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Topic: Logical positivism

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  logical positivism - HighBeam Encyclopedia
LOGICAL POSITIVISM [logical positivism] also known as logical or scientific empiricism, modern school of philosophy that attempted to introduce the methodology and precision of mathematics and the natural sciences into the field of philosophy.
The position of the original logical positivists was a blend of the positivism of Ernst Mach with the logical concepts of Gottlob Frege and Bertrand Russell, but their inspiration was derived from the writings of Ludwig Wittgenstein, who lived for a time near Vienna, and G. Moore.
The logical positivists made a concerted effort to clarify the language of science by showing that the content of scientific theories could be reduced to truths of logic and mathematics coupled with propositions referring to sense experience.
www.encyclopedia.com /doc/1E1-logicalp.html   (503 words)

 Logical positivism (via CobWeb/3.1 planetlab2.isi.jhu.edu)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Logical positivism was One of the early manifestations of analytic philosophy.
Logical Positivism was immensely influential in philosophy of science, logic, and philosophy of language.
Logical positivism took up the projects of Bertrand Russell and the early Ludwig Wittgenstein (who, along with Albert Einstein, were held up by the circle as the paragons of modern science and philosophy).
logical-positivism.iqnaut.net.cob-web.org:8888   (937 words)

 Logical positivism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Logical positivism (later referred to as logical empiricism, rational empiricism, or neo-positivism) is a school of philosophy that combines positivism—which states that the only authentic knowledge is scientific knowledge—with a version of apriorism—the notion that some propositional knowledge can be had without, or "prior to", experience.
Logical positivism was essential to the development of early analytic philosophy.
Logical positivism was immensely influential in the philosophy of language and represented the dominant philosophy of science between World War I and the Cold War.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Logical_positivism   (3943 words)

 Positivism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Positivism emerged in response to the inability of speculative philosophy (e.g.
Positivism declared false and senseless all problems, concepts and propositions of traditional philosophy on being, substances, causes., etc., that could not be solved or verified by experience due to a high degree of abstract nature.
Positivism has not escaped the lot of traditional philosophy, since its own propositions (rejection of speculation, phenomenalism, etc.) turned out to be unverifiable by experience and, consequently, metaphysical.
www.marxists.org /reference/subject/philosophy/help/mach1.htm   (374 words)

 What is Logical Positivism?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Logical positivism is a way of thinking popular in the mid-20th century which attempted to make philosophy more rigorous by creating criteria for evaluating the truth or falsity of certain philosophical statements.
Logical positivism heavily influenced philosophy of science, logic, and philosophy of language, among other areas, though today it is largely viewed as an overly simplistic approach which has been displaced by newer philosophies.
Logical positivists themselves had many disagreements, demonstrating that this notion of logical positivism was more a cluster of philosophies rather than any monolithic philosophical code.
www.wisegeek.com /what-is-logical-positivism.htm   (399 words)

Logical Positivism was perhaps the dominant influence in the general Pragmatic Empiricism that is the tacit position of most professional philosophers and scientists and has made considerable inroads in the lay population.
Positivism of course in its various guises deals with problems of induction, linguistic theory and word/sentence formulation, analytic vs. synthetic propositions, etc., although language remains central to all its discussions.
Perhaps the most comprehensive indictment of Logical Positivism's linguistic premises and conclusions is from the mind and pen of Noam Chomsky, one of this century's greatest (and most controversial) linguists and philosophers of language.
members.aol.com /Mszlazak/positiv1.html   (3352 words)

