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# Topic: Logical assertion

###### In the News (Mon 17 Jun 19)

 Assertion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Logical assertion -- logical assertion of a statement Assertions are also a kind of speech act. Assertion is the verbal skill of saying something so others can hear you clearly en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Assertion   (110 words)

 COSC3308: Three Semantic Examples Axiomatic semantics is based on the logic model of programming languages describing the action of a program by determining logical assertions that hold before and after its execution. The precondition is a logical assertion to be held true before a structure is executed and the postcondition is a logical assertion to be true after its execution. Logical Pretest Loops: while B do S end This is most difficult type of a statement as a loop is a sequence of unknown number of statements comprising the loop body. hal.lamar.edu /~KOH/3308/semantic.html   (1313 words)

 Logical Argument In logical debate, the burden of proof is always upon the person making the positive assertion. From this formation, it becomes clear that although it is indeed an assertion, it is not a positive assertion and does not in argument have the full burden of proof. If one assumes that things are false until shown otherwise, one is not likely to believe a positive assertion without reason, and that is part of the point of having the burden of proof--to avoid believing something is established when it has not yet been so. home.earthlink.net /~mylnir/debate/logic.me.html   (1359 words)

 Logical Fallacies Handlist   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01) This practice is fallacious because the personal character of an individual is logically irrelevant to the truth or falseness of the argument itself. The assertions differ sufficiently to obscure the fact that that the same proposition occurs as both a premise and a conclusion. The phrase is applicable in general to any type of logical fallacy, but logicians use the term particularly in reference to syllogistic errors such as the undistributed middle term, non causa pro causa, and ignorantio elenchi. web.cn.edu /kwheeler/fallacies_list.html   (4845 words)

 John Dewey: Logical Conditions of a Scientific Treatment of Morality   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01) Hence, before developing the logic of moral science, it is necessary to discuss the objections which affirm such an inherent disparity between moral judgments and physical judgments that there is no ground in the control of the judging activity in one case for inferring the possibility of like control in the other. If in general we conceive the logical nature of scientific technique, of formulae, universals, etc., to reside in their adaptation to guaranteeing the act of judging in accomplishing a purpose, we are thereby committed to the further proposition that the logical apparatus needed varies as the ends to be reached are diverse. From the strictly logical standpoint (without reference, that is, to overtly moral considerations) the ethical judgment thus has a distinctive aim of its own: it is engaged with judging a subject-matter, a definitive element in whose determination is the attitude or disposition which leads to the act of judging. spartan.ac.brocku.ca /~lward/Dewey/Dewey_1903.html   (11065 words)

 Russell's Logical Atomism According to logical atomism, all truths are ultimately dependent upon a layer of atomic facts, which consist either of a simple particular exhibiting a quality, or mutliple simple particulars standing in a relation. Russell's logical atomism had a profound influence on analytic philosophy in the first half of the 20th century; indeed, it is arguable that the very name "analytic philosophy" derives from Russell's defense of the method of analysis. Another important issue often discussed in connection with logical atomism worth discussing in greater detail is the supposition that atomic propositions are logically independent of each other, or that the truth or falsity of any one atomic proposition does not logically imply or necessitate the truth or falsity of any other atomic proposition. plato.stanford.edu /entries/logical-atomism   (12106 words)

 [No title] If assertion is an essential feature of sentences, then since nominalization dispenses with the feature of assertion, there arises a reasonable doubt whether the nominalization can be used to indicate the same entity expressed by the sentence. Russell typically located the assertion element of a proposition in the v erb (1903:44); more specifically, he relied on the notion that the assertion element of the verb is always tied to a predicate, so that in the proposition "John left home" the assertion "left home" would combine with the subject in forming that proposition. This may not always be obvious, as when he maintains that there is a sense of logical assertion tantamount to truth itself (1903:49), and which is to be distinguished from "psychological assertion." We will benefit at this point by entertaining the possibility that assertion and truth are to be distinguished. cognet.mit.edu /Books/celebration/essays/bayne.html   (2632 words)

 Another response to criticism of "Is atheism viable?" The logical reason why someone would need to create an "evidential vacuum" in order to show why theism is irrational is because if there is evidence that there is a god, that would disprove atheism. Logically, if they said there was no god, and they would be at a great loss to prove their position. But it is not logically consistent to base the conclusion upon a premise that is unsubstantiated, which is what he has done here and other places. www.carm.org /atheism/viable_response.htm   (8700 words)

 Chapter II: Symbolic Logic: THE PRINCIPLES OF MATHEMATICS (1903) by Bertrand Russell   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01) Symbolic Logic is essentially concerned with inference in general, and is distinguished from various special branches of mathematics by its generality. Neither mathematics nor symbolic logic will study such special relations as (say) temporal priority, but mathematics will deal explicitly with the class of relations possessing the formal properties of temporal priority—properties which are summed up in the notion of continuity. The question as to which of the notions of symbolic logic are to be taken as indefinable, and which of the propositions as indemonstrable is, as Professor Peano has insisted, to some extent arbitrary. fair-use.org /bertrand-russell/the-principles-of-mathematics/chapter-ii   (9316 words)

