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Topic: Logical empiricism

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  Logical positivism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Logical positivism (later referred to as logical empiricism, rational empiricism, and also neo-positivism) is a philosophy that originated in the Vienna Circle in the 1920s.
Logical positivism is perhaps best known for the verifiability criterion of meaning, which asserts that a statement is meaningful if and only if it is empirically verifiable.
Logical positivism was immensely influential in the philosophy of language and represented the dominant philosophy of science between World War I and the Cold War.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Logical_positivism   (1189 words)

 Empiricism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Empiricism is contrasted with continental rationalism, epitomized by René Descartes.
Empirical is an adjective often used in conjunction with science, both the natural and social sciences, which means the use of working hypotheses which are capable of being disproved using observation or experiment (ie: ultimately through experience).
Empiricism was a precursor of logical positivism, also known as logical empiricism.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Empiricism   (1064 words)

 Ralph Dumain: "The Autodidact Project": Leszek Kolakowski: The Alienation of Reason
Logical empiricism, then, is the product of a specific culture, one in which technological efficiency is regarded as the highest value, the culture we usually call "technocratic." It is a technocratic ideology in the mystifying guise of an anti‑ideological, scientific view of the world, purged of value judgments.
As a result, logical empiricism is an optimistic philosophy, for it rejects by definition the possibility of insoluble problems and rules out the agnostic attitude (anything of which we might say ignorabimus cannot be formulated as a question).
It is well known, of course, that some versions of positivism, especially logical empiricism, are not concerned with the genetic conditions of knowledge and concentrate their efforts on analyzing the procedures and results of science.
www.autodidactproject.org /other/kolakow1.html   (4183 words)

 Logical Positivism (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Logical positivists denied the soundness of metaphysics and traditional philosophy; they asserted that many philosophical problems are indeed meaningless.
Until 1950s logical positivism was the leading philosophy of science; today its influence persists especially in the way of doing philosophy, in the great attention given to the analysis of scientific thought and in the definitely acquired results of the technical researches on formal logic and the theory of probability.
Empirical knowledge includes physics, biology, psychology, etc. Experience is the only judge of scientific theories; however, logical positivists were aware that scientific knowledge does not exclusively rise from the experience: scientific theories are genuine hypotheses that go beyond the limits of finite human experience.
www.loyno.edu /~folse/logpos.htm   (1913 words)

 How the Cold War Transformed Philosophy of Science - Cambridge University Press   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Most contemporary philosophers, however much they may appreciate logical empiricism as their profession’s founding movement, agree that in the 1950s and ’60s logical empiricism was revealed to be a catalog of mistakes, misjudgments, and oversimplifications about science and epistemology.
That logical empiricism was conceived by its founders in part to assist the coordination and coordinated use of scientific knowledge, to help modernize and improve life, education, and social and economic organization, is a fact no reader of Ayer’s book will surmise.
The logical empiricists were received in America both as representatives of a new social and cultural movement and as intellectuals, philosophers, and logicians.
www.cup.cam.ac.uk /catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=0521837979&ss=exc   (3458 words)

 Philosophy of Language
Logical empiricism, also known as logical positivism, seeks to produce a language which consists of symbols combined precisely in accordance with specific rules; this would eliminate the philosophical convolutions that arise from the use of imprecise and confusingly ordered language (Sengupta 14).
He asserts that the logical positivists misdefine metaphysics in their attempt to disarm it; metaphysics is not meaningless or unrelated to facts, but rather is "an epistemologico-ontological inquiry" (186).
Logical problems arise when the second category is treated in the same way as the first; it must be remembered that a statement with qualities of emotion or appeal is not subject to distinctions of truth or falsity, and is therefore meaningless (Qadir 22).
www.duke.edu /~pk10/language/philosophy.htm   (3236 words)

 Logical Positivism: The Vienna Circle Unity of Science
By the decades of the 1940s and 50s, the form of Empiricism was generally called “Logical Empiricism.” This movement represented the dominate philosophical mode of the past three decades.
Carnap’s concept of logical syntax of a language is a generalization of Hilbert’s meta- mathematics, as is well known.
The unity of science should take place in the unity of the universal language of science, i.e., a language, the logical syntax of which permitted sentences from the most different special sciences to be combined with one another so as to form a logical context.
www.worldvieweyes.org /resources/Strauss/LogicalPositivism.htm   (6202 words)

 logical positivism from FOLDOC   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Logical positivists denigrate or ignore ethics, and some have even gone so far as to say that all values are merely expressions of emotion (see emotivism).
Thus the logical positivists, while holding a deep respect for reason in the limited context of logic and mathematics, have had such a limited view of what reason is (a process of contraction started by Kant) that they have ended up holding some extremely subjectivistic views, especially in ethics.
Under the influence of Hume, Russell, and the early Wittgenstein, the logical positivists regarded as meaningful only statements reporting empirical observations, taken together with the tautologies of logic and mathematics.
www.swif.uniba.it /lei/foldop/foldoc.cgi?logical+positivism   (301 words)

