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Topic: Lithuanian nobility


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  The Red Book of the Peoples of the Russian Empire
Today the Lithuanian Tatars live in the western part of the Minsk Region of Byelorussia, in the region northeast of Brest and in the Grodno Region.
It is recorded that the overall number of Tatars on Lithuanian territory at the time of the 1897 census was 4,500 and in 1989, 5,100.
In the campaign against the Ukraine the Lithuanian Tatars fought on the side of the enemy.
www.eki.ee /books/redbook/lithuanian_tatars.shtml   (1029 words)

  
  JewishEncyclopedia.com - LITHUANIA   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Some of the nobility, however, approved Alexander's decree, expecting to profit by the departure of their Jewish creditors, as is indicated by numerous lawsuits on the return of the exiles to Lithuania in 1503.
According to the Lithuanian statutes of 1529 the murder of a Jew, a nobleman, or a burgher was punishable by death, and compensation was to be paid by the family of the murderer to that of the victim.
Thus the rabbi of Brest, Mendel Frank, was styled "the king's officer," and the Jew Shmoilo Israilevich was appointed deputy to the governor of Wilna.
www.jewishencyclopedia.com /view.jsp?artid=468&letter=L   (10668 words)

  
  LITHUANIA (Jewish Encyclopedia) - BibleWiki
Some of the nobility, however, approved Alexander's decree, expecting to profit by the departure of their Jewish creditors, as is indicated by numerous lawsuits on the return of the exiles to Lithuania in 1503.
According to the Lithuanian statutes of 1529 the murder of a Jew, a nobleman, or a burgher was punishable by death, and compensation was to be paid by the family of the murderer to that of the victim.
At the Diet of Wilna in 1551 the nobility urged the imposition of a special polltax of one ducat per head, and the Volhynian nobles demanded that the Jewish tax-collectors be forbidden to erect tollhouses or place guards at the taverns on their estates.
bible.tmtm.com /wiki/LITHUANIA_(Jewish_Encyclopedia)   (10812 words)

  
 Lithuanian Royal Union of Nobility
Lithuanian Royal Union of Nobility (further referred to as LRUN), associating Lithuanian nobility progeny, who have proved their ancestors’ noblemen’s family’s continuance, to Lithuanian nobility organization, is legal Lithuanian nobility’s inheritance absorber.
Lithuanian Royal Union of Nobility is the inheritor of all rights and duties of the Lithuanian Union of Nobility that was in force from 1928 till 1940.
The main missions of LRUN are: to promote respect and love to Lithuanian state, nation, its history, language, culture, and family; to cherish Lithuania's spiritual revival, European Christian values; to popularize Lithuanian Kingdom's, Great Duchy of Lithuania nobility's historical inheritance, traditions; and to refresh principals of justice, honour, dignity, nobleness and responsibility in Lithuania.
www.bajorusajunga.lt /en   (354 words)

  
 Global Lithuanian Net. Lithuanian History Resources
The Lithuanians may have settled along the Neman (Nemanus) as early as 1500 B.C. In the 13th cent., to protect themselves against the Livonian and Teutonic knights, they formed a strong, unified state which, by absorbing neighboring Russian principalities, became one of the largest in medieval Europe.
Lithuanian Metrika is a 556 volume archive of documents of the State Chancellery of the Great Duche of Lithuania (GDL) which was under the personal control of the Chanceller of the GDL.
Antanas Smetona, Lithuanian President, was born in the village of Uzulenis of the present Ukmerge District on August 10, 1874.
www.lithuanian.net /resource/history.htm   (4428 words)

  
 [No title]
The Grand Duchy was equated with the fatherland, and the borders of the fatherland determined the economy, society, culture, and psyche of Lithuanian nobility [74].
Lithuanian nobles opposed the nomination of a Pole to a post of the Vilnius Bishop for obvious reasons: it would have been a bad precedent for the future nominations, because it would have allowed Poles to seek other offices in the Grand Duchy [97].
Symptomatic of this rhetoric are the testaments of the Lithuanian nobility.
www.forumvilnius.lt /print.php?news.42   (5675 words)