 1 Background In this context, an object invariant is the common logical assertion that the different states of the object satisfy, and an object service behaviour is a pair of pre and post-conditions (logical assertions). The use of logical assertions to specify object behaviours is compatible with existing distributed system specification languages. When a daughter interface inherits from a mother interface, the daughter interface behaviour is a composition of the mother interface behaviour, so the composition mechanism of logical assertions must respect the inheritance of specialization. www.cs.iastate.edu /~leavens/FoCBS/cougoulic-node1.html   (841 words)

 Logical assertion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The logical assertion is a statement that asserts that a certain premise is true, and is useful for statements in proof. It is equivalent to a sequent with an empty antecedent. We can also write this using the logical assertion symbol, as en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Logical_assertion   (84 words)

 Giorgio Lando In the theoretical one, I propose to use this Tractarian notion of assertion as a philosophical clarification for such notions as “assertive potential” and “context change potential” in DRT and dynamic semantics. This kind of semantic assertion turns out to be sharply different from the notion of assertion in speech acts theory, although there are important connections between these two notions. This Tractarian notion of “affirmation” is a semantic notion of assertion: it is more semantic than its Fregean and Russellian predecessors, insofar as the assertive nature turns out to be an intrinsic property of a meaningful utterance. webhost.ua.ac.be /tisp/viewabstract.php?id=706   (384 words)

 Convincing a Moron: The art of logical falacy and how to avoid falling for them The thing is that logical fallacies are often more effective than legitimate arguments, especially when arguing with morons. Similarly, it is important to get to know some common logical fallacies so you can identify them easily and avoid falling for them (and, where applicable, use them to your advantage). Normally these aren't a logical fallacy, unless the person is unqualified to comment, they weren't serious, or experts disagree on the issue. www.angelfire.com /indie/adinasite/convincing1.html   (1313 words)

 ENGR 691 (Software Architecture) Lecture Notes on Data Abstraction, Spring 2004 The precondition of an operation is a logical assertion that specifies the assumptions about and the restrictions upon the values of the arguments of the operation. As before, the precondition is a logical assertion that specifies the required characteristics of the values of the arguments. A postcondition is a logical assertion that specifies the characteristics of the result computed by the operation with respect to the values of the arguments. john.cs.olemiss.edu /~hcc/softArch/notes/dataAbstraction.html   (6371 words)

 [No title] It is not intended to be a rigorous introduction to mathematical logic. A "statement" is a logical assertion which is either true or false. A "logical argument" is a sequence of statements (called "hypothesis") p1, p2,..., pn, which imply a statement q (called the "conclusion"). web.usna.navy.mil /~wdj/sm485_1b.txt   (448 words)

 MEMO   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01) Boolean expression: A logical assertion; an expression whose value is either TRUE or FALSE. NOT gate: The logic gate that outputs the logical complement of its single intput. OR gate: The logic gate that accepts two inputs, and outputs 1 if either of the inputs is 1; otherwise, 0. www.framingham.edu /faculty/dkeil/cs1-glos.htm   (7027 words)

 Do Atheists Exist? Argument/Proposition: Atheism is not logical because the atheist cannot know there is no god, therefore the atheist cannot logically assert that there is no god or even lack belief in god. Therefore it is logically impossible to be an atheist. This is logical because if you were married, you would not be a "bachelor" as we define the word. www.mwillett.org /atheism/do_atheists_exist.htm   (1016 words)

 Varga - Orality and Literacy In my present work I propose to show through reference to the most important logical structure of the pre-Socratics that European logical thinking is predetermined by two factors: on the one hand by a traditional or an everyday language,(2) on the other hand by the transition from orality to literacy in the early Greek culture. As the "logic" of the "inference" is fully conceivable by means of the given "proposition" (‘p’)(39) the difference between this and a logical inference seems to be a small one. If a "logical" inference is inconsequent and based solely on a personal desire then the given inference is invalid; it cannot be comprehended as a logical inference.) In a case of a "non-logical" assertion e.g. www.anthropoetics.ucla.edu /ap0502/varga_e.htm   (6816 words)

 Jon's Assertion Package Jon's Assertion Package is tool that allows the use of Design by Contract with Java. The basic idea of Design by Contract is that someone can write a piece of code with a particular usage in mind and can then document the usage and then enforce this during development and remove these checks when releasing production code. This is accomplised by using inline assertions, just like assert.h in C, pre conditions, post conditions and invariants. mtu.net /~jpschewe/JonsAssert/index.html   (475 words)

 Drools   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01) A logical relationship can be declared by actions which means the action's state depends on the inference remaining true; when it is no longer true the logical dependant action is undone. With logical assertions, the fact that was asserted will be automatically retracted when the conditions that asserted it in the first place are no longer true (its actually cleverer then this, if there are no possible conditions that could support the logical assertion, only then will it be retracted). When we logical assert an object we are said to justify it and it is justified by the firing rule.For each logical assertion there can only be one equal object, each subsequent equal logical assertion increases the justification counter for this logical assretion. labs.jboss.com /file-access/default/members/jbossrules/freezone/docs/3.0/html_single/index.html   (13046 words)

