reduction


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In the News (Thu 24 Jul 14)

  
  Lithic reduction - Definition, explanation
Lithic reduction involves the use of a hard hammer percussor, such as a hammerstone, a soft hammer fabricator made of wood, bone or antler, or a wood or antler punch to detach lithic flakes from a lump of tool stone called a lithic core.
Lithic reduction may be performed in order to obtain sharp flakes, on which a variety of tools can be made, or to rough out a blank for later refinement into a projectile point, knife, or other object.
The partial Hertzian cones produced during lithic reduction are called flakess, and exhibit features characteristic of this sort of breakage, including striking platforms, bulbs of force, and occasionally eraillures, which are small secondary flakes detached from the flake's bulb of force.
www.calsky.com /lexikon/en/txt/l/li/lithic_reduction.php   (0 words)

  
 Papers of the refitting symposium - UISPP 2001
Lithic refitting has proven to be a tremendous tool for prehistorians to reconstruct lithic technology, study taphonomy, and investigate spatial patterning.
The drawback to lithic refitting, as one of many lines of evidence drawn upon to study the prehistoric past, is the enormous time investment it requires.
Furthermore, due to understandable limitations in the access to lithic collections imposed by the various antiquities departments throughout the world, lithic refitting is often left out of the research agenda altogether.
www.sas.upenn.edu /~schurman/papers.html   (2032 words)

  
 Lithic Containers
When the lithic container was exhausted, or emptied of its end products, it was discarded at or very near the quarry as was the food container discarded near the food outlet.
To reiterate, an exhausted lithic container is a core of local material, which means it is found at the quarry, and it was reduced with hard-hammer percussion.
When the lithic container was exhausted, it was discarded at or near the quarry, as is the fast food container tossed on the streets near the fast food outlet.
www.ele.net /containers/lithic_containers.htm   (0 words)

  
 Methodology
Lithic analysis is the systematic examination of prehistoric stone artifacts.
Other lithic artifacts that are not utilitarian, but may have served a significant cultural function are also included, such as crystals, fossils, and polished pebbles.
Flake tools are a class of lithic artifacts where the tool or intended tool is made on a flake and flake tools are classified by tool function including: scrapers, cutting tools, drills, reamers, etc. The flake tool was the most versatile type of lithic tool made, frequently requiring no modification.
www.sanjuancollege.edu /pages/2132.asp   (0 words)

  
 SYLLABUS FOR LITHIC ANALYSIS
Bradley, B.A. (1975) Lithic reduction sequences: a glossary and discussion.
Gould, R.A.K., D.A. Koster, and A.H.L. Sontz (1971) The lithic assemblage of the Western Desert Aborigines of Australia.
Examining lithic technological organization as a dynamic cultural subsystem: the advantages of an explicitly spatial approach.
www.public.asu.edu /~cmbarton/Lithic_Analysis.htm   (0 words)

  
  Methodology
Lithic analysis is the systematic examination of prehistoric stone artifacts.
Other lithic artifacts that are not utilitarian, but may have served a significant cultural function are also included, such as crystals, fossils, and polished pebbles.
Flake tools are a class of lithic artifacts where the tool or intended tool is made on a flake and flake tools are classified by tool function including: scrapers, cutting tools, drills, reamers, etc. The flake tool was the most versatile type of lithic tool made, frequently requiring no modification.
www.sjc.cc.nm.us /pages/2132.asp   (1641 words)

  
 Stone tool - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography
One simple form of reduction is to strike stone flakes from a nucleus (core) of material using a hammerstone or similar hard hammer fabricator.
If the goal of the reduction strategy is to produce flakes, the remnant lithic core may be discarded once it has become too small to use.
More complex forms of reduction include the production of highly standardized blades, which can then be fashioned into a variety of tools such as scrapers, knives, sickles and microliths.
www.arikah.com /encyclopedia/Stone_tools   (671 words)

