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Topic: Logical conjunction

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  Logical conjunction - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In logic and mathematics, logical conjunction (usual symbol and) is a two-place logical operation that results in a value of true if both of its operands are true, otherwise a value of false.
Logical conjunction is an operation on two logical values, typically the values of two propositions, that produces a value of true if and only if both of its operands are true.
The analogue of conjunction for a (possibly infinite) family of statements is universal quantification, which is part of predicate logic.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Logical_conjunction   (1075 words)

 Logical conjunction - Gurupedia
In logic and technical fields that use it, conjunction, or and, is a logical operator in logical calculi.
Conjunction as we've described it is a binary operator, meaning that it combines two terms into a single statement.
The analogue of conjunction for a (possibly infinite) familiy of statements is universal quantification, which is part of predicate logic.
www.gurupedia.com /a/an/and.htm   (431 words)

 Chronic Conjunctivitis -- Recommendations and Resources   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva (the outermost layer of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelids), often due to infection.
Viral conjunctivitis is due to spread by aerosol or contact of a variety of contagious viruses, including many that cause the 'common cold', so that it is often associated with upper respiratory tract symptoms.
In linguistics, a conjunct is an adverbial that adds information to the sentence that not considered part of the propositional content (or at least not essential) but which connects the sentence with previous parts of the discourse.
www.becomingapediatrician.com /health/31/chronic-conjunctivitis.html   (1011 words)

 Universal quantification
In predicate logic and technical fields that depend on it, universal quantification is an attempt to formalise the notion of something being true for all things, or all things of a certain type.
This would seem to be a logical conjunction because of the repeated use of "and".
Indeed, these formulations may be used as definitions in an interpretation of typed logic in terms of untyped logic, or in a formalisation of set theory.
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/al/All.html   (1057 words)

 Negation - Wikipedia
In logic, logical negation is a unary logical operator that reverses the truth value of its operand.
In classical logic, double negation means affirmation; i.e., the statements p and ~(~p) are logically equivalent.
Algebraically, logical negation corresponds to the complement in a Boolean algebra (for classical logic) or a Heyting algebra[?] (for intuitionistic logic).
wikipedia.findthelinks.com /no/Not.html   (252 words)

 23 Conjunction
Logical conjunction of two theses simply affirms both of them as true, implying that they are true separately as well as together.
Note that a positive conjunction is denied by negating any one, or any set, or all, of its parts, which means that one of the remaining alternative positive conjunctions must be true; thus, nonconjunction may be viewed as an abridged reference to the outstanding conjunctions.
Conjunction may of course involve more than two theses, as in 'P and Q and R and..'., signifying that they are all true individually as well as collectively.
www.thelogician.net /2_future_logic/2_chapter_23.htm   (1739 words)

 PlanetMath: conjunction
A conjunction is true only when both parameters (called conjuncts) are true.
In English, conjunction is denoted by the word ``and''.
This is version 8 of conjunction, born on 2001-10-26, modified 2005-02-28.
planetmath.org /encyclopedia/LogicalAnd.html   (48 words)

 Section 1.1 Review   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
To test for logical equivalence of 2 statements, construct a truth table that includes every variable to be evaluated, and then check to see if the resulting truth values of the 2 statements are equivalent.
The negation of a conjunction (logical AND) of 2 statements is logically equivalent to the disjunction (logical OR) of each statement's negation.
Logical equivalencies can be used to simplify statement forms, to confirm or disprove an equivalency, to create efficient and logically correct computer programs, or to aid in the design of digital logic circuits.
pandora.compsci.ualr.edu /srini/DM/chapters/review1.1.html   (757 words)

 Combinations   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
For example fuzzy conjunction was defined (for simple cases) with a minimum rule, whereby the truth of the conjunction of two expressions was the minimum of the two individual truth values.
Both the judgment of categorization (Hampton, 1988) and of probability (Tversky and Kahneman, 1983) depend on an assessment of similarity of the instance to the representation of the conjunctive category, and a corresponding tendency to overextend the boundaries of the conjunction, or overestimate the probability that an individual belongs to it.
Furthermore if membership of the conjunctive class is determined by how similar an instance is to the composite prototype, then it is relatively straightforward to demonstrate that one would therefore expect a pattern of overextension and/or underextension, rather than the application of a "logical" intersection rule.
www.staff.city.ac.uk /hampton/combination.htm   (10198 words)