 RedOrbit - Science - Logical Positivism, Naturalistic Epistemology, and the Foundations of Psychology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Given the standard reading of the alleged close connection between logical positivism and behaviorism, and given the central place that logical positivism has held in twentieth-century philosophy of science, it is somewhat surprising that there have been few investigations into the history of this movement and in delineating the respective philosophical views of its members.
We call it a logical question because, once a hypothesis is formulated by h and any possible evidence by e (it need not be the evidence actually observed), the problem whether and how much h is confirmed by e is to be answered merely by a logical analysis of h and e and their relations.
This relation could not be a logical relation because logical relations tie together logical entities, and logical entities occur within a language; nor could it be a logical relation between words and things, the kind of relation envisaged by the earlier logical atomists, because such a relation was thought to be metaphysical and hence rejected.
www.redorbit.com /news/display?id=91658   (7033 words)

Logical behaviorism is the view that for every mentalistic term there is some behavior (or behavioristic term) such that this behavior (term) constitutes the verification basis for the application of the mentalistic term.
Logical behaviorism is often termed (or equated with) physicalism, the view that every sentence containing a mentalistic term can be translated into a sentence or sentences containing only physical terms.
According to the classical view, therefore, the epistemology (and philosophy of science) of the logical positivists led to semantic behaviorism, and these views, in turn, were the basis for psychological behaviorism.4 The crucial question in the present context is the connection between this kind of semantic behaviorism and behaviorism as a research program in psychology.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_qa3814/is_200401/ai_n9383863   (768 words)

 RECENT PHILOSOPHY: Logical Positivism & Analytic Philosophy
Logical positivism is a 20th-century philosophical movement in the tradition of analytic and linguistic philosophy.
In contemporary philosophy, especially in the United States, the spirit of logical positivism can be seen in the respect for science, distrust of high-flown jargon (or what is thought to be such), and insistence on clarity and rigorous argument.
For the logical positivists, philosophical analysis became the clarification of statements belonging to science: in particular, making clear the relation between various kinds of theoretical claims and the observational evidence by which they could be verified or refuted.
radicalacademy.com /adiphilogicalpositivism.htm   (1690 words)

 Logical positivism & Bertrand Russell   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Logical positivism (later referred to as logical empiricism) holds that philosophy should aspire to the same sort of rigor as science.
Logical positivism was one of the early manifestations of
Even though few of its tenets are still agreed with, its role in forming contemporary philosophy should not be underestimated; many subsequent commentators on "logical positivism" tend to attribute to it more of a singular purpose and creed than it in fact adhered to, overlooking the complex disagreements among the logical positivists themselves.
dks.thing.net /Logico-Philosophicus.html   (6183 words)

 [No title]
Logical Positivism was a scientifically oriented philosophical movement that arose in the early part of the twentieth century.
For Logical Positivists, many theologians speak of God’s existence, the soul, and immortality as factual matters, but these matters cannot be put to empirical and scientific observation.
Logical Positivism was initially well received by those interested in a modern philosophy that was scientifically based.
www.theologicalstudies.org /logicalpositivism.html   (383 words)

 Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for logical positivism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
logical positivism LOGICAL POSITIVISM [logical positivism] also known as logical or scientific empiricism, modern school of philosophy that attempted to introduce the methodology and precision of mathematics and the natural sciences into the field of philosophy.
Sometimes associated with empiricism, positivism maintains that metaphysical questions are unanswerable and that the only knowledge is scientific knowledge.
He became familiar with the Vienna circle of logical positivists (see logical positivism) while a student at the Univ. of Vienna (Ph.D., 1928).
www.encyclopedia.com /articles/07583.html   (536 words)

 Logical Positivism: The Vienna Circle Unity of Science
By the decades of the 1940s and 50s, the form of Empiricism was generally called “Logical Empiricism.” This movement represented the dominate philosophical mode of the past three decades.
Carnap’s concept of logical syntax of a language is a generalization of Hilbert’s meta- mathematics, as is well known.
The unity of science should take place in the unity of the universal language of science, i.e., a language, the logical syntax of which permitted sentences from the most different special sciences to be combined with one another so as to form a logical context.
www.worldvieweyes.org /resources/Strauss/LogicalPositivism.htm   (6202 words)