  
 Lithuania - History of Lithuanian Flags
Lithuanian units from the Aukstaitija province flew the red and yellow towers of Gediminas.
As the Lithuanian kingdom was located in both "eastern" and "western" Europe and as the Apostolic cross was accepted as a "Christian" cross by both Constantinople and Rome, King Jogiella could not have selected a better symbol for the Lithuanian royal household.
Any battles the Lithuanian's would from then on conduct in the defense of their realm would be against the people of the enemy nation - not against the Christian beliefs of their enemies.
flagspot.net /flags/lt-hist.html   (2534 words)

  
 Legacy of Medieval Lithuania
The Lithuanian government was marked by tolerance and respect to the ancient traditions, unlike the ruling of the Golden Horde, from which the Lithuanians liberated the Ukrainians, and national oppression, suffered by the Ukrainians under the Polish government.
Reign of the Lithuanian dynasty of the Jagiellonians was a golden age of the Polish history, and union with Lithuania was an axis of the whole history of Poland.
The Lithuanian national revival and restitution of the independence of Lithuania in 1918 was an incomprehensible phenomenon for the Poles and a greater part of the Polonised Lithuanian gentry.
viduramziu.lietuvos.net /etno/index-en.htm   (782 words)

  
 Boyars   (Site not responding. Last check: )
This distinction disappeared in the 11th century as the warrior nobility acquired
estates and the landed nobility served in increasing numbers at the princes' courts.
The lower stratum of the boyars and the petty nobility struggled for their rights for a long time.
www.encyclopediaofukraine.com /pages/B/O/Boyars.htm   (295 words)

  
 Socio-economic and Sociocultural Attitudes of the Lithuanian Nobility in the Dietine Petitions of the ...
The Russian absolute monarchy, according to the ‘Letter of Favour’ (a privilege) of 1785, recognized the right for its own nobility to discuss and formulate their estate needs, as well as to present them to particular institutions to decide whether those requests would be taken into account and in which way it could be done.
The Lithuanian noblemen actively exploited this legalized possibility for a dialogue with the autocracy in order to express their attitude to the issues dealing with their estate problems.
The dietines of Lithuanian noblemen, in the activity of which the most active part of the privileged class was engaged, did not (and could not) become an organized grouping, able to initiate the general directives of social development.
www.istorija.lt /lim/body_bairasauskaite2000en.html   (570 words)

  
 Speech delivered by dr. Raimundas Lopata
With regard to Lithuanians' political aspirations during the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, and to be more precise, regarding historic problematics of the restoration of Lithuania, some fundamental questions are worth our attention.
The local nobility fought for the Grand Duchy of Lithuania although they were related with Poland by the union tights and in the majority of cases were Polonaised ethno-culturally, and though politically they considered themselves as the Lithuanians, they were identified as the Polish nobility.
Lithuanians were just a tribe of Lithuanians and Samogitians, nationality, people who underwent discrimination of the Polish colonisers.
www.lrs.lt /sventes/980216/en/lopata.htm   (1932 words)

  
 languagehat.com: THE FIRST LITHUANIAN BOOK.
Lithuanian nationalism developed in reaction on the one hand against the Polish assumption that Lithuania belonged to Poland, and on the other hand against the attempts of the Tsarist Government to impose Russian culture and Orthodox religion.
As a result, the scope for Polish-oriented politics was confined to the Polish-speaking section of the population, in particular to important segments of the land-owning class and of the urban bourgeoisie in Wilno, Grodno, Nowogródek, and elsewhere.
He was a lithuanian Jew that wanted to fit into the Polish culture of the times,just like the Lithuanian nobility became Polish in language and cuture to fit in.
www.languagehat.com /archives/001808.php   (2553 words)

  
 Lithuania - Language and Culture
The literary Lithuanian language, based on a southwestern Lithuanian dialect, came into use during the last quarter of the nineteenth century, replacing the use of the Samogitian, or western Lithuanian, dialect.
Lithuanian nobility in the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries and Lithuanian intellectuals since the turn of the twentieth century brought back ideas and experiences from Italy, Germany, and France.
Among Lithuanian artists, probably the best known is Mikalojus Ciurlionis (1875-1911), an originator of abstract painting and a composer whose music became the main subject of study by Professor Vytautas Landsbergis, Lithuania's de facto president 1990-92 and a leader of the independence movement.
countrystudies.us /lithuania/12.htm   (716 words)

