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Topic: Lithography

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In the News (Wed 20 Mar 19)

Lithography in the MEMS context is typically the transfer of a pattern to a photosensitive material by selective exposure to a radiation source such as light.
Depending on the lithography equipment used, the feature on the mask used for registration of the mask may be transferred to the wafer (as shown in figure 5).
The lithography process steps need to be characterized as a sequence in order to ensure that the remaining resist at the end of the modules is an optimal image of the mask, and has the desired sidewall profile.
www.memsnet.org /mems/beginner/lithography.html   (1995 words)

 Lithography - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In the early days of lithography, a smooth piece of limestone was used (hence the name "lithography"—"lithos" is the ancient Greek word for stone).
The emerging technology of a maskless lithography process and nanoimprint lithography for the semiconductor is also being used.
THE INVENTION OF LITHOGRAPHY, by Alois Senefelder, (Eng.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Lithography   (1389 words)

Lithography is the gating function in the development of new CMOS manufacturing processes.
While all semiconductor manufacturers are dependent on the same available lithography tools, the ways of using those tools vary depending on the expertise and requirements of the manufacturer.
Today's argon-fluorine (ArFl) lithography tools, which provide light at a wavelength of 193 nm, are used to pattern critical dimensions as small as 37 nm—five times smaller than the light wave that forms it.
www.ti.com /research/docs/litho.shtml   (411 words)

 Optical lithography: Introduction
Lithography, which replicates a pattern rapidly from chip to chip, wafer to wafer, or substrate to substrate, also determines the throughput and the cost of electronic systems.
Although lithography system costs (which are typically more than one third the costs of processing a wafer to completion) increase as minimum feature size on a semiconductor chip decreases, optical lithography remains attractive because of its high wafer throughput.
Efforts to displace optical lithography with X-ray lithography began in the 1960s [5], because of a presumption that the resolution of optical lithography was only suitable for dimensions greater than 1 µm.
www.research.ibm.com /journal/rd/411/chiu.html   (2209 words)

 Polymetaal, Lithography, definition and historical outline. Beguin.
Lithography offered two distinct advantages: first of all the rapidity with which the original could be made and, secondly, the fact that the work involved was much less than in other printing techniques.
Lithography was increasingly taken over by artists whose work on stone was certainly much more personal than what had been done by the artisanal lithographers.
It is true that photomechanical processes meant the death of industrial lithography as of the end of the 19th century but, on the other hand, it is also true that photomechanical processes forced lithography to develop yet further.
www.polymetaal.nl /beguin/mapl/lithography/lithodefinition.htm   (2154 words)

Lithography was the first fundamentally new printing technology since the invention of relief printing in the fifteenth century.
Lithography is based on the chemical repellence of oil and water.
Lithography was invented by Alois Senefelder in Germany in 1798 and, within twenty years, appeared in England and the United States.
www.lib.udel.edu /ud/spec/exhibits/color/lithogr.htm   (2682 words)

 IBM Research | Almaden Research Center | Science and Technology | Lithography
Lithography is the method by which circuit patterns are "printed" in semiconductor chips.
For example, in a simplified lithography process for one step in creating a device, the resist is coated over a two-layer substrate containing a conductor atop an insulator (a printed circuit board substrate -- a copper-coated epoxy laminate -- is a simple example of this).
The resist is illuminated by a radiation source (often a monochromatic light source from a laser) in a patternwise fashion -- typically using a mask containing clear and opaque regions) and then usually baked.
www.almaden.ibm.com /st/chemistry/lithography/index.shtml   (452 words)

 Review of technology for 157-nm lithography
Lithography with 157-nm fluorine lasers is rapidly emerging as a viable technology for the post-193-nm era [1–3].
Lithography at 157 nm is an extension of photolithography at longer wavelengths; however, operation at 157 nm is significantly more sensitive to contaminants on optical surfaces.
In summary, lithography at 157 nm is an active area of research, and the interest in it as a 100- to 70-nm technology is growing rapidly.
www.research.ibm.com /journal/rd/455/bates.html   (4916 words)