 7802_mod4B.htm   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Logical Positivism was the mother of Logical Empiricism.
Logical Empiricists began to shy away from "prediction," and thus lost interest in the I. tests as predictors of success or failure.
Finally, what happened as a result of the challenge of Logical Empiricism by both Popper and Wittgenstein was to shift the lens of educational thinkers toward the more cultural dimensions of education.
asterix.ednet.lsu.edu /~maxcy/7802_mod4B.htm   (2179 words)

 Ralph Dumain: "The Autodidact Project": Igor Naletov: "Alternatives to Positivism": Introduction
The actual relationship and unity of the empirical and the theoretical in scientific cognition, their concrete interaction in the history and logic of science, the passage from lower to higher levels call for a detailed investigation.
In order to overcome “metaphysics”, logical positivism advanced an extensive programme providing for a logical restructuring of the whole edifice of science in order to standardise the language of science, clear up its logical structure, identify the basic elements of knowledge and reduce all the other concepts and propositions of science to these elements.
Thus, the attitude to science on the part of the exponents of positivism is a logical consequence of their absolutisation of the empirical methods of cognition, whereas the attitude to science of “critical rationalists” stems from their interpretation of the verification problems.
www.autodidactproject.org /other/naletovw.html   (3393 words)

 logical from FOLDOC   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Empiricism becomes a theory about the meaning of synthetic propositions: namely, that their meaning can be given entirely in experiential, or phenomenal terms.
For a wff, to be true for every interpretation of the formal language; to have every interpretation be a model.
In standard predicate logic, logical validity is limited to interpretations with non-empty domains.
lgxserver.uniba.it /lei/foldop/foldoc.cgi?logical   (748 words)

 Giere: Origins of Logical Empiricism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Logical empiricism remains a strong influence in the philosophy of science, despite the discipline's shift toward more historical and naturalistic approaches.
The intellectual refugees from the Third Reich who brought logical empiricism to North America did so in an environment influenced by Einstein's new physics, the ascension of modern logic, the birth of the social sciences as rivals to traditional humanistic philosophy, and other large-scale social, political, and cultural themes.
Focusing on the continuing influence of logical empiricism and the vitality of the issues with which its proponents struggled, this important volume provides valuable context to contemporary philosophers of science.
www.upress.umn.edu /Books/G/giere_origins.html   (328 words)

 Logical Empiricism in North America   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
These essays take up the historical, sociological, and philosophical questions surrounding the particular intellectual movement of logical empiricism—both its emigration from Europe to North America in the 1930s and 1940s and its development in North America through the 1940s and 1950s.
With an introduction placing them in their philosophical and historical context, these essays bear witness to the fact that the history of the philosophy of science, far more than a mere repository of anecdote and chronology, might be able to produce a decisive transformation in the philosophy of science itself.
Logical Empiricism, American Pragmatism, and the Fate of Scientific Philosophy in North America
www.upress.umn.edu /Books/H/hardcastle_logical.html   (276 words)

 Philosophical Dictionary: Leibniz-Logos
British philosopher who outlined the central tenets of empiricism in philosophy and in political theory argued that civil authorities rule only with the consent of those who are governed.
Twentieth-century philosophical movement that used a strict principle of verifiability to reject as meaningless the non-empirical statements of metaphysics, theology, and ethics.
Logical Empiricism at Its Peak: Schlick, Carnap, and Neurath
www.philosophypages.com /dy/l5.htm   (1114 words)

 LogBlog: Course on Logical Positivism - Richard Zach's Logic and Philosophy Blog
Sarkar, Logical Empiricism at Its Peak: Schlick, Carnap, and Neurath might be a good resource, but too expensive to make a required text.
I'd suggest that _The Logical Syntax of Language_ is both better and more interesting than the _Logical Construction of the World_, but it might be less important to positivism as a trend.
I think it's fine to use Language Truth and Logic as an example of "popular" positivism, but it would be a huge mistake to let the students think that Ayer's own views, especially as presented there, were the most sophisticated or interesting ones.
www.ucalgary.ca /~rzach/logblog/2005/04/course-on-logical-positivism.html   (622 words)

 The later Positivism of Logical Empiricism (from Positivism) --  Britannica Student Encyclopedia
Logical Positivism and Logical Empiricism > The later Positivism of Logical Empiricism
Logical Positivism, essentially the doctrine of the Vienna Circle (c.
More results on "The later Positivism of Logical Empiricism (from Positivism)" when you join.
www.britannica.com /ebi/article-68576   (762 words)

 The Logical Empiricist Interpretation of Scientific Method
Logical Empiricism is a view of science that arose in the beginning of the twentieth century in Europe and which was influential, especially in England and America, for most of the century.
The stimulus that gave rose to the view was the discovery and elaboration of a new Logic by Gottlob Frege in Germany and Bertrand Russell and A.N. Whitehead in England.
Logic was seen as being characterized by: (1) a set of atomic propositions which were independent of each other; and (2) logical relations or connectives which determined the truth of complex statements from the truth of the atomic statements they were built from.
www.anselm.edu /homepage/dbanach/logemp.htm   (1133 words)