  
 United States
Attributes of this opportunistic reduction strategy are indicated by evidence of platform preparation and heat treatment occurring early in the reduction sequence, lateral recycling of broken biface blanks and preforms, and the use of cubical and irregularly shaped chunks or shatter (Binford and Quimby 1972:347) in the production of microblades (Daugherty et al.
Because of the infrequent occurrence in the assemblage, the significance of this material in the lithic reduction technology is unknown.
Approximately 34.4% (n=1,433) of the lithic assemblage (n=4,242) from the Packwood Lake site exhibits technologically diagnostic reduction attributes that were used to assign debitage to reduction stages for a reconstruction of the lithic reduction activities that occurred (Appendix A and B).
www.energy-northwest.com /downloads/gen/packwood/relicensing/MarkosJeffrey.htm   (5383 words)

  
 Research Issues in San Diego Prehistory - Lithic Reduction Stages
The production and maintenance of flaked lithic tools has been conceptualized as a series of stages through which the tools pass as their forms are altered by the removal of material, creating flakes and other lithic wastes as byproducts.
If discarded tools and lithic wastes can be matched with the stages in the reduction sequence at which they were produced, the spatial organization of tool manufacturing, use, and reworking can be inferred.
Biface reduction was analyzed by Errett Callahan (1979) and Elizabeth J. Skinner (1990) in terms of seven stages: obtaining the blank, initial edging, primary thinning, secondary thinning, shaping to preform, finishing, and reworking/rejuvenation.
home.earthlink.net /~researchissues/funct.stage.htm   (1108 words)

  
 Çatalhöyük 1993 Archive Report
This observation, clearly defined in Syrian Neolithic lithic assemblages where obsidian and flint cores are reduced in quite distinct ways and certain lithic tools are found solely on either obsidian or flint, is no doubt a function of both the differing properties obsidian and flint possess and the availability of raw material.
It is, however, recognised that the both the total 1993 sample of lithic artefacts and the sub-sample of this examined is quite small which limits these preliminary observations.
Important differences include the method of core reduction; at Asiklihöyük blades are struck from bipolar cores, similar to the Navifonn cores seen in the PPNB of the Levant.
www.catalhoyuk.com /archive_reports/1993/ar93_03.html   (1845 words)

  
 CaliforniaPrehistory.com -- Appendix to Archaeological Investigations at CA-SLO-692,
in the Nacimiento Lake Area, ...
Single-facet platform flakes are also often indicative of primary reduction by direct free-hand percussion although these have also been produced during the initial edging and early thinning stages of biface manufacture, especially if the early stages are pursued by flaking only onto the dorsal surface.
Patterson (1983) contends that this size reduction curve remains the same regardless of the number of bifaces contributing to the debitage and that it also remains constant for each stage of biface reduction.
While the bare outlines of a lithic reduction sequence may be suggested, its degree of reliability and certainly its full complexity cannot.
www.californiaprehistory.com /reports02/rep0036app.html   (7319 words)

  
 CaliforniaPrehistory.com -- Analysis of the Flaked Stone Assemblage from CA-SLO-762, Cambria, San Luis Obispo County, ...
Several examples of non-split cobble core reduction strategies include one that was used to drive flakes from one end of a cobble (Rondeau 1993; Rondeau and Rondeau 1993) using the cortex as a striking platform.
Beyond the reduction of cobble cores by direct freehand percussion, pebbles, flakes, and formed artifacts were all used to produce needed flakes.
Due to their advanced state of reduction and generally fragmentary condition, evidence of the original blank forms was not generally preserved on those specimens.
www.californiaprehistory.com /reports01/rep0019.html   (10601 words)

  
 Mount Rainier National Park: Environment, Prehistory & Archaeology (Chapter 5)
Lithic reduction activities at these sites are expected to be limited to very early stage removal of cortical material and generation of debitage incidental to preparation of curated cores and implement preforms.
Quarries and reduction stations are expected to be situated near fine-grained lithic material sources, particularly in close spatial association with subalpine to alpine hunting areas.
Early stage, single event reduction stations are considered to be represented by a small lithic concentration at Tipsoo Lake (FS 95-01) in the northeast quadrant; and at Mother Mountain Lake 5554 (FS 95-06) and Windy Gap (FS 95-07) in the northwest quadrant.
www.nps.gov /mora/ncrd/archaeology/chap5a.htm   (4074 words)