 Photolithography - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Photolithography or optical lithography is a process used in semiconductor device fabrication to transfer a pattern from a photomask (also called reticle) to the surface of a substrate.
Lithography is used because it affords exact control over the shape and size of the objects it creates, and because it can create patterns over an entire surface simultaneously.
Optical lithography can be extended to a resolution of 15 nm by using the short wavelengths of 1 nm X-ray lithography for the illumination.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Photolithography   (1717 words)

 lithography. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
Lithography is used both as an art process and as a commercial printing process.
All planographic printing is based on chemical action, and lithography is based on the mutual antipathy of oil and water.
Color lithography and color photolithography require as many stones or plates as the number of colors employed.
www.bartleby.com /65/li/lithogra.html   (635 words)

Lithography, the printing of patterns on surfaces, is both a driving force and a bottleneck in semiconductor manufacturing and in microfabrication.
Classical lithography is based on the concept of fidelity in reproducing the mask pattern onto the wafer.
Proc SPIE Conf Microlithography, 27Feb-3Mar 2000, Demagnification-by-bias in Proximity X-ray Lithography, J.R.Kong, Q.Leonard, Y.Vladimirsky and A.J.Bourdillon
pages.prodigy.net /bourdillona   (788 words)

In this environment, original hand-pulled lithography tends to be misunderstood and misrepresented.
The intent of original lithography is to transfer the artist's drawing or marks as purely and directly as possible: from stone through ink to paper.
Lithography is a beautiful artistic medium in itself, and should not be judged on its ability to imitate another medium.
www.collectorsguide.com /fa/fa012.shtml   (858 words)

 Semiconductor OneSource: Semiconductor Glossary -- Search For : lithography
process used to transfer pattern from the mask/reticle to the layer of resist deposited on the surface of the wafer; kind of lithography depends on the wavelength of radiation used to expose resist: photolithography (or optical lithography) uses UV radiation, X-ray lithography uses X-ray, e-beam lithography uses electron bean, ion beam lithography uses ion beam.
scanning mode in e-beam lithography in which shape of the beam is changing depending on the geometry of exposed area.
lithography technique in which resist is exposed by accelerated ions; due to the limited scattering of ions in the resist IBL may offer higher resolution than e-beam lithography.
semiconductorglossary.com /default.asp?searchterm=lithography   (1077 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
By using immersion lithography to make chips using the 45-nanometer process technology, TI expects to produce chips with a 30 percent improvement in speed and a 40 percent reduction in power consumption, the company said.
The key technology TI will use is immersion lithography, which enables the etching of finer circuitry by placing a layer of water between the lens and the silicon wafer.
Lithography is a technique for using light to imprint patterns on a wafer, which goes through other manufacturing steps before being cut and packaged into final products.
www.redherring.com /Article.aspx?a=17193&hed=TI+Invests+in+Lithography   (524 words)

 Amazon.com: Principles of Lithography, Second Edition (SPIE Press Monograph Vol. PM146): Books: Harry J. Levinson   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Lithography is a field in which advances proceed at a swift pace.
Levinson takes you through the entire process of lithography step by step with both the mathematics involved, but also, an intuitive explanation of what the technical issues involved are.
There is an explanation on why early lithography tended to have high overexposure and then went to 1:1 imaging and issues driving this.
amazon.com /Principles-Lithography-Second-Press-Monograph/dp/0819456608   (1487 words)

Lithography is a traditional Printmaking process that is the closest to painting and drawing.
This workshop looks at the special properties of Lithography and the uses of advanced techniques like the transfer processes and the types of transfer papers used in Lithography.
Great artists have often pushed Lithography in many interesting directions and because it is the most versatile of all the print media in has been able to accommodate their artistic needs.
www.wcet.org.au /create/Duckprint/lithography.htm   (161 words)

 AccessScience Search Results
Soft lithography refers to a suite of techniques for replicating patterns of organic molecules or other materials (for example, ceramics or metals) on both planar (flat) and nonplanar (curved) substrates.
Lithography is a photographic process that is used to transfer the geometric patterns describing an integrated circuit to the silicon wafer.
Atom lithography designates a physical method where the forces exerted by interfering laser beams on the atoms of an atomic beam are used to steer the atoms into nanostructures fabricated on a plane surface.
www.accessscience.com /sci-bin/freesearch?leftquery=lithography   (1021 words)