  
 LBKS Newsletter, issue 11
He is organizing the XVII th Congress of the European Nobility in Hague, the Netherlands on September 8-11, we are invited as well.
Lithuanians are known as beekeepers and the linden is a decorative tree favored in villages and forests.
From 1989-91, during the restoration of Lithuanian independence, many ideologized monuments from the Soviet times were dismantled.
www.geocities.com /bajorai1/en/newsletter11.html   (874 words)

  
 Andrzej Rudzienski: Ukrainian Problem - Past and Present (July 1948)
The Polish families accepted the Lithuanians and Ruthenians as “the free among the free and equals among equals.” The new structure stood firm and the personal union between the three peoples was converted into a real union, a federated Polish-Lithuanian state being formed in 1569.
The consolidation of this regime of the nobility was accomplished at the expense of the peasants who had been relatively free but were now degraded to the position of serfs.
But when the nobility were expelled and their power destroyed, the Cossacks and Chmielnicki installed a government of the privileged Cossack caste over the peasants.
www.marxists.org /history/etol/newspape/ni/vol14/no05/rudzienski.htm   (4568 words)

  
 Sarmatian Review XVII.1: Andrzej Nowak
The Polish-Lithuanian union began in 1385 with the marriage of the Lithuanian grand duke with a Polish princess.
Members of that nobility knew that the alternative, Muscovite autocracy reinforced by Mongol despotism, made Muscovy's relations between the government and the governed resemble those between the conqueror and the conquered.
During the three centuries of confrontation with the Polish-Lithuanian state, the Polish pattern of political liberties and gentry privileges proved to be tempting for the Muscovite state-made and state-controlled nobility (the boyars).
www.ruf.rice.edu /~sarmatia/197/Nowak.html   (6679 words)

  
 The Lithuanian Word. History. Muraviev
He believed that the nobility and the Church were the driving forces behind the in- surrection in Lithuania and proposed to the tsar a program to deal with these institutions.
Muraviev attacked the nobility in Lithuania economically by levying a tax of 10% on the incomes of Polish and Lithuanian landowners, while the rates for German and Russian nobles were 3% and 1% respectively.
In an effort to Russify the Lithuanian peasantry and reduce the influence of the Church in the countryside, Muraviev banned the publication of Lithuanian books in the Latin alphabet in the summer of 1864.
www.spaudos.lt /Istorija/Muraviev.en.htm   (875 words)

  
 Lithuanian nobility
Furthermore, www.lithuania-look.com could clear things up with regard to lithuanian nobility and the full expanse next to Lithuania and lithuanian nobility.
Glance at www.lithuania-look.com and see lithuanian nobility plus further an abundunce of tips pertaining to Lithuania and lithuanian nobility and also you cant afford to fail to see places to see from Lithuania Ignalina, lithuania information, Lithuania sport news, and into Lithuania pictures we would without a doubt notice knowledge linked to lithuanian nobility.
lithuanian nobility, and a good deal further information can be learned here.
www.lithuania-look.com /Culture-Information-in-Lithuania/lithuanian-nobility.html   (166 words)

  
 Lithuania - History of Lithuanian Flags   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Lithuanian units from the Aukstaitija province flew the red and yellow towers of Gediminas.
As the Lithuanian kingdom was located in both "eastern" and "western" Europe and as the Apostolic cross was accepted as a "Christian" cross by both Constantinople and Rome, King Jogiella could not have selected a better symbol for the Lithuanian royal household.
Any battles the Lithuanian's would from then on conduct in the defense of their realm would be against the people of the enemy nation - not against the Christian beliefs of their enemies.
www.crwflags.com /fotw/flags/lt-hist.html   (2534 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The first thing Vitaut did as the Great Prince was to calm the princes under Lithuanian influence who didn't want to obey anybody and were always ready to ask the crusaders or the Tatars for help.
Moreover, the nobility, the urban population, and the upper and better educated classes in general throughout the whole country were either Poles or thoroughly Polonized.
The Lithuanians formed the bulk of the population in Samland and the waywodeships of Wilna and Troki.
lycos.cs.cmu.edu /info/tatars--lithuanian-tatars.html   (671 words)