  
 Mesa vs Folsom Lithic Technologies
This effort is responsible for the variation between the lithic technologies of Mesa and Folsom and, in fact, these two technologies represent the extremes of a lithic technology continuum that is graduated in effort.
With the core model, there existed a point in the reduction of a biface when the Mesa knapper decided the desired flake was easier to extract from a new lithic package.
When the Folsom people moved away from the lithic source, they now relied on the bifaces that were created at the lithic source for their flakes.
www.ele.net /mesa_folsom/mesa_fol.htm   (0 words)

  
 Anthropology Review Database
This chapter is primarily descriptive, however, and lacks a sense of the wider applications of lithic analysis (described in chapter ten) or the advantages of use-wear analysis (described in chapter eleven).
The discussion of the application of lithic analysis provides an effective understanding of the important research questions that can be asked and answered using flaked stone artifacts.
For students and members of a more general audience, this volume provides a comprehensive introduction to basic analytical techniques, the vocabulary used in lithic analysis, the variability present in lithic raw materials and tool types, and several of the ways lithic analysis may be used in archaeological research.
wings.buffalo.edu /ARD/showme.cgi?keycode=1477   (0 words)

  
 Current Research: Subsistence Settlement Central Ind.
Blocky fragments are angular pieces of chert produced in the initial stages of the lithic reduction sequence and show no evidence of subsequent reworking or utilization.
As the name implies, these artifacts are the result of a lithic technology that radically shaped and modified a raw material (chert) into preconceived forms having specific functions.
The steeply beveled, teardrop-shaped endscraper is conspicuous by its absence in the lithic assemblage at 12 Mg 1.
www.gbl.indiana.edu /abstracts/97/97_3li.html   (1850 words)

  
 Çatalhöyük 2000 Archive Report
Due to their hardness and dry state the friction and lithic reduction was minimal.
This was only a small experiment on lithic reduction methods application to determine the amount of lithic reduction and to understand what type of reduction methods could have been used for stone tool production.
All the lithic reduction experiments indicated that the wet method was more productive in comparison to he dry method.
www.catalhoyuk.com /archive_reports/2000/ar00_09.html   (4944 words)

  
 Archaeological Investigations at Vihtr'iitshik (MiTi-1), Lower Mackenzie Valley, 1992-Discussion
Although the identification of specific lithic reduction strategies at MiTi-1 requires further detailed analysis, flake weight data suggest that both tool manufacture and core reduction/blank production activities were carried out.
This suggests that biface reduction activities may have been emphasized more at the lower ridge, while general camp activities were mainly carried out in the middle ridge zone.
Lithic reduction activity drops considerably in the upper ridge zone, where the majority of surface features had a single core associated with relatively small amounts of debitage.
www.canadianarchaeology.com /cmcc/fthundis.htm   (1270 words)

  
 A TWO-FACED ANTHROPOMORPHIC LITHIC SCULPTURE OF LOWER PALEOLITHIC OF DENMARK
The cultural differences between these types of tools often are conditioned by the existing lithic material in the zone, that is by the size of pebbles of silex or from cliff fragments, with absence or sparsity of pebbles; however, draft of small differences, than made complicated the interpretation.
The production of lithic tools always has been much copious, in how much, given the usury, the consumption was high, and this is testified from the enormous amount of findings of tools, regarding the found paleolithic sculptures.
Although our engagement, in lithic artefact of 300,000 years ago, is not possible to split the scientific contribution of the new invention, from the technology of the time, in how much the scientific contribution is applied directly to the technology, that automatically is improved, and this iboth for the sculpture and for the tools.
www.paleolithicartmagazine.org /pagina49.html   (0 words)