 Bush Admin's Top Environmental Advisor Takes Job at Exxon. - Page 2 - Fencing.Net Discussion And, dang you and your stupid straw men, I never asserted that we were to dismiss or question their arguments and actions as tendentious (though a high level official in a very political post, working for a political party is a prime candidate for the label, don't you think?). I dispute the assertion that one's job history is a mere circumstance when it comes to predicting future decisions on a number of grounds. However, it is not an incorrect mode of logic to determine whether a proposed hen house keeper is or in fact a fox, and exclude him on that basis. www.fencing.net /forums/thread18284-2.html   (3060 words)

 The Semantic Toolbox - on top of XML-RDF - Ideas on Web Architecture Just as it is important to be able to exclude assertions within a document from the set asserted directly by the document, it is equally as important to be able to include assertions which are in fact not in the docoument. When it is logically derived from a combination of statements assured by different sets of keys, then it is assured by the union of the sets. Semantics: Any assertion using the property type A implies an assertion with property type B in the reverse direction - ie whose subject was the value of A and whose value was the subject of A. Comment:Domain and Range: The subject and object must both identify RDF assertions. www.w3.org /DesignIssues/Toolbox.html   (5185 words)

 argue An enthymeme has two basic components: an assertion and a reason (also known as the "because" clause.) The assertion is the main point of the paper, the idea/opinion of which the author is trying to convince her audience. The reason must support the assertion by drawing upon assumptions that members of the audience share with the author, even if these members hold an opposing viewpoint. The assumption which connects the reason and assertion is "No one I know could commit a terrible crime." This is not compelling evidence; your audience has no reason to believe that simply because you know someone that person is incapable of committing certain crimes. darkwing.uoregon.edu /~kbrundan/argue.htm   (1085 words)

 Peirce and Philo The term "hypothetical" suggests a strong link between mathematical logic and philosophy for Peirce; we note its role in the thought of Kant, for example, who was a major influence on Peirce, while on the other hand, seeing that Peirce’s discussions of "hypotheticals" are almost always located in the context of his symbolic logic. This is close to the time of the "Illustrations of the Logic of Science"; it might be argued that, with that series of essays and with the significant contributions to symbolic logic dating from this period, we have the beginnings of Peirce’s maturity as a philosopher-logician. The algebraic notations we have been examining were successful vehicles for his deductive logic; for a logic, however, it is not enough that a notation be mathematically correct. web.clas.ufl.edu /users/jzeman/peirce_and_philo.htm   (5129 words)

 Poynter Online - Forums From BOB BATEMAN: Paul Krugman's assertion, made three times in today's NYT column, that the Bush administration will revive the draft is not logical. Surely people remember that the Army was, oh, just a wee bit bigger not more than two decades ago, and that with a smaller national population. Is there not an editor at the NYT who was alive and aware in the 1980s? If so, how could they let this obvious misstatement of "if-then" logic pass?  That is what I would like to know. www.poynter.org /forum/view_post.asp?id=8183   (296 words)

 ECA Publications   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01) Whenever we declare a method as the implementation of an operation, we assert that if the operation is invoked on objects of the appropriate types then the method body will satisfy the specification of the operation. Among its applications are: methods defined on interfaces as well as on classes; an elementary type system for objects that handles multi-methods; and a mechanism for method dispatch based on the desired output type as well as on the types of argu ments. Logical reasoning about methods plays a role at compile time, then gets out of the way. www2.parc.com /csl/groups/sda/publications/papers/Lamping-ECOOP94   (193 words)

 claim | English | Dictionary & Translation by Babylon A written demand or written assertion by one of the contracting parties seeking, as a matter of right, the payment of money in a sum certain, the adjustment or interpretation of contract terms, or other relief arising under or relating to the contract. A claim arising under a contract, unlike a claim relating to that contract, is a claim that can be resolved under a contract clause that provides for the relief sought by the claimant. an assertion that something is true or factual; "his claim that he was innocent"; "evidence contradicted the government's claims" www.babylon.com /definition/claim/?uil=English   (667 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01) The QC sublanguage interprets a Topic Statement into pattern-action rules which are used to reduce each sentence in a Topic Statement into a first order logic assertion, reflecting the boolean-like requirements of Topic Statements, including NOT'd assertions. 2.G. Inte~tedMatcji~ Each logical assertion produced by the QC for a Topic Statement is evaluated against the entries in the document inverted file and a weight is assigned to each segment of text (either a clause or a sentence) which has any similarity. In the current implementation, each of these Topic Statement assertions is compared to the inverted document file, and the highest similarity value for a single assertion in the document is used as that document's integrated similarity value for that Topic Statement. www.itl.nist.gov /iad/894.02/projects/irlib/pubs/sp500215/sp500215_orig/papers/08_091.txt   (371 words)

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