 Lithography vendors unveil next-gen scanners
The bell has sounded for leading-edge lithography vendors, which are coming to market with next-generation immersion scanners for the 45nm node and beyond.
The "big three" lithography suppliers—ASML, Canon and Nikon—separately claim the technical leadership position in the immersion lithography market, although the race is still in the early stages and too close to call, according to analysts.
The initial drivers for immersion lithography are the NAND-based flash memory suppliers, namely Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd and Toshiba Corp. For example, seeking to scale its NAND flash devices, Toshiba plans to use its first immersion lithography tools in production at the 55nm node, which is expected to be deployed in early 2007, analysts said.
www.eetasia.com /ART_8800425484_480200_329d677f200607.HTM   (1055 words)

 Photoresists for 193-nm lithography
The lithography systems will all likely utilize chemically amplified photoresists which, unless unusual advances are made in providing resistance to airborne contamination, will require chemically filtered air enclosures for both steppers and process wafer tracks.
The introduction of 193-nm lithography thus requires the development of a family (or families) of photoresist materials and chemistries specifically tailored to function at this wavelength.
This approach is based on earlier studies which correlated the etch rate with the carbon/hydrogen ratio of a series of polymers [8]; it is currently the method most commonly used to develop etch-resistant, transparent 193-nm photoresists.
www.research.ibm.com /journal/rd/411/allen.html   (3727 words)

 Lithography 101
Lithography's inventor, Alois Senefelder, was originally a Munich writer who had little success finding a publisher.
And that act inspired the discovery of flat-surface printing —; or lithography — in 1796, the first major printing innovation since the development of relief printing in the 15th century.
In color lithography, a different stone is created for each color, so colors can be layered on top of each other.
www.pbs.org /wgbh/pages/roadshow/series/highlights/2003/albuquerque/albuquerque_follow4.html   (980 words)

 Lithography   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
In the context of nanotechnology, the method is widely employed by the semiconductor industry to pattern the surface of silicon wafers, the stone out of which computer chips are made.
Lithography was originally invented as a method for printing in 1798 by Alois Senefelder, and has been a valuable method for reproducing artwork for centuries.
From the Greek lithos (stone) and graphy (writing), lithography literally means writing on rocks.
www.nanoword.net /library/def/lithography.htm   (79 words)

 Tamarind Institute Lithographic Process
Aloys Senefelder, who invented lithography in 1798, preferred to call it "chemical printing", since the process depends on the chemical interaction of grease, nitric acid, gum arabic, and water, rather than the stone from which the name lithography is derived.
As opposed to many other print processes which depend upon incised or carved lines, lithography is a planographic process that depends upon the mutual repulsion of grease and water.
However, since the basic principle of hand lithographic printing is the natural repulsion of grease and water, the crayons, pencils, and washes used in lithography have a high grease content.
www.unm.edu /~tamarind/process.html   (1127 words)

 Hybrid AFM/STM Mode Lithography
In STM lithography, a fixed tip-sample bias is applied and the spacing is varied to maintain a constant current through the resist.
In AFM lithography, the force between the tip and resist is held constant while a fixed voltage bias is applied to generate the field-emitted current.
Constant-voltage operation is not ideal since the required voltage is a strong function of the tip and sample materials, the tip shape, and the resist thickness.
www.stanford.edu /group/quate_group/Litho/LithoPages/ExposureofResist/Hybrid.html   (476 words)

 Physics News Update
Ultraviolet lithography can produce lines for integrated circuits as small as 39 nm in one recent test.
The form of lithography currently in mass production now can produce a half-pitch size (equal lines and spaces in between) of 90 nm and isolated line widths of 65 nm.
By the time this type of lithography comes into play, by about 2007, these numbers should be 45 and 25 nm, respectively.
www.aip.org /enews/physnews/2003/split/624-3.html   (231 words)

 Physics News Update 689
Nanoimprint lithography featuring line widths of only 16 nm and a line spacing of 14 nm has been achieved by scientists at Princeton University.
One way to increase the density of storable data or computing power of microchips is of course to shrink the circuitry, but new difficulties arise when the size or spacing of lines gets too small.
Therefore the Princeton researchers used "photocurable nanoimprint lithography" (P-NIL), a process in which a mold is pressed into a resist medium which is then cured with ultraviolet rays.
www.aip.org /pnu/2004/split/689-3.html   (145 words)

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