  
 Bipolar Flaking: Variability or Chaos
Experiments with bipolar reduction techniques have generated a range of forms and fractures that could be misinterpreted.
Relative to the more craft oriented reduction techniques like hard and soft hammer reduction and pressure flaking, the seeming technological chaos that accompanies bipolar reduction makes it a good candidate for representing the more expedient aspects of our natures, such as using a coin for a screwdriver.
Fundamentally, the biface is wrapped up in the phenomena that occurs during alternate flaking of a single edge: when you remove a flake from an edge, you automatically produce a rough platform structure for a potential flake removal on the opposite side of the edge.
www.earthmeasure.com /bipolar/index_bipolar.html   (0 words)

  
 Artifacts, Archaeology of Woods Canyon Pueblo   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Local lithic raw materials are of average to poor quality; they occur within the geological strata exposed in Sandstone, Woods, and Yellow Jacket canyons; and they likely were available within easy walking distance of Woods Canyon Pueblo.
Semilocal lithic raw materials are of relatively good quality and probably occur less widely in their geological strata of origin than do local raw materials.
This is an expected result, because cortex tends to be removed during the initial stages of raw-material reduction, and flake size generally decreases during later stages of reduction.
www.crowcanyon.org /ResearchReports/woodscanyon/text/wcpw_artifacts_part_2.htm   (8410 words)

  
 Conard and Adler (1997) Lithic Reduction and Hominid Behavior in the Middle Palaeolithic of the Rhineland
Conard and Adler (1997) Lithic Reduction and Hominid Behavior in the Middle Palaeolithic of the Rhineland
Lithic Reduction and Hominid Behavior in the Middle Palaeolithic of the Rhineland
This work seeks to study Middle Paleolithic hominids in their own right and to move beyond the dichotomies between modern and non-modern hominids that have characterized much contemporary research.
www.getcited.org /pub/103424164   (0 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Core fragments, blanks, preforms, and nearly completed projectile points (both whole and broken) were recovered in addition to lithic debitage characteristic of primary, secondary, and tertiary reduction activities.
Several discreet areas of lithic concentration characterized by specific chert and flake types were exposed and probably represent individual flint knapping activities.
The lithic reduction continuum at Rock Hammock was determined through careful analysis of rejected debris, mainly discarded blanks and preforms, and laterally fractured projectile points.
luna.cas.usf.edu /~wolfe/steclair.htm   (475 words)

  
 2001 Abstracts   (Site not responding. Last check: )
A preliminary analysis shows that the Neandertal lithic complexes are caracterized almost exclusively by local material, while, on the other extreme, Aurignacian industries, besides the local materials, show an important variety of exotic flint, with an uneven distribution as regards the various classes of formal tools and debitage.
Statistical analyses of the spatial patterning confirms the association of lithics and fauna, an association which was hinted at by the presence of cut marks on bones.
The lithic assemblages of A.L. 894 and A.L. 666 consist mostly of sharp-edged flakes and flake fragments.
www.paleoanthro.org /abst2002.htm   (10230 words)

  
 THE FLAKE--Stepchild of Lithic Analysis
Therefore, the universe of lithic artifacts consists of flakes and not-flakes.
This paradigm revolution was first visible that year in the paper, "Contrasting the Lithic Technologies of Mesa and Folsom", which Mike Kunz and I presented at the SAA annual meeting.
In 2004, I wrote the paper, "The Lithic Containers of the Archaeological Record", in which I argued that in lithic-rich regions the discarded bifaces, blade cores, and Levallois cores were the by-product of flake extraction.
ele.net /flake/flake.htm   (0 words)

  
 Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc.: Lithic Analysis - Continuum Based Approach
They argue that lithic reduction is a continuous process in which the relationship between flake attributes and the process of reduction is predictable (Bradbury and Carr 1999; Ingbar et.
In the next stage of the analysis, all tool production debris is analyzed through the use of a regression formula that allows for the placement of the flake into the reduction sequence.
This reduction sequence is represented by the use of a standardized scale where 0 indicates that no reduction has taken place and 1 represents a completed tool.
www.crai-ky.com /services/lithics/continuum_based.html   (0 words)

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