 The Metaphysics of Meaning, by Jerrold J. Katz
Logic and Logical Positivism inspired the project, but Logical Positivism as a school never wanted to understand meaning in anything other than denotational and ostensive terms.
We postulate that the sense of the syntactic simple "woman" is complex, consisting of the sense of "human", the sense of "adult", and the sense of "female".
If Logical Positivism, Wittgenstein, and Quine all fall, then the whole project of meaning in 20th Century philosophy, which has mostly been empiricist, reductionistic, and naturalistic, is a failure; and it becomes obvious that one of the avenues of inquiry branching off from Kant has been a blind alley.
www.friesian.com /katz.htm   (1824 words)

 Logical Positivism
Because the resulting logical positivism (or "logical empiricism") allowed only for the use of logical tautologies and first-person observations from experience, it dismissed as nonsense the metaphysical and normative pretensions of the philosophical tradition.
Using the formal methods of mathematical logic, then, the goal is to construct a strictly scientific language that perspicuously represents the structure of the world as a whole.
The central tenets of logical positivism clearly have serious consequences when applied to moral philosophy.
www.philosophypages.com /hy/6q.htm   (982 words)

 Vienna Circle - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Logical analysis is the method of clarification of philosophical problems; it makes an extensive use of symbolic logic and distinguishes the Vienna Circle empiricism from earlier versions.
Logical analysis shows that there are two different kinds of statements; one kind includes statements reducible to simpler statements about the empirically given; the other kind includes statements which cannot be reduced to statements about experience and thus they are devoid of meaning.
The definite diffusion of logical positivism in the U.S. was due to Carl Hempel, Hans Reichenbach, Rudolf Carnap, Philipp Frank and Herbert Feigl, who emigrated and taught in the U.S. Another link to the U.S. is Willard Van Orman Quine who traveled in 1932-1933 as Sheldon Traveling Fellow to Vienna, Prag, and Warsaw.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Vienna_Circle   (3864 words)

 Metaphysics of Logical Positivism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Logical positivism is the current name of what is no doubt a movement.
In defining analyticity arithmetical technics are used; in the sense in which one may be said to use such technics who, having assigned numbers to people on the basis of their shapes, called a company unlucky (f-unlucky!) if the sum of the numbers of its members is divisible by 13.
O-reference, then, is nothing "logical" or "definitional"; it is a natural or empirical relation among o-words on the one hand and events, states of affairs, and all sorts of things on the other, in exactly the same sense in which being-to-the-left-of and being-louder-than are natural relations, only much more complex.
www.hist-analytic.org /BergmannMLP.htm   (13826 words)

 Logical Positivism at Erratic Impact's Philosophy Research Base
Among its members were Moritz Schlick, founder of the Vienna Circle, Rudolf Carnap, the leading figure of logical positivism, Hans Reichenbach, founder of the Berlin Circle, Herbert Feigl, Philipp Frank, Kurt Grelling, Hans Hahn, Carl Gustav Hempel, Victor Kraft, Otto Neurath, Friedrich Waismann.
Logical positivists denied the soundness of metaphysics and traditional philosophy; they asserted that many philosophical problems are indeed meaningless.
Until 1950s logical positivism was the leading philosophy of science; today its influence persists especially in the way of doing philosophy, in the great attention given to the analysis of scientific thought and in the definitely acquired results of the technical researches on formal logic and the theory of probability...
www.erraticimpact.com /~analytic/logical_positivism.htm   (327 words)

 Logical Positivism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Logical Positivism is a twentieth century philosophical movement revolving around the idea of using verificationism to determine how meaningful statements are.
In current terms, a logical positivist is a rationalist empiricist, but what makes a positivist is how empiricism and rationalism relate, not in that they are simply both empiricist and rationalist.
This website is concerned with exposition and advocation of the Logical Positivist philosophy, which, in recent times, has been largely ignored as a valid epistemology mostly due to fear of it being correct (to supernaturalists) and its difficult and strict nature.
www.positivism.org   (329 words)

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