 The Meanings of Logical Constants
The meanings of logical constants are determined by the role these constants play in reasoning, whereas the meanings of non-logical predicates are not to the same extent determined by the role such predicates play in reasoning.
P logically excludes N(P) N(P) logically excludes P. These rules express the truth conditions for negative propositions in exactly the way in which the rules for disjunction in a multiple conclusion logic express the truth conditions of disjunctive propositions.
I have not been able to respond to all her worries, To mention one point, she argued forcefully that the meanings of the logical constants might be determined holistically in the sense that, for example the meaning of disjunction might be affected by whether classical negation was present.
www.nyu.edu /gsas/dept/philo/courses/concepts/meaning.html   (3173 words)

 [No title]
Logic asserts that any meaningful statement or proposition P is either true or false, that it cannot be both and cannot be neither.
Thus, the conjunction of A and B is A * B. A conjunction is true if and only if all its constituent statements are true.
Logic has nothing to say about whether a particular premise is true.
home.earthlink.net /~douglasofcalifornia/philos/squarecircle.html   (2809 words)

 Bob Segar And The Silver Bullet Band   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Logical conjunction (usual symbol Anx) is a logicaloperator that results in true if both of the operands are true.
In logic Anc technical fields that use it, conjunction, or and, is a logical operator in logical calculi, Anc a rule of inference in deductive systems.
Logically, this would be denotedby saying that A stands for "it's raining", B stands for "I'm inside", together A Ans B. For example, consider:
super8filmmaking.com /tail/31117-bob-segar-and-the-silver-bullet-ban...   (1019 words)

 Logical Expressions   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Logical conjunction: the expression is true if both A and B are true.
Logical inequivalence (exclusive OR): the expression is true if either A or B is true, but false if both are true.
Logical equivalence: the expression is true if both A and B are true, or both are false.
www.helsinki.fi /atk/unix/dec_manuals/cf95au54/lrm0065.htm   (370 words)

 Beyonce Knowles And Jay Z   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Logical conjunction (usual symbol and) is a logicaloperator that results in true if both of the operands are true.
Logically, this would be denotedby saying that A stands for "it's raining", B stands for "I'm inside", together A AND B. For example, consider:
From thesetwo premises it can be logically concluded that A and B, must be true as well.
www.vermontreview.com /edge/29869-beyonceknowlesandjayz.html   (727 words)

 Truth table -   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Truth tables are a type of mathematical table used in logic to determine whether an expression is true or valid.
The negation of conjunction ¬ (AB) ≡ A
This condensed notation is particularly useful in discussing multi-valued extensions of logic, as it significantly cuts down on combinatoric explosion of the number of rows otherwise needed.
psychcentral.com /psypsych/Truth_table   (790 words)

 [No title]
Before the logical form for any given predication is stored as part of the current text attribute, some postprocessing occurs: conjunctions are resolved from argument conjunction to sentence conjunction; redundant quantification of anaphors and names is eliminated; logical variables in text are represented as such; and relative clause anaphors are resolved.
The (logical) conjunction of two nouns in a sentence is expanded to the conjunction of two sentences, each with one of the two nouns so conjoined.
The conjunction of two "bridi tails" (the equivalent of verbs with their trailing objects) is similarly resolved.
www.lojban.org /files/papers/lojban_parser_paper   (2575 words)

 Glossary   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
If p and q are two logical propositions, then(p IFF q) is a proposition that is true when both p and q are true, and when both p and q are false.
Logical implication is an operation on two logical propositions.
The negation of a logical proposition p, NOT p, is a proposition that is the logical opposite of p.
www.stat.berkeley.edu /users/stark/SticiGui/Text/gloss.htm   (13846 words)

 Re: Linear logic semantics (Barwise) (353 lines)
Traditional logic reasons with two distinct sorts, individuals and truth values, with the logical machinery of the latter external to the former.
Static conjunction is the choice operator for event spaces (see end), and I would expect it to participate in the expression of Pauli exclusion (but the details of this QM connection are still very unclear to me).
In summary static conjunction has the intuitive meaning of logical conjunction when f and g are interference-free and otherwise expresses the notion of mutual exclusion.
www.cis.upenn.edu /~bcpierce/types/archives/1992/msg00047.html   (2031 words)

 Special Edition Using Visual Basic Script Ch 16 VBScript Operators   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Logical Negation (the Not keyword) is similar to unary negation, but, like all logical operators, is carried out on the bit level rather than on the value of the expression.
You can apply any logical test against a clause of one expression And another, or you can use And to return a value representing a bitwise (bitwise means that the two values are tested one bit at a time) "Anding" of two values.
The Xor Logical Exclusion Operator is frequently used for simple encryption routines, since a byte Xored by another number produces a number that is restored when Xored by the same number.
www.urc.bl.ac.yu /manuals/vbscript/ch16fi.htm   (2727 words)