  
 Proteviai: Volume 3, No. 1
And don’t be in a hurry to say “My ancestors weren’t noble.” Nobles comprised a larger percentage of the population of the Grand Duchy and of Poland than in almost any other European nations.
In a country where Lithuanians have too often been overlooked or ignored, it is gratifying to see that Cleveland saw fit to devote a major portion of its beautiful Cultural Gardens to recognition of Lithuania’s cultural heritage.
Lithuanian immigrants were generally devout Catholics; they attended these parishes, and when possible, sent their children to their schools.
www.lithuaniangenealogy.org /newsletters/preview_3-1.htm   (408 words)

  
 The Lithuanian Tatars
It is recorded that the overall number of Tatars on Lithuanian territory at the time of the 1897 census was 4,500 and in 1989, 5,100.
Just like the nobility they were exempt from paying tax on the land they owned and they had complete religious freedom.
In the 16th--17th centuries the nobility tried to curb their rights but the united Poland and Lithuania had to pay dearly for the folly.
www.kresy.co.uk /lith_tatars.html   (919 words)

  
 The Lithuanian Word. Lithuanian Language. Books
During the 18th century in Lithuania Minor Lithuanian grammars and dictionaries written in Latin and in German appeared and Lithuanian folksongs began to be written down.
According to data compiled by Vaclovas Biržiška, 34 Lithuanian books were published in the 16th century, 58 in the 17th century, 304 in the 18th century, and 926 in the first part of the 19th century (1801-64).
During this period a considerable number of Lithuanian poets and writers were active, but most of their writings remained unpublished when the Russian government adopted repressive measures.
www.spaudos.lt /LietKalba/Books.en.htm   (1857 words)

  
 Lithuanian Names   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Another popular source of modern Lithuanian names is the supply of mythological figures from the ancient Lithuanian past: Austėja from the name of the ancient Lithuanian goddess of the bees, possibly derived from austi 'to weave,' cf.
Lithuanian jūra 'sea'; Laima from the name of the ancient Baltic goddess of luck or fortune; Žemyna from the name of the ancient Lithuanian goddess of earth and fertility, cf.
Lithuanian dangus and Latin caelum (also coelum) both mean 'sky, heavens.' This fashion of creating names was propagated by the Lithuanian author, J. Tumas-Vaižgantas.
www.lituanus.org /1982_3/82_3_01.htm   (1552 words)

  
 Lithuanian Royal Union of Nobility and its activity - Statute
Lithuanian nobility fellowship (1928 – 1940), which activity was stopped by Lithuanian occupation.
LRUN was reconstituted in 1994 according to the statute of Lithuanian nobility fellowship and is Lithuanian nobility fellowship’s traditions continuer.
Lithuanian Republic’s and other countries’ citizens, majors and full-right nobility’s progeny of Lithuanian Kingdom, Great Duchy of Lithuania, can become members of LRUN without reference to place of residence, after LRUN Council of Legitimacies has checked, nobility Senate has approved and nobleman’s vow has been given.
www.bajorusajunga.lt /j/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=68&lang=en   (1222 words)

  
 The Lithuanian Language and Writing
The alienation of the ruling circles and the privileged gentry from the vernacular, from popular traditions and the people’s culture was a genuine tragedy for the Lithuanian nation as it set back the development of the Lithuanian national culture for the period of several centuries.
Jonas Jablonskis (1860-1930), a particularly prolific and active fostered of written Lithuanian, is often referred to as the father of Lithuanian.
His Lithuanian grammars, especially the third one, published in 1922, had a tremendous impact on the improvement of literary Lithuanian and on the preparation of standard textbooks for schools.
postilla.mch.mii.lt /Kalba/kalbarast.en.htm   (1679 words)

  
 PGSA - Heraldry and Nobility
Please be aware of this; as many Polish nobility surname were eroded, altered or destroyed during the 19th century, especially in such places as Ellis Island in the United States.
The Polish system of nobility was based on the principles of equality amongst an exclusive caste of peers, who had forged their bonds of brotherhood upon the battlefields of Eastern Europe.
As previously stated the nobility of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth shunned the establishment of chivalric orders and also the conferral of titles which created an organisation of precedence among a group of equals.
www.pgsa.org /polelith.htm   (976 words)

  
 Audrone's home: Royal Lithuanian Nobility Association
We, the descendants of the nobles, declare that the lives and actions of the nobles have not been forgotten.
    Lithuanian Royal Union of Nobility that was in force from 1928 till 1940.
We have contacts with nine organizations of nobles abroad.
www11.brinkster.com /bituke/nobility.html   (126 words)

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