 Logical Positivism
Because the resulting logical positivism (or "logical empiricism") allowed only for the use of logical tautologies and first-person observations from experience, it dismissed as nonsense the metaphysical and normative pretensions of the philosophical tradition.
Carnap begins with an account of the methods and procedures by means of which we employ sensory observations to verify (or at least to confirm) the truth of scientific hypotheses about the operation of the physical universe.
Using the formal methods of mathematical logic, then, the goal is to construct a strictly scientific language that perspicuously represents the structure of the world as a whole.
www.philosophypages.com /hy/6q.htm   (982 words)

 Logical Empiricism at Its Peak : Schlick, Carnap, and Neurath (Science and Philosophy in the Twentieth Century: Basic ...
Between 1920 and 1940 logical empiricism reset the direction of philosophy of science and much of the rest of Anglo-American philosophy.
During the early 1980s, philosophers and historians of philosophy began to study logical empiricism as an important movement.
Unlike their predecessors in the 1960s-for whom the debate over logical empiricism now seems to have been largely motivated by professional politics-these philosopher no longer have to take positions for or against logical empiricism.
www.pagenation.com /an/0815322631.html   (540 words)

 Logical Empiricism and Moderate Rationalism - Philosophy News Service :: Community   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Didymus is logical empiricism equivalent to positivism or logical positivism?
Even in my most empirical physicalist attempts to define knowledge I would state that objective facts would exist prior to any sentient life regardless if there was a cognitive conscious entity perceiving such events and processing the datum in the mind.
So, the logical empiricist tends to ask, "What kind of meaning do they have?" and "Is there any way to test the claims made in those areas; if so, what are they?" The task of philosophy remains analytic, but far broader than the analysis of the language of science.
www.philosophynews.com /PNS_Forums/forums/2379/ShowPost.aspx   (6527 words)

Logical empiricism is quite different from traditional philosophy.
Since philosophy, religion, and values were certainly not logically determinate statements, and since neither of these disciplines could be regarded as an empirical science, there was no other category left but that of nonsense.
The nature of logical positivism was such that "it cannot help us to understand the universe, it cannot provide us with a synoptic view of the whole whose different departments are explored by the sciences and it cannot light up the dark places of the world.
www.emporia.edu /socsci/philos/chp14.htm   (6269 words)

 The KLI Theory Lab - keywords - Neurath
1: The Emergence of Logical Empiricism: From 1900 to the Vienna Circle.
2: Logical Empiricism at Its Peak: Schlick, Carnap, and Neurath.
Keywords: Carnap • Feigl • history of logical empiricism • history of the Vienna Circle • logic • Neurath • probability • Quine • Reichenbach • Schlick.
www.kli.ac.at /theorylab/Keyword/N/Neurath.html   (170 words)

 Logical Empiricism: Historical & Contemporary Perspectives   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Logical empiricism, often understood as an analytic movement, descends from both traditions, if separate traditions they be.
The first three sections of the volume are devoted explicitly to the history of logical empiricism, while the remainder of the volume presents a detailed, and sometimes technical, examination of logical empiricism itself, with emphases on the philosophy of science and the philosophy of mind.
The volume is of special interest to anyone interested in the history of 20th-century philosophy or in logical empiricism.
www.booksmatter.com /b0822941945.htm   (348 words)

 Willard Quine's Verification Theory and Reductionism
This phrase has established itself so firmly as a catchword of empiricism that we should be very unscientific indeed not to look beneath it for a possible key to the problem of meaning and the associated problems.
The unit of empirical significance is the whole of science.
Re-evaluation of some statements entails re-evaluation of others, because of their logical interconnections - the logical laws being in turn simply certain further statements of the system, certain further elements of the field.
www.marxists.org /reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/quine.htm   (3020 words)

 Empiricism, Semantics, and Ontology
The answers may be found either by purely logical methods or by empirical methods, depending upon whether the framework is a logical or a factual one.
These questions are to be answered by empirical investigations.
A question of this kind may be either empirical or logical; accordingly a true answer is either factually true or analytic.
www.ditext.com /carnap/carnap.html   (6600 words)

 Hypatia: Logical empiricism, feminism, and Neurath's auxiliary motive.(Critical Essay)@ HighBeam Research   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Logical empiricism, feminism, and Neurath's auxiliary motive.(Critical Essay)
Much feminist philosophy of science has been developed as a reaction against logical empiricism and the associated view that social factors play no role in good science.
Recent accounts of the Vienna Circle that highlighted the ways in which some of its members attempted to combine their empiricism with emancipatory politics are used here as a basis on which to reassess the relationship between logical empiricism and feminism.
www.highbeam.com /library/doc0.asp?DOCID=1G1:116281241&refid=holomed_1   (205 words)

 dulcius ex asperis » Logical empiricism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
So I read the logical empiricists and I find myself struck by how bad their arguments are.
You would think a tool as great as an empiricist criterion of meaning would get a lot more use, but it is not the case.
Al Plantinga is right when he says that he doesn’t understand how philosophers became so enamored with logical positivism.
dulciusexasperis.com /2005/09/27/logical-positivism   (254 words)

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