 UNBSJ Ward Chipman Library Internet Searching   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
And serves as the term of logical conjunction; or serves as the term of logical inclusion; not serves as the term of logical negation.
Logical operators are governed by algebraic rules, holding that searches will occur in a set pattern and return particular results.
Thus, according to boolean logic, the search: water and pollution or air and pollution is equivalent to (water and pollution) or (air and pollution) and is also equivalent to (water or air) and pollution.
www.unbsj.ca /library/research/bool1.htm   (1172 words)

 Encina Toolkit Programming Guide
Both logical and physical volumes can be expanded to increase the size of the volumes.
The logical volume identifier itself is not destroyed and remains in the Volume Service's restart data; it can be re-used by passing it to the vol_RecreateLogicalVol function under the VOL/UNIX interface or the vol_RemapLogicalVol function under the VOL interoperability interface.
For example, a logical volume could be designated a file system's root volume by naming it "root", or a physical volume could be named "sales mirror 1" to remind administrators of its purpose.
www.umiacs.umd.edu /~jhu/DOCS/TX4.2/html/aetgpk/aetgpk21.htm   (4946 words)

 [Inquiry] Re: Logic Of Relatives
Peirce, in his turn, taking a very significant step of analysis that has seldom been recognized for what it would lead to, much less followed, does not consider this multiplication to be a fundamental operation, but derives it as a by-product of relative multiplication by a comma relative.
This opens up a very wide field of investigation, "the operational significance of logical terms", one might say, but it will be best to advance bit by bit, and to lean on simple examples.
Further insight into the laws that govern this realm of logic, and the underlying reasons why they apply, might be gained by systematically working through the whole variety of different products that are generated by the operational means in sight, namely, the products indicated by {1, m, n, w}<,>{1, m, n, w}.
stderr.org /pipermail/inquiry/2003-April/000262.html   (304 words)

 Math Notes - Relations
The method of proofs is based on a style developed in A Logical Approach to Discrete Math, though the approach used here is quite different from the set theorems in Gries’ text.
The context in which the expression P is used should determine whether the usage refers to an expression or a set.
Suppose that A is the set of all apple packages sold where the number of apples sold is 10, and that B is the set of all cash transactions where the amount is $5.00.
home.att.net /~p.konieczko/mathrel13.html   (1153 words)

 Logical conjunction : And   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The symbol "∧" is typically used for conjunction, and "P ∧ Q" is read "P and Q".
All is still licensed under the GNU FDL.
She, too, possesses, not less than the soul of and heat that seem her own.
www.termsdefined.net /an/and.html   (550 words)

 Spatial Automation Laboratory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Thus, just as any logical function can be written using only three operations  (logical negation or NOT), \/ (logical disjunction or OR), and /\ (logical conjunction or AND), three corresponding R-functions can be combined into a corresponding R-function.
Expressed another way, for every formal logical sentence (i.e., for every Boolean function), one may construct a corresponding R-function using R-conjunction, R-disjunction, and R-negation, whose sign is determined by the truth table of the logical sentence.
The logical disjunction \/ and conjunction /\ operations can respectively be accomplished in the usual case by performing intersection and union operations.
sal-cnc.me.wisc.edu /Research/meshless/R-functions/R-functions.html   (504 words)

 Citations: and on the logic of relations - De Morgan, syllogism, IV (ResearchIndex)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Combining the separate involutory logical and relative duals, a Gamma and a, as a single involutory (a = a) dual a Gamma = a [Pra92a, p.252] weakens the Boolean....
Conjunction (and dually disjunction) took two forms, logical conjunction as the intersection of relations L and M and relative conjunction as their composition, notated L; M by Peirce....
In the realm of propositional logics, action logic is a close cousin to classical logic, intuitionistic logic, relevance logic, linear logic, relation algebras, regular expressions, and dynamic logic.
citeseer.ist.psu.edu /context/37933/0   (1097 words)

 The Shwah Language: Logic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The only natural language with trivalent logic, as far as I know, is Aymará, a relative of Quechua native to the altiplano of Bolivia (see www.aymara.org) whose trivalent logic was elucidated by Iván Guzmán de Rojas.
The relationship of bivalent logic to binary arithmetic is one of homology, meaning that entities and relationships in one field often correspond to similar ones in the other.
In bivalent logic, this is synonymous with A∨B - A∧B.
www.shwah.net /shwah6.htm   (3642 words)

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